0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (2024)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (1)

0265-0339 ndash Eusebius Caesariensis ndash De laudibus Constantini

The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the Emperor Constantine Pronounced on the Thirtieth

Anniversary of His Reign

this file has been downloaded from httpwwwccelorgccelschaffnpnf201html

would continue to us our present blessings For he is the invincible ally and protector of the righteoushe is the supreme judge of all things the prince of immorality the Giver of everlasting life

581

THE ORATION

OF

EUSEBIUS PAMPHILUS

IN PRAISE OF

THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE

PRONOUNCED ON THE THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS REIGN

mdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdash

Prologue to the Oration3494

1 I come not forward prepared with a fictitious narrative nor with elegance of language tocaptivate the ear desiring to charm my hearers as it were with a sirenrsquos voice nor shall I presentthe draught of pleasure in cups of gold decorated with lovely flowers (I mean the graces of style)to those who are pleased with such things Rather would I follow the precepts of the wise andadmonish all to avoid and turn aside from the beaten road and keep themselves from contact withthe vulgar crowd

3494 The conventional heading has been retained Literally it is ldquoTricennial oration of Eusebius addressed to the Emperor

Constantine Prologue to the praises addressed to Constantinerdquo

The translation of this oration shows even more than that of the Life or Constantinersquos Oration a sympathy on the part of the translator

with the florid style of Eusebius and trying as the style itself is the success of Bag in presenting the spirit of the original with on the

whole very considerable accuracy of rendering has been a constant matter of surprise during the effort to revise

1105

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 I come then prepared to celebrate our emperorrsquos praises in a newer strain and though thenumber be infinite of those who desire to be my companions in my present task I am resolved toshun the common track of men3495 and to pursue that untrodden path which it is unlawful to enteron with unwashed feet Let those who admire a vulgar style abounding in puerile subtleties andwho court a pleasing and popular muse essay since pleasure is the object they have in view tocharm the ears of men by a narrative of merely human merits Those however who are initiatedinto the universal science3496 and have attained to Divine as well as human knowledge and accountthe choice of the latter as the real excellence will prefer those virtues of the emperor which Heavenitself approves and his pious actions to his merely human accomplishments and will leave toinferior encomiasts the task of celebrating his lesser merits

3 For since our emperor is gifted as well with that sacred wisdom which has immediate referenceto God as with the knowledge which concerns the interests of men let those who are competentto such a task describe his secular acquirements great and transcendent as they are and fraughtwith advantage to mankind (for all that characterizes the emperor is great and noble) yet stillinferior to his diviner qualifies to those who stand without the sacred precincts

4 Let those however who are within the sanctuary and have access to its inmost and untroddenrecesses close the doors against every profane ear and unfold as it were the secret mysteries ofour emperorrsquos character to the initiated alone And let those who have purified their ears in thestreams of piety and raised their thoughts on the soaring wing of the mind itself join the companywhich surrounds the Sovereign Lord of all and learn in silence the divine mysteries

5 Meanwhile let the sacred oracles given not by the spirit of divination (or rather let me sayof madness and folly) but by the inspiration of Divine truth3497 be our instructors in these mysteriesspeaking to us of sovereignty generally of him who is the Supreme Sovereign of all and the

582

heavenly array which surrounds the Lord of all of that exemplar of imperial power which is beforeus and that counterfeit coin and lastly of the consequences which result from both With theseoracles then to initiate us in the knowledge of the sacred rites let us essay as follows thecommencement of our divine mysteries

Chapter ImdashThe Oration

1 To-day is the festival of our great emperor and we his children rejoice therein feeling theinspiration of our sacred theme He who presides over our solemnity is the Great Sovereign himself

3495 Cf Hom Il 6 202 tr Bryant 6 263ndash4 ldquoshunning every haunt of human-kindrdquo

3496 Eusebius seems to use this phrase much as the modern phrases ldquoThe final philosophyrdquo ldquoThe science of sciencesrdquo ldquoThe

queen of sciencesrdquo when applied to theology

3497 ldquoDivine lightrdquo

1106

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he I mean who is truly great of whom I affirm (nor will the sovereign who hears me be offendedbut will rather approve of this ascription of praise to God) that HE is above and beyond all createdthings the Highest the Greatest the most Mighty One whose throne is the arch of heaven andthe earth the footstool of his feet3498 His being none can worthily comprehend and the ineffablesplendor of the glory which surrounds him repels the gaze of every eye from his Divine majesty

2 His ministers are the heavenly hosts his armies the supernal powers who own allegiance tohim as their Master Lord and King The countless multitudes of angels the companies of archangelsthe chorus of holy spirits draw from and reflect his radiance as from the fountains of everlastinglight Yea every light and specially those divine and incorporeal intelligences whose place is beyondthe heavenly sphere celebrate this august Sovereign with lofty and sacred strains of praise Thevast expanse of heaven like an azure veil is interposed between those without and those whoinhabit his royal mansions while round this expanse the sun and moon with the rest of the heavenlyluminaries (like torch-bearers around the entrance of the imperial palace) perform in honor oftheir sovereign their appointed courses holding forth at the word of his command an ever-burninglight to those whose lot is cast in the darker regions without the pale of heaven

3 And surely when I remember that our own victorious emperor renders praises to this MightySovereign I do well to follow him knowing as I do that to him alone we owe that imperial powerunder which we live The pious Caeligsars instructed by their fatherrsquos wisdom acknowledge him asthe source of every blessing the soldiery the entire body of the people both in the country and inthe cities of the empire with the governors of the several provinces assembling together inaccordance with the precept of their great Saviour and Teacher worship him In short the wholefamily of mankind of every nation tribe and tongue both collectively and severally howeverdiverse their opinions on other subjects are unanimous in this one confession and in obedienceto the reason implanted in them and the spontaneous and uninstructed impulse of their own mindsunite in calling on the One and only God3499

4 Nay does not the universal frame of earth acknowledge him her Lord and declare by thevegetable and animal life which she produces her subjection to the will of a superior Power Therivers flowing with abundant stream and the perennial fountains springing from hidden andexhaustless depths ascribe to him the cause of their marvellous source The mighty waters of thesea enclosed in chambers of unfathomable depth and the swelling surges which lift themselveson high and menace as it were the earth itself shrink back when they approach the shore checkedby the power of his Divine law The duly measured fall of winterrsquos rain the rolling thunder the

3498 Paraphrased from Is lxvi 1

3499 [We must be content here (and probably in other passages of this Oration) to tolerate as rhetorical embellishment that

which regarded literally is in every sense palpably untruemdashBag] The intention of the passage is probably like that of those

who say now that there is no nation where in some form God is not worshiped

1107

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lightningrsquos flash the eddying currents of the winds and the airy courses of the clouds all revealhis presence to those to whom his Person is invisible

5 The all-radiant sun who holds his constant career through the lapse of ages owns him Lordalone and obedient to his will dares not depart from his appointed path The inferior splendor ofthe moon alternately diminished and increased at stated periods is subject to his Divine commandThe beauteous mechanism of the heavens glittering with the hosts of stars moving in harmoniousorder and preserving the measure of each several orbit proclaims him the giver of all light yeaall the heavenly luminaries maintaining at his will and word a grand and perfect unity of motionpursue the track of their ethereal career and complete in the lapse of revolving ages their distantcourse The alternate recurrence of day and night the changing seasons the order and proportionof the universe all declare the manifold wisdom of [his boundless power] To him the unseenagencies which hold their course throughout the expanse of space render the due tribute of praiseTo him this terrestrial globe itself to him the heavens above and the choirs beyond the vault ofheaven give honor as to their mighty Sovereign the angelic hosts greet him with ineffable songsof Praise and the spirits which draw their being from incorporeal light adore him as their Creator

583

The everlasting ages which were before this heaven and earth with other periods beside theminfinite and antecedent to all visible creation acknowledge him the sole and supreme Sovereignand Lord

6 Lastly he who is in all before and after all3500 his only begotten pre-existent Word thegreat High Priest of the mighty God elder than all time and every age devoted to his Fatherrsquosglory first and alone makes intercession with him for the salvation of mankind3501 Supreme andpre-eminent Ruler of the universe he shares the glory of his Fatherrsquos kingdom for he is that Lightwhich transcendent above the universe encircles the Fatherrsquos Person interposing and dividingbetween the eternal and uncreated Essence and all derived existence that Light which streamingfrom on high proceeds from that Deity who knows not origin or end and illumines the super-celestialregions and all that heaven itself contains with the radiance of wisdom bright beyond the splendorof the sun This is he who holds a supreme dominion over this whole world3502 who is over and inall things and pervades all things3503 visible and invisible the Word of God From whom and by

3500 [Referring possibly to Rev i 8 ldquoI am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the ending saith the Lord which is and

which was and which is to come the AlmightyrdquomdashBag] Or possibly refers to Eph iv 6 as it seems to be simply some verbal

suggestion

3501 [The Arianism implied in this passage if referred to the Word as God disappears if we regard it as spoken of Christ as

the Word manifested in human nature See the note of Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3502 Universe

3503 This is directly from Eph iv 6 ldquoWho is over all and through all and in allrdquo It is thus directly referred to the Father and

on the basis of the above note of Bag seems to convict of Arianism but in reality the conception of a pre-existing Word is

distinctly orthodox

1108

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

whom our divinely favored emperor receiving as it were a transcript of the Divine sovereigntydirects in imitation of God himself the administration of this worldrsquos affairs

Chapter II

1 This only begotten Word of God reigns from ages which had no beginning to infinite andendless ages the partner of his Fatherrsquos kingdom And [our emperor] ever beloved by him whoderives the source of imperial authority from above and is strong in the power of his sacred title3504

has controlled the empire of the world for a long period of years2 Again that Preserver of the universe orders these heavens and earth and the celestial kingdom

consistently with his Fatherrsquos will Even so our emperor whom he loves by bringing those whomhe rules on earth to the only begotten Word and Saviour renders them fit subjects of his kingdom

3 And as he who is the common Saviour of mankind by his invisible and Divine power as thegood shepherd drives far away from his flock like savage beasts those apostate spirits which onceflew through the airy tracts above this earth and fastened on the souls of men3505 so this his friendgraced by his heavenly favor with victory over all his foes subdues and chastens the open adversariesof the truth in accordance with the usages of war

4 He who is the pre-existent Word the Preserver of all things imparts to his disciples the seedsof true wisdom and salvation and at once enlightens and gives them understanding in the knowledgeof his Fatherrsquos kingdom Our emperor his friend acting as interpreter to the Word of God aimsat recalling the whole human race to the knowledge of God proclaiming clearly in the ears of alland declaring with powerful voice the laws of truth and godliness to all who dwell on the earth

5 Once more the universal Saviour opens the heavenly gates of his Fatherrsquos kingdom to thosewhose course is thitherward from this world Our emperor emulous of his Divine example havingpurged his earthly dominion from every stain of impious error invites each holy and pious worshiperwithin his imperial mansions earnestly desiring to save with all its crew that mighty vessel of whichhe is the appointed pilot And he alone of all who have wielded the imperial power of Rome beinghonored by the Supreme Sovereign with a reign of three decennial periods now celebrates thisfestival not as his ancestors might have done in honor of infernal demons or the apparitions ofseducing spirits or of the fraud and deceitful arts of impious men but as an act of thanksgiving to

3504 [It is difficult to know precisely what is meant here Possibly the name of ChristianmdashBag]

3505 This is an allusion to what was afterwards known as Vampireismmdasha belief of unknown antiquity and especially prevalent

in various forms in the East Rydberg (Magic of the Middle Ages p 207) describes the mediaeligval form thus ldquoThe vampires

according to the belief of the Middle Ages are disembodied souls which clothe themselves again in their buried bodies steal at

night into houses and suck from the nipple of the sleeping all their bloodrdquo (Cf Perty d myst Ersch 1 [1872] 383 91 Goumlrresrsquo

Chr myst Vol 3 etc) Similar in nature was that notion of the spirits who sucked away the breath of sleeping persons which

has left its trace in the modern superstition that cats suck away the breath of sleeping children

1109

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

590

savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

1120

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

1121

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and sentence ofdeath in every form3528 Thus did these valiant soldiers of the Almighty Sovereign maintain theconflict with steadfast fortitude of soul against the hostile forces of polytheism and thus did theseenemies of God and adversaries of manrsquos salvation more cruel far than the ferocious savage delight

591

in libations of human blood thus did their ministers drain as it were the cup of unrighteous slaughterin honor of the demons whom they served and prepare for them this dread and impious banquetto the ruin of the human race

9 In these sad circ*mstances what course should the God and King of these afflicted onespursue Could he be careless of the safety of his dearest friends or abandon his servants in thisgreat extremity Surely none could deem him a wary pilot who without an effort to save hisfellow-mariners should suffer his vessel to sink with all her crew surely no general could be foundso reckless as to yield his own allies without resistance to the mercy of the foe nor can a faithfulshepherd regard with unconcern the straying of a single sheep from his flock but will rather leavethe rest in safety and dare all things for the wandererrsquos sake even if need be to contend withsavage beasts

10 The zeal however of the great Sovereign of all was for no unconscious3529 sheep his carewas exercised for his own faithful host for those who sustained the battle for his sake whoseconflicts in the cause of godliness he himself approved and honored those who had returned to hispresence with the prize of victory which he only can bestow uniting them to the angelic choirsOthers he still preserved on earth to communicate the living seeds of piety to future generationsto be at once eye-witnesses of his vengeance on the ungodly and narrators of the events

11 After this he outstretched his arm in judgment on the adversaries and utterly destroyedthem with the stroke of Divine wrath compelling them how reluctant soever to confess with theirown lips and recant their wickedness but raising from the ground and exalting gloriously thosewho had long been oppressed and disclaimed by all

12 Such were the dealings of the Supreme Sovereign who ordained an invincible championto be the minister of his heaven-sent vengeance (for our emperorrsquos surpassing piety delights in thetitle of Servant of God) and him he has proved victorious over all that opposed him having raisedhim up an individual against many foes For they were indeed numberless being the friends ofmany evil spirits (though in reality they were nothing and hence are now no more) but our emperoris one appointed by and the representative of the one Almighty Sovereign And they in the veryspirit of impiety destroyed the righteous with cruel slaughter but he in imitation of his Saviour

3528 For account of the various details of persecution mentioned compare the Church History

3529 ldquoἀλόγουrdquo

1122

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and knowing only how to save menrsquos lives has spared and instructed in godliness the impiousthemselves

13 And so as truly worthy the name of Victor he has subdued the twofold race of barbarianssoothing the savage tribes of men by prudent embassies compelling them to know and acknowledgetheir superiors and reclaiming them from a lawless and brutal life to the governance of reason andhumanity at the same time that he proved by the facts themselves that the fierce and ruthless raceof unseen spirits had long ago been vanquished by a higher power For he who is the preserver ofthe universe had punished these invisible spirits by an invisible judgment and our emperor as thedelegate of the Supreme Sovereign has followed up the victory bearing away the spoils of thosewho have long since died and mouldered into dust and distributing the plunder with lavish handamong the soldiers of his victorious Lord3530

Chapter VIII

1 For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain andchildish dread of these bugbears of error wrought in gold and silver he judged it right to removethese also like stumbling-stones thrown in the path of men walking in the dark and henceforwardto open a royal road plain and unobstructed to all

2 Having formed this resolution he considered that no soldiers or military force of any sortwas needed for the repression of the evil a few of his own friends sufficed for this service andthese he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province

3 Accordingly sustained by confidence in the emperorrsquos piety and their own personal devotionto God they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations abolishing this ancientsystem of error in every city and country They ordered the priests themselves in the midst ofgeneral laughter and scorn to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day Theythen stripped them of their ornaments and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality whichhad been hidden beneath a painted exterior and lastly whatever part of the material appeared tobe of value they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth after which they secured andset apart whatever they judged needful for their purposes leaving to the superstitious worshiperswhat was altogether useless as a memorial of their shame

4 Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to that we havedescribed For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped as we have said

3530 [That is stripping the images of those whose temples he destroyed and apportioning the spoils among his Christian

followers See the next chapter which is mostly a transcript of the 54th and 55th chapters of the Third Book of the Life of

ConstantinemdashBag]

1123

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

592

of their precious materials he also attacked those composed of brass causing those to be draggedfrom their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive whom the dotage of mythologyhad esteemed as gods The next care of our august emperor was to kindle as it were a brillianttorch by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around to see if any hidden vestiges oferror might yet exist

5 And as the keen-sighted eagle in its heavenward flight is able to descry from its lofty heightthe most distant objects on the earth so did he whilst residing in the imperial palace of his ownfair city discover as from a watch-tower a hidden and fatal snare of souls in the province ofPhœnicia This was a grove and temple not situated in the midst of any city or in any public placeas for splendor of effect is generally the case but apart from the beaten and frequented road onpart of the summit of Mount Lebanon and dedicated to the foul demon known by the name ofVenus

6 It was a school of wickedness for all the abandoned votaries of impurity and such as destroyedtheir bodies with effeminacy Here men undeserving the name forgot the dignity of their sex andpropitiated the demon by their effeminate conduct here too unlawful commerce of women andadulterous intercourse with other horrible and infamous practices were perpetrated in this templeas in a place beyond the scope and restraint of law

Meantime these evils remained unchecked by the presence of any observer since no one of faircharacter ventured to visit such scenes

7 These proceedings however could not escape the vigilance of our august emperor whohaving himself inspected them with characteristic forethought and judging that such a temple wasunfit for the light of heaven gave orders that the building with its offerings should be utterlydestroyed Accordingly in obedience to the imperial edict these engines of an impure superstitionwere immediately abolished and the hand of military force was made instrumental in purging theplace And now those who had heretofore lived without restraint learned through the imperialthreat of punishment to practice self-control

8 Thus did our emperor tear the mask from this system of delusive wickedness and expose itto the public gaze at the same time proclaiming openly his Saviourrsquos name to all No advocateappeared neither god nor demon prophet nor diviner could lend his aid to the detected authors ofthe imposture For the souls of men were no longer enveloped in thick darkness but enlightenedby the rays of true godliness they deplored the ignorance and pitied the blindness of their forefathersrejoicing at the same time in their own deliverance from such fatal error3531

9 Thus speedily according to the counsel of the mighty God and through our emperorrsquos agencywas every enemy whether visible or unseen utterly removed and henceforward peace the happynurse of youth extended her reign throughout the world Wars were no more for the gods werenot no more did warfare in country or town no more did the effusion of human blood distressmankind as heretofore when demon-worship and the madness of idolatry prevailed

3531 ldquoThe Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God I thank thee that I am not as the rest of menrdquo

1124

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter IX

1 And now we may well compare the present with former things and review these happychanges in contrast with the evils that are past and mark the elaborate care with which in ancienttimes porches and sacred precincts groves and temples were prepared in every city for these falsedeities and how their shrines were enriched with abundant offerings

2 The sovereign rulers of those days had indeed a high regard for the worship of the gods Thenations also and people subject to their power honored them with images both in the country andin every city nay even in their houses and secret chambers according to the religious practice oftheir fathers The fruit however of this devotion far different from the peaceful concord whichnow meets our view appeared in war in battles and seditions which harassed them throughouttheir lives and deluged their countries with blood and civil slaughter

3 Again the objects of their worship could hold out to these sovereigns with artful flattery thepromise of prophecies and oracles and the knowledge of futurity yet could they not predict theirown destruction nor forewarn themselves of the coming ruin and surely this was the greatest andmost convincing proof of their imposture

4 Not one of those whose words once were heard with awe and wonder had announced theglorious advent of the Saviour of mankind3532 or that new revelation of divine knowledge whichhe came to give Not Pythius himself nor any of those mighty gods could apprehend the prospectof their approaching desolation nor could their oracles point at him who was to be their conquerorand destroyer

5 What prophet or diviner could foretell that their rites would vanish at the presence of a newDeity in the world and that the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Sovereign should be freely

593

given to all mankind Which of them foreknew the august and pious reign of our victorious emperoror his triumphant conquests everywhere over the false demons or the overthrow of their highplaces

6 Which of the heroes has announced the melting down and conversion of the lifeless statuesfrom their useless forms to the necessary uses of men Which of the gods have yet had power tospeak of their own images thus melted and contemptuously reduced to fragments

7 Where were the protecting powers that they should not interpose to save their sacredmemorials thus destroyed by man Where I ask are those who once maintained the strife of waryet now behold their conquerors abiding securely in the profoundest peace And where are theywho upheld themselves in a blind and foolish confidence and trusted in these vanities as gods butwho in the very height of their superstitious error and while maintaining an implacable war withthe champions of the truth perished by a fate proportioned to their crimes

3532 He seems to disagree with the view of the heathen prophecy which his imperial hearer maintained in his Oration to the

Saints

1125

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Where is the giant race whose arms were turned against heaven itself the hissings of thoseserpents whose tongues were pointed with impious words against the Almighty King Theseadversaries of the Lord of all confident in the aid of a multitude of gods advanced to the attackwith a powerful array of military force preceded by certain images of the dead and lifeless statuesas their defense On the other side our emperor secure in the armor of godliness opposed to thenumbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving Sign as at the same time a terror to the foe anda protection against every harm and returned victorious at once over the enemy and the demonswhom they served3533 And then with thanksgiving and praise the tokens of a grateful spirit to theAuthor of his victory he proclaimed this triumphant Sign by monuments as well as words to allmankind erecting it as a mighty trophy against every enemy in the midst of the imperial city andexpressly enjoining on all to acknowledge this imperishable symbol of salvation as the safeguardof the power of Rome and of the empire of the world

9 Such were the instructions which he gave to his subjects generally but especially to hissoldiers whom he admonished to repose their confidence not in their weapons or armor or bodilystrength but to acknowledge the Supreme God as the giver of every good and of victory itself

10 Thus did the emperor himself strange and incredible as the fact may seem become theinstructor of his army in their religious exercises and teach them to offer pious prayers in accordancewith the divine ordinances uplifting their hands towards heaven and raising their mental visionhigher still to the King of heaven on whom they should call as the Author of victory their preserverguardian and helper He commanded too that one day should be regarded as a special occasionfor religious worship I mean that which is truly the first and chief of all the day of our Lord andSaviour that day the name of which is connected with light and life and immortality and everygood

11 Prescribing the same pious conduct to himself he honored his Saviour in the chambers ofhis palace performing his devotions according to the Divine commands and storing his mind withinstruction through the hearing of the sacred word The entire care of his household was intrustedto ministers devoted to the service of God and distinguished by gravity of life and every othervirtue while his trusty body-guards strong in affection and fidelity to his person found in theiremperor an instructor in the practice of a godly life

12 Again the honor with which he regards the victorious Sign is founded on his actualexperience of its divine efficacy Before this the hosts of his enemies have disappeared by this thepowers of the unseen spirits have been turned to flight through this the proud boastings of Godrsquosadversaries have come to nought and the tongues of the profane and blasphemous been put tosilence By this Sign the Barbarian tribes were vanquished through this the rites of superstitiousfraud received a just rebuke by this our emperor discharging as it were a sacred debt has performedthe crowning good of all by erecting triumphant memorials of its value in all parts of the world

3533 For details respecting the following enumeration compare the Life of Constantine of which this is a reacutesumeacute This sentence

and the preceding are taken almost word for word from ch 16 of Bk II

1126

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

raising temples and churches on a scale of royal costliness and commanding all to unite inconstructing the sacred houses of prayer

13 Accordingly these signal proofs of our emperorrsquos magnificence forthwith appeared in theprovinces and cities of the empire and soon shone conspicuously in every country convincingmemorials of the rebuke and overthrow of those impious tyrants who but a little while before hadmadly dared to fight against God and raging like savage dogs had vented on unconscious buildingsthat fury which they were unable to level against him had thrown to the ground and upturned thevery foundations of the houses of prayer causing them to present the appearance of a city capturedand abandoned to the enemy Such was the exhibition of that wicked spirit whereby they soughtas it were to assail God himself but soon experienced the result of their own madness and folly

594

But a little time elapsed when a single blast of the storm of Heavenrsquos displeasure swept them utterlyaway leaving neither kindred nor offspring nor memorial of their existence among men for allnumerous as they were disappeared as in a moment beneath the stroke of Divine vengeance

14 Such then was the fate which awaited these furious adversaries of God but he who armedwith the salutary Trophy had alone opposed them (nay rather not alone but aided by the presenceand the power of him who is the only Sovereign) has replaced the ruined edifices on a greaterscale and made the second far superior to the first For example besides erecting various churchesto the honor of God in the city which bears his name and adorning the Bithynian capital withanother on the greatest and most splendid scale he has distinguished the principal cities of the otherprovinces by structures of a similar kind

15 Above all he has selected two places in the eastern division of the empire the one inPalestine (since from thence the life-giving stream has flowed as from a fountain for the blessingof all nations) the other in that metropolis of the East which derives its name from that of Antiochusin which as the head of that portion of the empire he has consecrated to the service of God a churchof unparalleled size and beauty The entire building is encompassed by an enclosure of great extentwithin which the church itself rises to a vast elevation of an octagonal form surrounded by manychambers and courts on every side and decorated with ornaments of the richest kind3534

16 Such was his work here Again in the province of Palestine in that city which was oncethe seat of Hebrew sovereignty on the very site of the Lordrsquos sepulchre he has raised a church ofnoble dimensions and adorned a temple sacred to the salutary Cross with rich and lavishmagnificence honoring that everlasting monument and the trophies of the Saviourrsquos victory overthe power of death with a splendor which no language can describe

17 In the same country he discovered three places venerable as the localities of three sacredcaves and these also he adorned with costly structures paying a fitting tribute of reverence to thescene of the first manifestation of the Saviourrsquos presence while at the second cavern he hallowedthe remembrance of his final ascension from the mountain top and celebrated his mighty conflict

3534 Almost word for word from the Life Bk III ch 50

1127

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and the victory which crowned it at the third3535 All these places our emperor thus adorned in thehope of proclaiming the symbol of redemption to all mankind

18 that Cross which has indeed repaid his pious zeal through which his house and throne alikehave prospered his reign has been confirmed for a lengthened series of years and the rewards ofvirtue bestowed on his noble sons his kindred and their descendants

19 And surely it is a mighty evidence of the power of that God whom he serves that he hasheld the balances of justice with an equal hand and has apportioned to each party their due rewardWith regard to the destroyers of the houses of prayer the penalty of their impious conduct followedhard upon them forthwith were they swept away and left neither race nor house nor family behindOn the other hand he whose pious devotion to his Lord is conspicuous in his every act who raisesroyal temples to his honor and proclaims his name to his subjects by sacred offerings throughoutthe world he I say has deservedly experienced him to be the preserver and defender of his imperialhouse and race Thus clearly have the dealings of God been manifested and this through the sacredefficacy of the salutary Sign

Chapter X

1 Much might indeed be said of this salutary Sign by those who are skilled in the mysteriesof our Divine religion For it is in very truth the symbol of salvation wondrous to speak of morewondrous still to conceive the appearance of which on earth has thrown the fictions of all falsereligion from the beginning into the deepest shade has buried superstitious error in darkness andoblivion and has revealed to all that spiritual light which enlightens the souls of men even theknowledge of the only true God

2 Hence the universal change for the better which leads men to spurn their lifeless idols totrample under foot the lawless rites of their demon deities and laugh to scorn the time-honoredfollies of their fathers Hence too the establishment in every place of those schools of sacredlearning wherein men are taught the precepts of saving truth and dread no more those objects ofcreation which are seen by the natural eye nor direct a gaze of wonder at the sun the moon orstars but acknowledge him who is above all these that invisible Being who is the Creator of themall and learn to worship him alone

3 Such are the blessings resulting to mankind from this great and wondrous Sign by virtue ofwhich the evils which once existed are now no more and virtues heretofore unknown shineeverywhere resplendent with the light of true godliness

3535 [In the Life of Constantine (vide [Bk III ch 41] supra) Eusebius mentions two caves only and speaks of the churches

built by Helena at Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives He here alludes to the magnificent church erected by Constantine at

the Lordrsquos sepulchre and ascribes to him those of Helena also as having been raised at the emperorrsquos expense Valesius ad

locmdashBag]

1128

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

595

4 Discourses and precepts and exhortations to a virtuous and holy life are proclaimed in theears of all nations Nay the emperor himself proclaims them and it is indeed a marvel that thismighty prince raising his voice in the hearing of all the world like an interpreter of the AlmightySovereignrsquos will invites his subjects in every country to the knowledge of the true God

5 No more as in former times is the babbling of impious men heard in the imperial palacebut priests and pious worshipers of God together celebrate his majesty with royal hymns of praiseThe name of the one Supreme Ruler of the universe is proclaimed to all the gospel of glad tidingsconnects the human race with its Almighty King declaring the grace and love of the heavenlyFather to his children on the earth

6 His praise is everywhere sung in triumphant strains the voice of mortal man is blended withthe harmony of the angelic choirs in heaven and the reasoning soul employs the body which investsit as an instrument for sounding forth a fitting tribute of praise and adoration to his name Thenations of the East and the West are instructed at the same moment in his precepts the people ofthe Northern and Southern regions unite with one accord under the influence of the same principlesand laws in the pursuit of a godly life in praising the one Supreme God in acknowledging hisonly begotten Son their Saviour as the source of every blessing and our emperor as the one ruleron the earth together with his pious sons

7 He himself as a skillful pilot sits on high at the helm of state and directs the vessel withunerring course conducting his people as it were with favoring breeze to a secure and tranquilhaven Meanwhile God himself the great Sovereign extends the right hand of his power fromabove for his protection giving him victory over every foe and establishing his empire by alengthened period of years and he will bestow on him yet higher blessings and confirm in everydeed the truth of his own promises But on these we may not at present dwell but must await thechange to a better world for it is not given to mortal eyes or ears of flesh fully to apprehend thethings of God3536

Chapter XI

1 And now victorious and mighty Constantine in this discourse whose noble argument is theglory of the Almighty King let me lay before thee some of the mysteries of his sacred truth notas presuming to instruct thee who art thyself taught of God nor to disclose to thee those secretwonders which he himself not through the agency of man but through our common Saviour andthe frequent light of his Divine presence has long since revealed and unfolded to thy view but inthe hope of leading the unlearned to the light and displaying before those who know them not thecauses and motives of thy pious deeds

3536 At this point according to some (compare Special Prolegomena) one oration ends and another begins

1129

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 True it is that thy noble efforts for the daily worship and honor of the Supreme God throughoutthe habitable world are the theme of universal praise But those records of gratitude to thy Saviourand Preserver which thou hast dedicated in our own province of Palestine and in that city fromwhich as from a fountain-head the Saviour Word3537 has issued forth to all mankind and again thehallowed edifices and consecrated temples which thou hast raised as trophies of his victory overdeath and those lofty and noble structures imperial monuments of an imperial spirit which thouhast erected in honor of the everlasting memory of the Saviourrsquos tomb the cause I say of thesethings is not equally obvious to all

3 Those indeed who are enlightened in heavenly knowledge by the power of the Divine Spiritwell understand the cause and justly admire and bless thee for that counsel and resolution whichHeaven itself inspired On the other hand the ignorant and spiritually blind regard these designswith open mockery and scorn and deem it a strange and unworthy thing indeed that so mighty aprince should waste his zeal on the graves and monuments of the dead

4 ldquoWere it not betterrdquo such a one might say ldquoto cherish those rites which are hallowed byancient usage to seek the favor of those gods and heroes whose worship is observed in everyprovince instead of rejecting and disclaiming them because subject to the calamities incident toman Surely they may claim equal honors with him who himself has suffered or if they are to berejected as not exempt from the sorrows of humanity the same award would justly be pronouncedrespecting himrdquo Thus with important and contracted brow might he give utterance in pompouslanguage to his self-imagined wisdom

5 Filled with compassion for this ignorance the gracious Word of our most beneficent Fatherfreely invites not such a one alone but all who are in the path of error to receive instruction inDivine knowledge and has ordained the means of such instruction throughout the world in everycountry and village in cultivated and desert lands alike and in every city and as a gracious Saviourand Physician of the soul calls on the Greek and the Barbarian the wise and the unlearned the

596

rich and the poor the servant and his master the subject and his lord the ungodly the profane theignorant the evil-doer the blasphemer alike to draw near and hasten to receive his heavenly cureAnd thus in time past had he clearly announced to all the pardon of former transgressions sayingldquoCome unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you restrdquo3538 And again ldquoIam not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentancerdquo3539 And he adds the reason saying

3537 Here the author seems to speak doubly of the Word and the word

3538 Matt xi 28

3539 Matt xi 13 RV ldquoFor I came not to call the righteous but sinnersrdquo The text here has the reading εισμετανοιαν omitted

by Tischendorf and the revisers with א B etc but supported by CEGKL sab cop etc It is worth noting that it is not in the

Sinaitic and if this text reading is correct it would nearly overthrow the possibility that this ms was one of those prepared under

the direction of Eusebius

1130

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ldquoFor they that are whole need not a physician but they that are sickrdquo3540 And again ldquoI desire notthe death of a sinner but rather that he should repentrdquo3541

6 Hence it is only for those who are themselves instructed in Divine things and understand themotives of that zeal of which these works are the result to appreciate the more than human impulseby which our emperor was guided to admire his piety toward God and to believe his care for thememorial of our Saviourrsquos resurrection to be a desire imparted from above and truly inspired bythat Sovereign to be whose faithful servant and minister for good is his proudest boast

7 In full persuasion then of thy approval most mighty emperor I desire at this present timeto proclaim to all the reasons and motives of thy pious works I desire to stand as the interpreter ofthy designs to explain the counsels of a soul devoted to the love of God I propose to teach all menwhat all should know who care to understand the principles on which our Saviour God employshis power the reasons for which he who was the pre-existent Controller of all things at lengthdescended to us from heaven the reasons for which he assumed our nature and submitted even tothe power of death I shall declare the causes of that immortal life which followed and of hisresurrection from the dead Once more I shall adduce convincing proofs and arguments for thesake of those who yet need such testimony

8 and now let me commence my appointed taskThose who transfer the worship due to that God who formed and rules the world to the works

of his hand who hold the sun and moon or other parts of this material system nay the elementsthemselves earth water air and fire in equal honor with the Creator of them all who give thename of gods to things which never would have had existence or even name except as obedientto that Word of God who made the world such persons in my judgment resemble those whooverlook the master hand which gives its magnificence to a royal palace and while lost in wonderat its roofs and walls the paintings of varied beauty and coloring which adorn them and its gildedceilings and sculptures ascribe to them the praise of that skill which belongs to the artist whosework they are whereas they should assign the cause of their wonder not to these visible objectsbut to the architect himself and confess that the proofs of skill are indeed manifest but that healone is the possessor of that skill who has made them what they are

9 Again well might we liken those to children who should admire the seven-stringed lyreand disregard him who invented or has power to use it or those who forget the valiant warrior andadorn his spear and shield with the chaplet of victory or lastly those who hold the squares andstreets the public buildings temples and gymnasia of a great and royal city in equal honor withits founder forgetting that their admiration is due not to lifeless stones but to him whose wisdomplanned and executed these mighty works

3540 Matt xi 12

3541 Ezek xviii 23 RV ldquoHave I any pleasure in the death of the wicked saith the Lord God and not rather that he should

return from his way and liverdquo

1131

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

10 Not less absurd is it for those who regard this universe with the natural eye to ascribe itsorigin to the sun or moon or any other heavenly body Rather let them confess that these arethemselves the works of a higher wisdom remember the Maker and Framer of them all and renderto him the praise and honor above all created objects Nay rather inspired by the sight of these veryobjects let them address themselves with full purpose of heart to glorify and worship him who isnow invisible to mortal eye but perceived by the clear and unclouded vision of the soul thesupremely sovereign Word of God To take the instance of the human body no one has yet conferredthe attribute of wisdom on the eyes or head the hands or feet or other members far less on theoutward clothing of a wise and learned man no one terms the philosopherrsquos household furnitureand utensils wise but every rational person admires that invisible and secret power the mind ofthe man himself

11 How much more then is our admiration due not to the visible mechanism of the universematerial as it is and formed of the selfsame elements but to that invisible Word who has mouldedand arranged it all who is the only-begotten Son of God and whom the Maker of all things whofar transcends all being has begotten of himself and appointed Lord and Governor of this universe

12 For since it was impossible that perishable bodies or the rational spirits which he had

597

created should approach the Supreme God by reason of their immeasurable distance from hisperfections for he is unbegotten above and beyond all creation ineffable inaccessibleunapproachable dwelling as his holy word assures us3542 in the light which none can enter butthey were created from nothing and are infinitely far removed from his unbegotten Essence wellhas the all-gracious and Almighty God interposed as it were an intermediate Power3543 betweenhimself and them even the Divine omnipotence of his only-begotten Word And this Power whichis in perfect nearness and intimacy of union with the Father which abides in him and shares hissecret counsels has yet condescended in fullness of grace as it were to conform itself to thosewho are so far removed from the supreme majesty of God How else consistently with his ownholiness could he who is far above and beyond all things unite himself to corruptible and corporealmatter Accordingly the Divine Word thus connecting himself with this universe and receiving

3542 1 Tim vi 16

3543 [This whole passage (which is defended by Valesius) appears if rigidly interpreted to lie under suspicion of a tinge of

ArianismmdashBag] It savors directly of Philo His doctrine was of an ineffable God above and separate from matter and defiled

by any contact with it To bring him into connection with created things he introduced intermediate beings or ldquopowersrdquo the

universal power including all the rest being the Logos Compare brief account in Zellerrsquos Outlines of Greek Philosophy p

320ndash325 Siegfried Philo von Alexandria (Jena 1875) especially p 199 sq 219 sq and p 362ndash364 where he treats very

inadequately of Eusebiusrsquo dependence on Philo also works of Philo and Eusebiusrsquo Praeligp and Demonst Ev There is a chance

of viewing the Word thus as created but if this is guarded against (as it is by him in the use of ldquobegottenrdquo) there is nothing

intrinsically heterodox in making the Word the Creator of the world and only Revealer of the Father The direct Philonian

influence is seen in the phraseology of the following sentences

1132

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

into his hands the reins as it were of the world turns and directs it as a skillful charioteer accordingto his own will and pleasure

13 The proof of these assertions is evident For supposing that those component parts of theworld which we call elements as earth water air and fire the nature of which is manifestly withoutintelligence are self-existent and if they have one common essence which they who are skilledin natural science call the great receptacle mother and nurse of all things and if this itself be utterlydevoid of shape and figure of soul and reason whence shall we say it has obtained its present formand beauty To what shall we ascribe the distinction of the elements or the union of things contraryin their very nature Who has commanded the liquid water to sustain the heavy element of earthWho has turned back the waters from their downward course and carried them aloft in cloudsWho has bound the force of fire and caused it to lie latent in wood and to combine with substancesmost contrary to itself Who has mingled the cold air with heat and thus reconciled the enmity ofopposing principles Who has devised the continuous succession of the human race and given itas it were an endless term of duration Who has moulded the male and female form adapted theirmutual relations with perfect harmony and given one common principle of production to everyliving creature Who changes the character of the fluid and corruptible seed which in itself is voidof reason and gives it its prolific power Who is at this moment working these and ten thousandeffects more wonderful than these nay surpassing all wonder and with invisible influence is dailyand hourly perpetuating the production of them all

14 Surely the wonder-working and truly omnipotent Word of God may well be deemed theefficient cause of all these things that Word who diffusing himself through all creation pervadingheight and depth with incorporeal energy and embracing the length and breadth of the universewithin his mighty grasp has compacted and reduced to order this entire system from whoseunreasoned and formless matter he has framed for himself an instrument of perfect harmony thenicely balanced chords and notes of which he touches with all-wise and unerring skill He it is whogoverns the sun and moon and the other luminaries of heaven by inexplicable laws and directstheir motions for the service of the universal whole

15 It is this Word of God who has stooped to the earth on which we live and created themanifold species of animals and the fair varieties of the vegetable world It is this same Word whohas penetrated the recesses of the deep has given their being to the finny race and produced thecountless forms of life which there exist It is he who fashions the burden of the womb and informsit in naturersquos laboratory with the principle of life By him the fluid and heavy moisture is raised onhigh and then sweetened by a purifying change descends in measured quantities to the earth andat stated seasons in more profuse supply

16 Like a skillful husbandman he fully irrigates the land tempers the moist and dry in justproportion diversifying the whole with brilliant flowers with aspects of varied beauty with pleasantfragrance with alternating varieties of fruits and countless gratifications for the taste of men Butwhy do I dare essay a hopeless task to recount the mighty works of the Word of God and describean energy which surpasses mortal thought By some indeed he has been termed the Nature of the

1133

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

universe by others the World-Soul by others Fate Others again have declared him to be the mostHigh God himself strangely confounding things most widely different bringing down to this earthuniting to a corruptible and material body and assigning to that supreme and unbegotten Power

598

who is Lord of all an intermediate place between irrational animals and rational mortals on the onehand and immortal beings on the other3544

Chapter XII

1 On the other hand the sacred doctrine teaches that he who is the supreme Source of goodand Cause of all things is beyond all comprehension and therefore inexpressible by word orspeech or name surpassing the power not of language only but of thought itself Uncirc*mscribedby place or body neither in heaven nor in ethereal space nor in any other part of the universebut entirely independent of all things else he pervades the depths of unexplored and secret wisdomThe sacred oracles teach us to acknowledge him as the only true God3545 apart from all corporealessence distinct from all subordinate ministration Hence it is said that all things are from him butnot through him3546

2 And he himself dwelling as Sovereign in secret and undiscovered regions of unapproachablelight ordains and disposes all things by the single power of his own will At his will whatever isexists without that will it cannot be And his will is in every case for good since he is essentiallyGoodness itself But he through whom are all things even God the Word proceeding in an ineffable

3544 [Of this somewhat obscure passage a translator can do no more than give as nearly as possible a literal version The

intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that the author here and in the following chapter has trodden on very dangerous

groundmdashBag] Compare above notes on the relations of Eusebius and Philo

3545 [Referring apparently to John xvii 3 ldquoAnd this is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus

Christ whom thou hast sentrdquo a passage which has been called a stronghold of the impugners of the Deity of Christ but which

simply considered with its context cannot fairly be understood to indicate any inferiority of the Son to the Father but rather

appears to speak of the mission of the former as the manifestation of the grace of him who is called ldquothe only true Godrdquo in

contradistinction to the polytheism of the heathen world In other words the knowledge of ldquothe only true Godrdquo in connection

with that of ldquoJesus Christ whom he has sentrdquo constitutes ldquoeternal liferdquo the one being ineffectual and indeed impossible without

the othermdashBag] Compare 1 John v 20ndash21 ldquoThat we know him that is true and we are in him that is true even in his Son Jesus

Christ This is the true God and eternal liferdquo which seems to show that John had no idea of any subordination in essence in this

matter

3546 [But see for a refutation of this statement Rom xi 36 and Heb ii 10mdashBag] Yet the second of these references clearly

refers to the Son Eusebius speaking of God the Father has in mind the truth that all things were made by the Son ldquoand without

him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo John i 3

1134

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

manner from the Father above as from an everlasting and exhaustless fountain flows onward likea river with a full and abundant stream of power for the preservation of the universal whole

3 And now let us select an illustration from our own experience The invisible and undiscoveredmind within us the essential nature of which no one has ever known sits as a monarch in theseclusion of his secret chambers and alone resolves on our course of action From this proceedsthe only-begotten word from its fatherrsquos bosom begotten in a manner and by a power inexplicableto us and is the first messenger of its fatherrsquos thoughts declares his secret counsels and conveyingitself to the ears of others accomplishes his designs

4 And thus the advantage of this faculty is enjoyed by all yet no one has ever yet beheld thatinvisible and hidden mind which is the parent of the word itself3547 In the same manner or ratherin a manner which far surpasses all likeness or comparison the perfect Word of the Supreme Godas the only-begotten Son of the Father (not consisting in the power of utterance nor comprehendedin syllables and parts of speech nor conveyed by a voice which vibrates on the air but being himselfthe living and effectual Word of the most High and subsisting personally as the Power and Wisdomof God)3548 proceeds from his Fatherrsquos Deity and kingdom3549 Thus being the perfect Offspringof a perfect Father and the common Preserver of all things he diffuses himself with living powerthroughout creation and pours from his own fullness abundant supplies of reason3550 wisdom lightand every other blessing not only on objects nearest to himself but on those most remote whetherin earth or sea or any other sphere of being

5 To all these he appoints with perfect equity their limits places laws and inheritance allottingto each their suited portion according to his sovereign will To some he assigns the super-terrestrialregions to others heaven itself as their habitation others he places in ethereal space others in airand others still on earth He it is who transfers mankind from hence to another sphere impartiallyreviews their conduct here and bestows a recompense according to the life and habits of each Byhim provision is made for the life and food not of rational creatures only but also of the brutecreation for the service of men

6 and while to the latter he grants the enjoyment of a perishable and fleeting term of existencethe former he invites to a share in the possession of immortal life Thus universal is the agency ofthe Word of God everywhere present and pervading all things by the power of his intelligence

3547 The author is now speaking especially of the spoken or ldquoexpressedrdquo word

3548 Compare 1 Cor i 24

3549 This conception that the Divine Word stands in something the same relation with the Father that the human word (internal

and external) does to the human spirit has at least an interesting suggestion towards the unraveling of this curious mystery

which for lack of a better word it is the fashion just now to call a human personality and which certainly is made in the image

and likeness of God Unless there lurks in the idea some subtle heresy one may venture to accept as an interesting analogy this

relation of invisible self self expressed to self (internal word) self revealed (external word) and an expression carried to the

point of embodiment (incarnation)

3550 ldquoLogosrdquo againmdashhere the internal word

1135

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he looks upward to his Father and governs this lower creation inferior to and consequent uponhimself in accordance with his will as the common Preserver of all things

599

7 Intermediate as it were and attracting the created to the uncreated Essence this Word ofGod exists as an unbroken bond between the two uniting things most widely different by aninseparable tie He is the Providence which rules the universe the guardian and director of thewhole he is the Power and Wisdom of God the only-begotten God the Word begotten of Godhimself For ldquoIn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was GodAll things were made by him and without him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo as welearn from the words of the sacred writer3551 Through his vivifying power all nature grows andflourishes refreshed by his continual showers and invested with a vigor and beauty ever new

8 Guiding the reigns of the universe he holds its onward course in conformity to the Fatherrsquoswill and moves as it were the helm of this mighty ship This glorious Agent the only-begottenSon of the Supreme God begotten by the Father as his perfect Offspring the Father has given tothis world as the highest of all goods infusing his word as spirit into a lifeless body into unconsciousnature imparting light and energy to that which in itself was a rude inanimate and formless massthrough the Divine power Him therefore it is ours to acknowledge and regard as everywherepresent and giving life to matter and the elements of nature3552 in him we see Light even thespiritual offspring of inexpressible Light one indeed in essence as being the Son of one Fatherbut possessing in himself many and varied powers

9 The world is indeed divided into many parts yet let us not therefore suppose that there aremany independent Agents nor though creationrsquos works be manifold let us thence assume theexistence of many gods How grievous the error of those childish and infatuated advocates ofpolytheistic worship who deify the constituent parts of the universe and divide into many thatsystem which is only one

10 Such conduct resembles theirs who should abstract the eyes of an individual man and termthem the man himself and the ears another man and so the head or again by an effort of thoughtshould separate the neck the breast and shoulders the feet and hands or other members nay thevery powers of sense and thus pronounce an individual to be a multitude of men Such folly mustsurely be rewarded with contempt by men of sense Yet such is he who from the component partsof a single world can devise for himself a multitude of gods or even deem that world which is thework of a Creator and consists of many parts to be itself a god3553 not knowing that the DivineNature can in no sense be divisible into parts since if compounded it must be so through the

3551 John i 1ndash3

3552 One on the scent for heresy might prick up his ears and sound the alarm of ldquoGnosticismrdquo

3553 A curious work just issued (anonymous) under the authority of the Bureau of Education very complacently evolves the

truth of existence out of the authorrsquos pure untrammeled consciousnessmdashfor he has never read any works either on science or

on theologymdashand arrives at the condescending conclusion that there is a God or rather in the words of Eusebius the author

comes to ldquodeem that worldhellipto be itself Godrdquo

1136

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

agency of another power and that which is so compounded can never be Divine How indeed couldit be so if composed of unequal and dissimilar and hence of worse and better elements Simpleindivisible uncompounded the Divine Nature exists at an infinite elevation above the visibleconstitution of this world

11 And hence we are assured by the clear testimony of the sacred Herald3554 that the Word ofGod who is before all things must be the sole Preserver of all intelligent beings while God whois above all and the Author of the generation of the Word being himself the Cause of all thingsis rightly called the Father of the Word as of his only-begotten Son himself acknowledging nosuperior Cause God therefore himself is One and from him proceeds the one only-begotten Wordthe omnipresent Preserver of all things And as the many-stringed lyre is composed of differentchords both sharp and flat some slightly others tensely strained and others intermediate betweenthe two extremes yet all attuned according to the rules of harmonic art even so this material worldcompounded as it is of many elements containing opposite and antagonist principles as moistureand dryness cold and heat yet blended into one harmonious whole may justly be termed a mightyinstrument framed by the hand of God an instrument on which the Divine Word himself notcomposed of parts or opposing principles but indivisible and uncompounded performs with perfectskill and produces a melody at once accordant with the will of his Father the Supreme Lord of alland glorious to himself Again as there are manifold external and internal parts and memberscomprised in a single body yet one invisible soul one undivided and incorporeal mind pervadesthe whole so is it in this creation which consisting of many parts yet is but one and so the Onemighty yea Almighty Word of God pervading all things and diffusing himself with undeviatingenergy throughout this universe is the Cause of all things that exist therein

12 Survey the compass of this visible world Seest thou not how the same heaven contains

600

within itself the countless courses and companies of the stars Again the sun is one and yet eclipsesmany nay all other luminaries by the surpassing glory of his rays Even so as the Father himselfis One his Word is also One the perfect Son of that perfect Father Should any one object becausethey are not more as well might he complain that there are not many suns or moons or worldsand a thousand things beside like the madman who would fain subvert the fair and perfect courseof Nature herself As in the visible so also in the spiritual world in the one the same sun diffuseshis light throughout this material earth in the other the One Almighty Word of God illumines allthings with invisible and secret power

13 Again there is in man one spirit and one faculty of reason which yet is the active causeof numberless effects The same mind instructed in many things will essay to cultivate the earthto build and guide a ship and construct houses nay the one mind and reason of man is capable ofacquiring knowledge in a thousand forms the same mind shall understand geometry and astronomyand discourse on the rules of grammar and rhetoric and the healing art Nor will it excel in science

3554 [Referring (says Valesius) to St John whose words Eusebius had lately cited ldquoIn the beginning was the Wordrdquo ampc

and now explains paraphrastically The reader will decide for himself on the merits of the paraphrasemdashBag]

1137

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

only but in practice too and yet no one has ever supposed the existence of many minds in onehuman form nor expressed his wonder at a plurality of being in man because he is thus capableof varied knowledge

14 Suppose one were to find a shapeless mass of clay to mould it with his hands and give itthe form of a living creature the head in one figure the hands and feet in another the eyes andcheeks in a third and so to fashion the ears the mouth and nose the breast and shoulders accordingto the rules of the plastic art The result indeed is a variety of figure of parts and members in theone body yet must we not suppose it the work of many hands but ascribe it entirely to the skill ofa single artist and yield the tribute of our praise to him who by the energy of a single mind hasframed it all The same is true of the universe itself which is one though consisting of many partsyet surely we need not suppose many creative powers nor invent a plurality of gods Our duty isto adore the all-wise and all-perfect agency of him who is indeed the Power and the Wisdom ofGod whose undivided force and energy pervades and penetrates the universe creating and givinglife to all things and furnishing to all collectively and severally those manifold supplies of whichhe is himself the source

15 Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once gives lightto the eyes warmth to the touch fertility to the earth and growth to plants The same luminaryconstitutes the course of time governs the motions of the stars performs the circuit of the heavensimparts beauty to the earth and displays the power of God to all and all this he performs by thesole and unaided force of his own nature In like manner fire has the property of refining gold andfusing lead of dissolving wax of parching clay and consuming wood producing these variedeffects by one and the same burning power

16 So also the Supreme Word of God pervading all things everywhere existent everywherepresent in heaven and earth governs and directs the visible and invisible creation the sun theheaven and the universe itself with an energy inexplicable in its nature irresistible in its effectsFrom him as from an everlasting fountain the sun the moon and stars receive their light and heforever rules that heaven which he has framed as the fitting emblem of his own greatness Theangelic and spiritual powers the incorporeal and intelligent beings which exist beyond the sphereof heaven and earth are filled by him with light and life with wisdom and virtue with all that isgreat and good from his own peculiar treasures Once more with one and the same creative skillhe ceases not to furnish the elements with substance to regulate the union and combinations theforms and figures and the innumerable qualities of organized bodies preserving the varieddistinctions of animal and vegetable life of the rational and the brute creation and supplying allthings to all with equal power thus proving himself the Author not indeed of the seven-stringed

1138

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lyre3555 but of that system of perfect harmony which is the workmanship of the One world-creatingWord3556

Chapter XIII

1 And now let us proceed to explain the reasons for which this mighty Word of God descendedto dwell with men Our ignorant and foolish race incapable of comprehending him who is the Lordof heaven and earth proceeding from his Fatherrsquos Deity as from the supreme fountain ever presentthroughout the world and evincing by the clearest proofs his providential care for the interests ofman have ascribed the adorable title of Deity to the sun and moon the heaven and the stars ofheaven Nor did they stop here but deified the earth itself its products and the various substances

601

by which animal life is sustained and devised images of Ceres of Proserpine of Bacchus3557 andmany such as these

2 Nay they shrank not from giving the name of gods to the very conceptions of their ownminds and the speech by which those conceptions are expressed calling the mind itself Minervaand language Mercury3558 and affixing the names of Mnemosyne and the Muses to those facultiesby means of which science is acquired Nor was even this enough advancing still more rapidly inthe career of impiety and folly they deified their own evil passions which it behooved them toregard with aversion or restrain by the principles of self-control Their very lust and passion andimpure disease of soul the members of the body which tempt to obscenity and even the veryuncontrol3559 in shameful pleasure they described under the titles of Cupid Priapus Venus3560 andother kindred terms

3 Nor did they stop even here Degrading their thoughts of God to this corporeal and mortallife they deified their fellow-men conferring the names of gods and heroes on those who hadexperienced the common lot of all and vainly imagining that the Divine and imperishable Essencecould frequent the tombs and monuments of the dead Nay more than this they paid divine honorsto animals of various species and to the most noxious reptiles they felled trees and excavatedrocks they provided themselves with brass and iron and other metals of which they fashioned

3555 [In reference singularly enough to the illustration of the lyre in the preceding chaptermdashBag]

3556 It is idle to treat as philosophically or theologically unworthy of consideration a system of thought so definitely unified

and with such Scriptural basis as the above It may not be profound or original but is definite and clear

3557 ldquoOf Demeter of Cora of Dionysiusrdquo

3558 ldquoAthenehellipHermesrdquo

3559 The word used here ἀκρeuroτεια is the opposite of the famous philosophical word for self-controlmdashἐγκρeuroτεια

3560 ldquoEros Priapus Aphroditerdquo

1139

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

resemblances of the male and female human form of beasts and creeping things and these theymade the objects of their worship

4 Nor did this suffice To the evil spirits themselves which lurked within their statues or layconcealed in secret and dark recesses eager to drink their libations and inhale the odor of theirsacrifices they ascribed the same divine honors Once more they endeavored to secure the familiaraid of these spirits and the unseen powers which move through the tracts of air by charms offorbidden magic and the compulsion of unhallowed songs and incantations Again different nationshave adopted different persons as objects of their worship The Greeks have rendered to BacchusHercules AEligsculapius Apollo and others who were mortal men the titles of gods and heroes TheEgyptians have deified Horus and Isis Osiris and other mortals such as these And thus they whoboast of the wondrous skill whereby they have discovered geometry astronomy and the scienceof number know not wise as they are in their own conceit nor understand how to estimate themeasure of the power of God or calculate his exceeding greatness above the nature of irrationaland mortal beings

5 Hence they shrank not from applying the name of gods to the most hideous of the brutecreation to venomous reptiles and savage beasts The Phœnicians deified Melcatharus Usorus3561

and others mere mortals and with little claim to honor the Arabians Dusaris3562 and Obodas theGetaelig Zamolxis the Cicilians Mopsus and the Thebans Amphiaraus3563 in short each nation hasadopted its own peculiar deities differing in no respect from their fellow-mortals being simplyand truly men Again the Egyptians with one consent the Phœnicians the Greeks nay everynation beneath the sun have united in worshiping the very parts and elements of the world andeven the produce of the ground itself And which is most surprising though acknowledging theadulterous unnatural and licentious crimes of their deities they have not only filled every cityand village and district with temples shrines and statues in their honor but have followed theirevil example to the ruin of their own souls

6 We hear of gods and the sons of gods described by them as heroes and good genii titlesentirely opposed to truth honors utterly at variance with the qualifies they are intended to exalt Itis as if one who desired to point out the sun and the luminaries of heaven instead of directing hisgaze thitherward should grope with his hands on the ground and search for the celestial powersin the mud and mire Even so mankind deceived by their own folly and the craft of evil spiritshave believed that the Divine and spiritual Essence which is far above heaven and earth could becompatible with the birth the affections and death of mortal bodies here below To such a pitchof madness did they proceed as to sacrifice the dearest objects of their affection to their gods

3561 It is probably that ldquoMelkathrosrdquo and ldquoUsousrdquo referred to in the Praeligp Evang 1 10 (ed Gaisford Oxon 1843 1 p 77

and 84) The same passage may be found with English translation in Coryrsquos Ancient Fragments Lond 1832 p 6ndash7 13

3562 Dusaris was it is said equivalent to Bacchus

3563 All the above names excepting those specially noted may be found in Smith Dict of Greek and Roman Biog and Mythol

1140

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

regardless of all natural ties and urged by frenzied feeling to slay their only and best belovedchildren

7 For what can be a greater proof of madness than to offer human sacrifice to pollute everycity and even their own houses with kindred blood Do not the Greeks themselves attest this andis not all history filled with records of the same impiety The Phœnicians devoted their best belovedand only children as an annual sacrifice to Saturn The Rhodians on the sixth day of the month

602

Metageitnion3564 offered human victims to the same god At Salamis a man was pursued in thetemple of Minerva Agraulis and Diomede compelled to run thrice round the altar afterwardspierced with a lance by the priest and consumed as a burnt offering on the blazing pile In Egypthuman sacrifice was most abundant At Heliopolis three victims were daily offered to Juno forwhom king Amoses impressed with the atrocity of the practice commanded the substitution of anequal number of waxen figures In Chios and again in Tenedos a man was slain and offered up toOmadian Bacchus At Sparta they immolated human beings to Mars In Crete they did likewiseoffering human sacrifices to Saturn In Laodicea of Syria a virgin was yearly slain in honor ofMinerva for whom a hart is now the substitute The Libyans and Carthaginians appeased their godswith human victims The Dumateni of Arabia buried a boy annually beneath the altar Historyinforms us that the Greeks without exception the Thracians also and Scythians were accustomedto human sacrifice before they marched forth to battle The Athenians record the immolation of thevirgin children of Leus3565 and the daughter of Erechtheus3566 Who knows not that at this day ahuman victim is offered in Rome itself at the festival of Jupiter Latiaris

8 And these facts are confirmed by the testimony of the most approved philosophers Diodorusthe epitomizer of libraries3567 affirms that two hundred of the noblest youths were sacrificed toSaturn by the Libyan people and that three hundred more were voluntarily offered by their ownparents Dionysius the compiler of Roman history3568 expressly says that Jupiter and Apollodemanded human sacrifices of the so-called Aborigines in Italy He relates that on this demandthey offered a proportion of all their produce to the gods but that because of their refusal to slayhuman victims they became involved in manifold calamities from which they could obtain norelease until they had decimated themselves a sacrifice of life which proved the desolation of theircountry Such and so great were the evils which of old afflicted the whole human race

3564 Corresponding nearly to our August Key Calendarium in Smith Dict Gr and R Ant p 223

3565 [Leus is said to have offered his three daughters Phasithea Theope and Eubule the oracle at Delphi having declared

that the relief of the city from famine could only be effected by the shedding of the blood of his daughters by one of the

citizensmdashBag]

3566 [Alluding to the sacrifice of his daughter Chthonia by Erechtheus son of Pandion the Athenians having been promised

victory by the oracle over the Eleusinians and their Thracian allies on the condition of the death of a daughter of

ErechtheusmdashBag]

3567 Diodorus Siculus whose work is mentioned elsewhere (Praeligp Evang 1 6 ed Gaisford p 40) as a ldquohistorical libraryrdquo

3568 Dionysius of Halicarnassus

1141

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

9 Nor was this the full extent of their misery they groaned beneath the pressure of other evilsequally numerous and irremediable All nations whether civilized or barbarous throughout theworld as if actuated by a demoniac frenzy were infected with sedition as with some fierce andterrible disease insomuch that the human family was irreconcilably divided against itself the greatsystem of society was distracted and torn asunder and in every corner of the earth men stoodopposed to each other and strove with fierce contention on questions of law and government

10 Nay more than this with passions aroused to fury they engaged in mutual conflicts sofrequent that their lives were passed as it were in uninterrupted warfare None could undertake ajourney except as prepared to encounter an enemy in the very country and villages the rusticsgirded on the sword provided themselves with armor rather than with the implements of rural laborand deemed it noble exploit to plunder and enslave any who belonged to a neighboring state

11 Nay more than this from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their owndeities they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life and wrought the ruin of body andsoul by licentiousness of every kind Not content with this they even overstepped the bounds whichnature had defined and together committed incredible and nameless crimes ldquomen with men (inthe words of the sacred writer) working un-seemliness and receiving in themselves that recompenseof their error which was duerdquo

12 Nor did they stop even here but perverted their natural thoughts of God and denied thatthe course of this world was directed by his providential care ascribing the existence and constitutionof all things to the blind operation of chance or the necessity of fate

13 Once more believing that soul and body were alike dissolved by death they led a brutishlife unworthy of the name careless of the nature or existence of the soul they dreaded not thetribunal of Divine justice expected no reward of virtue nor thought of chastisem*nt as the penaltyof an evil life

14 Hence it was that whole nations a prey to wickedness in all its forms were wasted by theeffects of their own brutality some living in the practice of most vile and lawless incest withmothers others with sisters and others again corrupting their own daughters Some were foundwho slew their confiding guests others who fed on human flesh some strangled and then feastedon their aged men others threw them alive to dogs The time would fail me were I to attempt todescribe the multifarious symptoms of the inveterate malady which had asserted its dominion overthe whole human race

15 Such and numberless others like these were the prevailing evils on account of which thegracious Word of God full of compassion for his human flock had long since by the ministry of

603

his prophets and earlier still as well as later by that of men distinguished by pious devotion toGod invited those thus desperately afflicted to their own cure and had by means of lawsexhortations and doctrines of every kind proclaimed to man the principles and elements of truegodliness But when for mankind distracted and torn as I have said not indeed by wolves andsavage beasts but by ruthless and soul-destroying spirits of evil human power no longer sufficedbut a help was needed superior to that of man then it was that the Word of God obedient to his

1142

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

all-gracious Fatherrsquos will at length himself appeared and most willingly made his abode amongstus

16 The causes of his advent I have already described induced by which he condescended tothe society of man not in his wonted form and manner for he is incorporeal and present everywherethroughout the world proving by his agency both in heaven and earth the greatness of his almightypower but in a character new and hitherto unknown Assuming a mortal body he deigned toassociate and converse with men desiring through the medium of their own likeness to save ourmortal race

Chapter XIV

1 And now let us explain the cause for which the incorporeal Word of God assumed this mortalbody as a medium of intercourse with man How indeed else than in human form could that Divineand impalpable that immaterial and invisible Essence manifest itself to those who sought for Godin created and earthly objects unable or unwilling otherwise to discern the Author and Maker ofall things

2 As a fitting means therefore of communication with mankind he assumed a mortal bodyas that with which they were themselves familiar for like it is proverbially said loves its like Tothose then whose affections were engaged by visible objects who looked for gods in statues andlifeless images who imagined the Deity to consist in material and corporeal substance nay whoconferred on men the title of divinity the Word of God presented himself in this form

3 Hence he procured for himself this body as a thrice-hallowed temple a sensible habitationof an intellectual power a noble and most holy form of far higher worth than any lifeless statueThe material and senseless image fashioned by base mechanic hands of brass or iron of gold orivory wood or stone may be a fitting abode for evil spirits but that Divine form wrought by thepower of heavenly wisdom was possessed of life and spiritual being a form animated by everyexcellence the dwelling-place of the Word of God a holy temple of the holy God

4 Thus the indwelling Word3569 conversed with and was known to men as kindred withthemselves yet yielded not to passions such as theirs nor owned as the natural soul subjection tothe body He parted not with aught of his intrinsic greatness nor changed his proper Deity For asthe all-pervading radiance of the sun receives no stain from contact with dead and impure bodiesmuch less can the incorporeal power of the Word of God be injured in its essential purity or partwith any of its greatness from spiritual contact with a human body

5 Thus I say did our common Saviour prove himself the benefactor and preserver of alldisplaying his wisdom through the instrumentality of his human nature even as a musician uses

3569 All these various conceptions of the Word are strictly Biblical (1) The Word the only revealer of the Father who otherwise

could not be known (2) The human body the temple of God (3) The indwelling Word

1143

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

the lyre to evince his skill The Grecian myth tells us that Orpheus had power to charm ferociousbeasts and tame their savage spirit by striking the chords of his instrument with a master handand this story is celebrated by the Greeks and generally believed that an unconscious instrumentcould subdue the untamed brute and draw the trees from their places in obedience to its melodiouspower But he who is the author of perfect harmony the all-wise Word of God desiring to applyevery remedy to the manifold diseases of the souls of men employed that human nature which isthe workmanship of his own wisdom as an instrument by the melodious strains of which he soothednot indeed the brute creation but savages endued with reason healing each furious temper eachfierce and angry passion of the soul both in civilized and barbarous nations by the remedial powerof his Divine doctrine Like a physician of perfect skill he met the diseases of their souls whosought for God in nature and in bodies by a fitting and kindred remedy and showed them God inhuman form

6 And then with no less care for the body than the soul he presented before the eyes of menwonders and signs as proofs of his Divine power at the same time instilling into their ears of fleshthe doctrines which he himself uttered with a corporeal tongue In short he performed all his worksthrough the medium of that body which he had assumed for the sake of those who else were incapableof apprehending his Divine nature

7 In all this he was the servant of his Fatherrsquos will himself remaining still the same as whenwith the Father unchanged in essence unimpaired in nature unfettered by the trammels of mortalflesh nor hindered by his abode in a human body from being elsewhere present3570

604

8 Nay at the very time of his intercourse with men he was pervading all things was with andin the Father and even then was caring for all things both in heaven and earth Nor was he precludedas we are from being present everywhere or from the continued exercise of his Divine power Hegave of his own to man but received nothing in return he imparted of his Divine power to mortalitybut derived no accession from mortality itself

9 Hence his human birth to him brought no defilement nor could his impassible Essence sufferat the dissolution of his mortal body For let us suppose a lyre to receive an accidental injury orits chord to be broken it does not follow that the performer on it suffers nor if a wise manrsquos bodyundergo punishment can we fairly assert that his wisdom or the soul within him are maimed orburned

10 Far less can we affirm that the inherent power of the Word sustained any detriment fromhis bodily passion any more than as in the instance we have already used the solar rays whichare shot from heaven to earth contract defilement though in contact with mire and pollution ofevery kind We may indeed assert that these things partake of the radiance of the light but notthat the light is contaminated or the sun defiled by this contact with other bodies

3570 This ought to relieve Eusebius from any charge of Arianism in this relation however ldquodangerousrdquo the ground he has

trodden on may be

1144

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

11 And indeed these things are themselves not contrary to nature but the Saviour the incorporealWord of God being Life and spiritual Light itself whatever he touches with Divine and incorporealpower must of necessity become endued with the intelligence of light and life Thus if he touch abody it becomes enlightened and sanctified is at once delivered from all disease infirmity andsuffering and that which before was lacking is supplied by a portion of his fullness

12 And such was the tenor of his life on earth now proving the sympathies of his human naturewith our own and now revealing himself as the Word of God wondrous and mighty in his worksas God foretelling the events of the far distant future declaring in every act by signs and wondersand supernatural powers that Word whose presence was so little known and finally by his Divineteaching inviting the souls of men to prepare for those mansions which are above the heavens

Chapter XV

1 What now remains but to account for those which are the crowning facts of all I mean hisdeath so far and widely known the manner of his passion and the mighty miracle of his resurrectionafter death and then to establish the truth of these events by the clearest testimonies

2 For the reasons detailed above he used the instrumentality of a mortal body as a figurebecoming his Divine majesty and like a mighty sovereign employed it as his interpreter in hisintercourse with men performing all things consistently with his own Divine power Supposingthen at the end of his sojourn among men he had by any other means suddenly withdrawn himselffrom their sight and secretly removing that interpreter of himself the form which he had assumedhad hastened to flee from death and afterwards by his own act had consigned his mortal body tocorruption and dissolution doubtless in such a case he would have been deemed a mere phantomby all Nor would he have acted in a manner worthy of himself had he who is Life the Word andthe Power of God abandoned this interpreter of himself to corruption and death

3 Nor again would his warfare with the spirits of evil have received its consummation byconflict with the power of death The place of his retirement must have remained unknown norwould his existence have been believed by those who had not seen him for themselves No proofwould have been given that he was superior to death nor would he have delivered mortality fromthe law of its natural infirmity His name had never been heard throughout the world nor could hehave inspired his disciples with contempt of death or encouraged those who embraced his doctrineto hope for the enjoyment of a future life with God Nor would he have fulfilled the assurances ofhis own promise nor have accomplished the predictions of the prophets concerning himself Norwould he have undergone the last conflict of all for this was to be the struggle with the power ofdeath

4 For all these reasons then and inasmuch as it was necessary that the mortal body which hadrendered such service to the Divine Word should meet with an end worthy its sacred occupant themanner of his death was ordained accordingly For since but two alternatives remained either to

1145

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

consign his body entirely to corruption and so to bring the scene of life to a dishonored close orelse to prove himself victorious over death and render mortality immortal by the act of Divinepower the former of these alternatives would have contravened his own promise For as it is notthe property of fire to cool nor of light to darken no more is it compatible with life to deprive oflife or with Divine intelligence to act in a manner contrary to reason For how would it be consistent

605

with reason that he who had promised life to others should permit his own body the form whichhe had chosen to perish beneath the power of corruption That he who had inspired his discipleswith hopes of immortality should yield this exponent of his Divine counsels to be destroyed bydeath

5 The second alternative was therefore needful I mean that he should assert his dominionover the power of death But how should this be a furtive and secret act or openly performed andin the sight of all So mighty an achievement had it remained unknown and unrevealed must havefailed of its effect as regards the interests of men whereas the same event if openly declared andunderstood would from its wondrous character redound to the common benefit of all With reasontherefore since it was needful to prove his body victorious over death and that not secretly butbefore the eyes of men he shrank not from the trial for this indeed would have argued fear and asense of inferiority to the power of death but maintained that conflict with the enemy which hasrendered mortality immortal a conflict undertaken for the life the immortality the salvation ofall

6 Suppose one desired to show us that a vessel could resist the force of fire how could hebetter prove the fact than by casting it into the furnace and thence withdrawing it entire andunconsumed Even thus the Word of God who is the source of life to all desiring to prove thetriumph of that body over death which he had assumed for manrsquos salvation and to make this bodypartake his own life and immortality pursued a course consistent with this object Leaving his bodyfor a little while3571 and delivering it up to death in proof of its mortal nature he soon redeemed itfrom death in vindication of that Divine power whereby he has manifested the immortality whichhe has promised to be utterly beyond the sphere of death

7 The reason of this is clear It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof ofthe certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive forrising superior to the fear of death It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue alife of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth more needful still for thosewho were destined to declare his name in all the world and to communicate to mankind thatknowledge of God which he had before ordained for all nations

8 For such the strongest conviction of a future life was necessary that they might be able withfearless and unshrinking zeal to maintain the conflict with Gentile and polytheistic error a conflictthe dangers of which they would never have been prepared to meet except as habituated to thecontempt of death Accordingly in arming his disciples against the power of this last enemy he

3571 [These words (as Valesius observes) need not be too rigidly interpretedmdashBag]

1146

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

delivered not his doctrines in mere verbal precepts nor attempted to prove the soulrsquos immortalityby persuasive and probable arguments but displayed to them in his own person a real victory overdeath

9 Such was the first and greatest reason of our Saviourrsquos conflict with the power of deathwhereby he proved to his disciples the nothingness of that which is the terror of all mankind andafforded a visible evidence of the reality of that life which he had promised presenting as it werea first-fruit of our common hope of future life and immortality in the presence of God

10 The second cause of his resurrection was that the Divine power might be manifested whichdwelt in his mortal body Mankind had heretofore conferred Divine honors on men who had yieldedto the power of death and had given the titles of gods and heroes to mortals like themselves Forthis reason therefore the Word of God evinced his gracious character and proved to man his ownsuperiority over death recalling his mortal body to a second life displaying an immortal triumphover death in the eyes of all and teaching them to acknowledge the Author of such a victory to bethe only true God even in death itself

11 I may allege yet a third cause of the Saviourrsquos death He was the victim offered to theSupreme Sovereign of the universe for the whole human race a victim consecrated for the need ofthe human race and for the overthrow of the errors of demon worship For as soon as the one holyand mighty sacrifice the sacred body of our Saviour had been slain for man to be as a ransom forall nations heretofore involved in the guilt of impious superstition thenceforward the power ofimpure and unholy spirits was utterly abolished and every earth-born and delusive error was atonce weakened and destroyed

12 Thus then this salutary victim taken from among themselves I mean the mortal body ofthe Word was offered on behalf of the common race of men This was that sacrifice delivered upto death of which the sacred oracles speak ldquoBehold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sinof the worldrdquo3572 And again as follows ldquoHe was led as a sheep to the slaughter and as a lambbefore the shearer is dumbrdquo They declare also the cause saying ldquoHe bears our sins and is painedfor us yet we accounted him to be in trouble and in suffering and in affliction But he was wounded

606

on account of our sins and bruised because of our iniquities the chastisem*nt of our peace wasupon him and by his bruises we were healed All we as sheep have gone astray every one hasgone astray in this way and the Lord gave him up for our sinsrdquo3573

13 Such were the causes which led to the offering of the human body of the Word of God Butforasmuch as he was the great high priest consecrated to the Supreme Lord and King and thereforemore than a victim the Word the Power and the Wisdom of God he soon recalled his body fromthe grasp of death presented it to his Father as the first-fruit of our common salvation and raised

3572 John i 29

3573 [Isaiah liii 4 5 6 7 Septuagint English translation p 728mdashBag] P 889 of the Bagster ed 1879 Though the first

reasons make one feel as if the author had been in danger of slighting the atoning work of the Word he here very clearly comes

up as usual to the Biblical position

1147

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

this trophy a proof at once of his victory over death and Satan and of the abolition of humansacrifices for the blessing of all mankind

Chapter XVI

1 And now the time is come for us to proceed to the demonstration of these things if indeedsuch truths require demonstration and if the aid of testimony be needful to confirm the certaintyof palpable facts Such testimony however shall be here given and let it be received with anattentive and gracious ear

2 Of old the nations of the earth the entire human race were variously distributed intoprovincial national and local governments3574 subject to kingdoms and principalities of manykinds The consequences of this variety were war and strife depopulation and captivity whichraged in country and city with unceasing fury Hence too the countless subjects of history adulteriesand rapes of women hence the woes of Troy and the ancient tragedies so known among all peoples

3 The origin of these may justly be ascribed to the delusion of polytheistic error But when thatinstrument of our redemption the thrice holy body of Christ which proved itself superior to allSatanic fraud and free from evil both in word and deed was raised at once for the abolition ofancient evils and in token of his victory over the powers of darkness the energy of these evil spiritswas at once destroyed The manifold forms of government the tyrannies and republics the siegeof cities and devastation of countries caused thereby were now no more and one God wasproclaimed to all mankind

4 At the same time one universal power the Roman empire arose and flourished while theenduring and implacable hatred of nation against nation was now removed and as the knowledgeof one God and one way of religion and salvation even the doctrine of Christ was made knownto all mankind so at the self-same period the entire dominion of the Roman empire being vestedin a single sovereign profound peace reigned throughout the world And thus by the expressappointment of the same God two roots of blessing the Roman empire and the doctrine of Christianpiety sprang up together for the benefit of men

5 For before this time the various countries of the world as Syria Asia Macedonia Egyptand Arabia had been severally subject to different rulers The Jewish people again had establishedtheir dominion in the land of Palestine And these nations in every village city and district actuatedby some insane spirit were engaged in incessant and murderous war and conflict But two mightypowers starting from the same point the Roman empire which henceforth was swayed by a singlesovereign and the Christian religion subdued and reconciled these contending elements

6 Our Saviourrsquos mighty power destroyed at once the many governments and the many godsof the powers of darkness and proclaimed to all men both rude and civilized to the extremities

3574 Eparchies ethnarchies and toparchies

1148

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

of the earth the sole sovereignty of God himself Meantime the Roman empire the causes ofmultiplied governments being thus removed effected an easy conquest of those which yet remainedits object being to unite all nations in one harmonious whole an object in great measure alreadysecured and destined to be still more perfectly attained even to the final conquest of the ends ofthe habitable world by means of the salutary doctrine and through the aid of that Divine powerwhich facilitates and smooths its way

7 And surely this must appear a wondrous fact to those who will examine the question in thelove of truth and desire not to cavil at these blessings3575 The falsehood of demon superstition wasconvicted the inveterate strife and mutual hatred of the nations was removed at the same time OneGod and the knowledge of that God were proclaimed to all one universal empire prevailed andthe whole human race subdued by the controlling power of peace and concord received one anotheras brethren and responded to the feelings of their common nature Hence as children of one Godand Father and owning true religion as their common mother they saluted and welcomed eachother with words of peace Thus the whole world appeared like one well-ordered and united family

607

each one might journey unhindered as far as and whithersoever he pleased men might securelytravel from West to East and from East to West as to their own native country in short the ancientoracles and predictions of the prophets were fulfilled more numerous than we can at present citeand those especially which speak as follows concerning the saving Word ldquoHe shall have dominionfrom sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earthrdquo And again ldquoIn his days shallrighteousness spring up and abundance of peacerdquo ldquoAnd they shall beat their swords intoplough-shares and their spears into sickles and nation shall not take up sword against nationneither shall they learn to war any morerdquo3576

8 These words predicted ages before in the Hebrew tongue have received in our own day avisible fulfillment by which the testimonies of the ancient oracles are clearly confirmed And nowif thou still desire more ample proof receive it not in words but from the facts themselves Openthe eyes of thine understanding expand the gates of thought pause awhile and consider inquireof thyself as though thou wert another and thus diligently examine the nature of the case Whatking or prince in any age of the world what philosopher legislator or prophet in civilized orbarbarous lands has attained so great a height of excellence I say not after death but while livingstill and full of mighty power as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of hisname Surely none save our only Saviour has done this when after his victory over death he spokethe word to his followers and fulfilled it by the event saying to them ldquoGo ye and make disciplesof all nations in my namerdquo3577 He it was who gave the distinct assurance that his gospel must be

3575 This is a fair appeal applicable to his present hearers It at least was true of Constantinersquos reign that it produced a state

of relative peace and prosperity

3576 [Psalm lxxi 7 8 Isaiah ii 4 SeptuagintmdashBag] Psalm lxxii English version

3577 Matt xxviii 19 There is an interesting various reading here where Eusebius with B as against Aleph adds something

but where B and others have ουν and D and others have νυν Eusebius has γουν

1149

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations and immediately verified his word forwithin a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine

9 How then will those who caviled at the commencement of my speech be able to reply tothis For surely the force of ocular testimony is superior to any verbal argument Who else thanhe with an invisible and yet potent hand has driven from human society like savage beasts thatever noxious and destructive tribe of evil spirits who of old had made all nations their prey and bythe motions of their images had practiced many a delusion among men Who else beside ourSaviour by the invocation of his name and by unfeigned prayer addressed through him to theSupreme God has given power to banish from the world the remnant of those wicked spirits tothose who with genuine and sincere obedience pursue the course of life and conduct which he hashimself prescribed Who else but our Saviour has taught his followers to offer those bloodless andreasonable sacrifices which are performed by prayer and the secret worship of God

10 Hence is it that throughout the habitable world altars are erected and churches dedicatedwherein these spiritual and rational sacrifices are offered as a sacred service by every nation to theOne Supreme God Once more who but he with invisible and secret power has suppressed andutterly abolished those bloody sacrifices which were offered with fire and smoke as well as thecruel and senseless immolation of human victims a fact which is attested by the heathen historiansthemselves For it was not till after the publication of the Saviourrsquos Divine doctrine about the timeof Hadrianrsquos reign that the practice of human sacrifice was universally abandoned

11 Such and so manifest are the proofs of our Saviourrsquos power and energy after death Whothen can be found of spirit so obdurate as to withhold his assent to the truth and refuse toacknowledge his life to be Divine Such deeds as I have described are done by the living not thedead and visible acts are to us as evidence of those which we cannot see It is as it were an eventof yesterday that an impious and godless race disturbed and confounded the peace of human societyand possessed mighty power But these as soon as life departed lay prostrate on the earth worthlessas dung breathless motionless bereft of speech and have left neither fame nor memorial behindFor such is the condition of the dead and he who no longer lives is nothing and how can he whois nothing be capable of any act But how shall his existence be called in question whose activepower and energy are greater than in those who are still alive And though he be invisible to thenatural eye yet the discerning faculty is not in outward sense We do not comprehend the rules ofart or the theories of science by bodily sensation nor has any eye yet discerned the mind of manFar less then the power of God and in such cases our judgment is formed from apparent results

12 Even thus are we bound to judge of our Saviourrsquos invisible power and decide by its manifesteffects whether we shall acknowledge the mighty operations which he is even now carrying on tobe the works of a living agent or whether they shall be ascribed to one who has no existence orlastly whether the inquiry be not absurd and inconsistent in itself For with what reason can we

608

assert the existence of one who is not Since all allow that that which has no existence is devoidof that power and energy and action for these are characteristics of the living but the contrary ischaracteristic of the dead

1150

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter XVII

1 And now the time is come for us to consider the works of our Saviour in our own age andto contemplate the living operations of the living God For how shall we describe these mightyworks save as living proofs of the power of a living agent who truly enjoys the life of God If anyone inquire the nature of these works let him now attend

2 But recently a class of persons impelled by furious zeal and backed by equal power andmilitary force evinced their enmity against God by destroying his churches and overthrowingfrom their foundations the buildings dedicated to his worship In short in every way they directedtheir attacks against the unseen God and assailed him with a thousand shafts of impious wordsBut he who is invisible avenged himself with an invisible hand

3 By the single fiat of his will his enemies were utterly destroyed they who a little while beforehad been flourishing in great prosperity exalted by their fellow men as worthy of divine honorand blessed with a continued period of power and glory3578 so long as they had maintained peaceand amity with him whom they afterwards opposed As soon however as they dared openly toresist his will and to set their gods in array against him whom we adore immediately accordingto the will and power of that God against whom their arms were raised they all received the judgmentdue to their audacious deeds Constrained to yield and flee before his power together theyacknowledged his Divine nature and hastened to reverse the measures which they had beforeessayed

4 Our Saviour therefore without delay erected trophies of this victory everywhere and oncemore adorned the world with holy temples and consecrated houses of prayer in every city andvillage nay throughout all countries and even in barbaric wilds ordaining the erection of churchesand sacred buildings to the honor of the Supreme God and Lord of all Hence it is that these hallowededifices are deemed worthy to bear his name and receive not their appellation from men but fromthe Lord himself from which circ*mstances they are called churches (or houses of the Lord)3579

5 And now let him who will stand forth and tell us who after so complete a desolation hasrestored these sacred buildings from foundation to roof Who when all hope appeared extinct hascaused them to rise on a nobler scale than heretofore And well may it claim our wonder that thisrenovation was not subsequent to the death of those adversaries of God but whilst the destroyersof these edifices were still alive so that the recantation of their evil deeds came in their own wordsand edicts3580 And this they did not in the sunshine of prosperity and ease (for then we mightsuppose that benevolence or clemency might be the cause) but at the very time that they weresuffering under the stroke of Divine vengeance

3578 [Referring to Diocletian and others of the persecuting emperorsmdashBag]

3579 [Κυριακῶν ἠξίωνται τῶν ἐπωνυμιῶν The German ldquoKircherdquo the Scotch ldquoKirkrdquo and the English ldquoChurchrdquo are said

probably enough to derive their origin from this Greek wordmdashBag]

3580 Compare literature on the edicts of toleration

1151

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

6 Who again has been able to retain in obedience to his heavenly precepts after so manysuccessive storms of persecution nay in the very crisis of danger so many persons throughout theworld devoted to philosophy and the service of God and those holy choirs of virgins who haddedicated themselves to a life of perpetual chastity and purity Who taught them cheerfully topersevere in the exercise of protracted fasting and to embrace a life of severe and consistentself-denial Who has persuaded multitudes of either sex to devote themselves to the study of sacredthings and prefer to bodily nutriment that intellectual food which is suited to the wants of a rationalsoul3581 Who has instructed barbarians and peasants yea feeble women slaves and children inshort unnumbered multitudes of all nations to live in the contempt of death persuaded of theimmortality of their souls conscious that human actions are observed by the unerring eye of justiceexpecting Godrsquos award to the righteous and the wicked and therefore true to the practice of a justand virtuous life For they could not otherwise have persevered in the course of godliness Surelythese are the acts which our Saviour and he alone even now performs

7 And now let us pass from these topics and endeavor by inquiries such as these that followto convince the objectorrsquos obdurate understanding Come forward then whoever thou art andspeak the words of reason utter not the thoughts of a senseless heart but those of an intelligentand enlightened mind speak I say after deep solemn converse with thyself Who of the sageswhose names have yet been known to fame has ever been fore-known and proclaimed from theremotest ages as our Saviour was by the prophetic oracles to the once divinely-favored Hebrew

609

nation But his very birth-place the period of his advent the manner of his life his miracles andwords and mighty acts were anticipated and recorded in the sacred volumes of these prophets

8 Again who so present an avenger of crimes against himself so that as the immediateconsequence of their impiety the entire Jewish people were scattered by an unseen power theirroyal seat utterly removed and their very temple with its holy things levelled with the groundWho like our Saviour has uttered predictions at once concerning that impious nation and theestablishment of his church throughout the world and has equally verified both by the eventRespecting the temple of these wicked men our Saviour said ldquoYour house is left unto youdesolaterdquo3582 and ldquoThere shall not be left one stone upon another in this place that shall not bethrown downrdquo3583 And again of his church he says ldquoI will build my church upon a rock and thegates of hell shall not prevail against itrdquo3584

9 How wondrous too must that power be deemed which summoned obscure and unletteredmen from their fisherrsquos trade and made them the legislators and instructors of the human race And

3581 [There is nothing which need surprise us in the praises of virginity monkery and asceticism in a writer of the fourth

century The intelligent Christian will surely shrink from the thought of ascribing with Eusebius these fruitful sources of

corruption to the Lord himselfmdashBag]

3582 Matt xxiii 38

3583 Matt xxiv 2mdashapparently a paraphrase from memory

3584 Matt xvi 18

1152

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

how clear a demonstration of his deity do we find in the promise so well performed that he wouldmake them fishers of men in the power and energy which he bestowed so that they composed andpublished writings of such authority that they were translated into every civilized and barbarouslanguage3585 were read and pondered by all nations and the doctrines contained in them accreditedas the oracles of God

10 How marvelous his predictions of the future and the testimony whereby his disciples wereforewarned that they should be brought before kings and rulers and should endure the severestpunishments not indeed as criminals but simply for their confession of his name Or who shalladequately describe the power with which he prepared them thus to suffer with a willing mind andenabled them strong in the armor of godliness to maintain a constancy of spirit indomitable in themidst of conflict

11 Or how shall we enough admire that steadfast firmness of soul which strengthened notmerely his immediate followers but their successors also even to our present age in the joyfulendurance of every infliction and every form of torture in proof of their devotion to the SupremeGod Again what monarch has prolonged his government through so vast a series of ages Whoelse has power to make war after death to triumph over every enemy to subjugate each barbarousand civilized nation and city and to subdue his adversaries with an invisible and secret hand

12 Lastly and chief of all what slanderous lip shall dare to question that universal peace towhich we have already referred established by his power throughout the world3586 For thus themutual concord and harmony of all nations coincided in point of time with the extension of ourSaviourrsquos doctrine and preaching in all the world a concurrence of events predicted in long agespast by the prophets of God The day itself would fail me gracious emperor should I attempt toexhibit in a single view those cogent proofs of our Saviourrsquos Divine power which even now arevisible in their effects for no human being in civilized or barbarous nations has ever yet exhibitedsuch power of Divine virtue as our Saviour

13 But why do I speak of men since of the beings whom all nations have deemed divine nonehas appeared on earth with power like to his If there has let the fact now be proved Come forwardye philosophers and tell us what god or hero has yet been known to fame who has delivered thedoctrines of eternal life and a heavenly kingdom as he has done who is our Saviour Who likehim has persuaded multitudes throughout the world to pursue the principles of Divine wisdom tofix their hope on heaven itself and look forward to the mansions there reserved for them that loveGod What god or hero in human form has ever held his course from the rising to the setting suna course co-extensive as it were with the solar light and irradiated mankind with the bright andglorious beams of his doctrine causing each nation of the earth to render united worship to the Onetrue God What god or hero yet as he has done has set aside all gods and heroes among civilized

3585 The Syriac Peschito and possibly the Curetonian the old Latin (Itala) probably both the Thebaic and Memphitic Coptic

versions at least had been made at this time

3586 [The peace which Christ at his birth bestowed on the Roman world (Valesius)mdashBag]

1153

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

or barbarous nations has ordained that divine honors should be withheld from all and claimedobedience to that command and then though singly conflicting with the power of all has utterlydestroyed the opposing hosts victorious over the gods and heroes of every age and causing himselfalone in every region of the habitable world to be acknowledged by all people as the only Son ofGod

14 Who else has commanded the nations inhabiting the continents and islands of this mightyglobe to assemble weekly on the Lordrsquos day and to observe it as a festival not indeed for thepampering of the body but for the invigoration of the soul by instruction in Divine truth What

610

god or hero exposed as our Saviour was to so sore a conflict has raised the trophy of victory overevery foe For they indeed from first to last unceasingly assailed his doctrine and his people buthe who is invisible by the exercise of a secret power has raised his servants and the sacred housesof their worship to the height of glory

But why should we still vainly aim at detailing those Divine proofs of our Saviourrsquos powerwhich no language can worthily express which need indeed no words of ours but themselvesappeal in loudest tones to those whose mental ears are open to the truth Surely it is a strange awondrous fact unparalleled in the annals of human life that the blessings we have described shouldbe accorded to our mortal race and that he who is in truth the only the eternal Son of God shouldthus be visible on earth

Chapter XVIII

1 These words of ours however [gracious] Sovereign may well appear superfluous in yourears convinced as you are by frequent and personal experience of our Saviourrsquos Deity yourselfalso in actions still more than words a herald of the truth to all mankind Yourself it may be willvouchsafe at a time of leisure to relate to us the abundant manifestations which your Saviour hasaccorded you of his presence and the oft-repeated visions of himself which have attended you inthe hours of sleep I speak not of those secret suggestions which to us are unrevealed but of thoseprinciples which he has instilled into your own mind and which are fraught with general interestand benefit to the human race You will yourself relate in worthy terms the visible protection whichyour Divine shield and guardian has extended in the hour of battle the ruin of your open and secretfoes and his ready aid in time of peril To him you will ascribe relief in the midst of perplexitydefence in solitude expedients in extremity foreknowledge of events yet future your forethoughtfor the general weal your power to investigate uncertain questions your conduct of most importantenterprises your administration of civil affairs3587 your military arrangements and correction ofabuses in all departments your ordinances respecting public right and lastly your legislation forthe common benefit of all You will it may be also detail to us those particulars of his favor which

3587 Literally ldquoYour political economiesrdquo

1154

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

are secret to us but known to you alone and treasured in your royal memory as in secret storehousesSuch doubtless are the reasons and such the convincing proofs of your Saviourrsquos power whichcaused you to raise that sacred edifice which presents to all believers and unbelievers alike atrophy of his victory over death a holy temple of the holy God to consecrate those noble andsplendid monuments of immortal life and his heavenly kingdom to offer memorials of our AlmightySaviourrsquos conquest which well become the imperial dignity of him by whom they are bestowedWith such memorials have you adorned that edifice which witnesses of eternal life thus as it werein imperial characters ascribing victory and triumph to the heavenly Word of God thus proclaimingto all nations with clear and unmistakable voice in deed and word your own devout and piousconfession of his name

1155

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (2)

would continue to us our present blessings For he is the invincible ally and protector of the righteoushe is the supreme judge of all things the prince of immorality the Giver of everlasting life

581

THE ORATION

OF

EUSEBIUS PAMPHILUS

IN PRAISE OF

THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE

PRONOUNCED ON THE THIRTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS REIGN

mdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdashmdash

Prologue to the Oration3494

1 I come not forward prepared with a fictitious narrative nor with elegance of language tocaptivate the ear desiring to charm my hearers as it were with a sirenrsquos voice nor shall I presentthe draught of pleasure in cups of gold decorated with lovely flowers (I mean the graces of style)to those who are pleased with such things Rather would I follow the precepts of the wise andadmonish all to avoid and turn aside from the beaten road and keep themselves from contact withthe vulgar crowd

3494 The conventional heading has been retained Literally it is ldquoTricennial oration of Eusebius addressed to the Emperor

Constantine Prologue to the praises addressed to Constantinerdquo

The translation of this oration shows even more than that of the Life or Constantinersquos Oration a sympathy on the part of the translator

with the florid style of Eusebius and trying as the style itself is the success of Bag in presenting the spirit of the original with on the

whole very considerable accuracy of rendering has been a constant matter of surprise during the effort to revise

1105

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 I come then prepared to celebrate our emperorrsquos praises in a newer strain and though thenumber be infinite of those who desire to be my companions in my present task I am resolved toshun the common track of men3495 and to pursue that untrodden path which it is unlawful to enteron with unwashed feet Let those who admire a vulgar style abounding in puerile subtleties andwho court a pleasing and popular muse essay since pleasure is the object they have in view tocharm the ears of men by a narrative of merely human merits Those however who are initiatedinto the universal science3496 and have attained to Divine as well as human knowledge and accountthe choice of the latter as the real excellence will prefer those virtues of the emperor which Heavenitself approves and his pious actions to his merely human accomplishments and will leave toinferior encomiasts the task of celebrating his lesser merits

3 For since our emperor is gifted as well with that sacred wisdom which has immediate referenceto God as with the knowledge which concerns the interests of men let those who are competentto such a task describe his secular acquirements great and transcendent as they are and fraughtwith advantage to mankind (for all that characterizes the emperor is great and noble) yet stillinferior to his diviner qualifies to those who stand without the sacred precincts

4 Let those however who are within the sanctuary and have access to its inmost and untroddenrecesses close the doors against every profane ear and unfold as it were the secret mysteries ofour emperorrsquos character to the initiated alone And let those who have purified their ears in thestreams of piety and raised their thoughts on the soaring wing of the mind itself join the companywhich surrounds the Sovereign Lord of all and learn in silence the divine mysteries

5 Meanwhile let the sacred oracles given not by the spirit of divination (or rather let me sayof madness and folly) but by the inspiration of Divine truth3497 be our instructors in these mysteriesspeaking to us of sovereignty generally of him who is the Supreme Sovereign of all and the

582

heavenly array which surrounds the Lord of all of that exemplar of imperial power which is beforeus and that counterfeit coin and lastly of the consequences which result from both With theseoracles then to initiate us in the knowledge of the sacred rites let us essay as follows thecommencement of our divine mysteries

Chapter ImdashThe Oration

1 To-day is the festival of our great emperor and we his children rejoice therein feeling theinspiration of our sacred theme He who presides over our solemnity is the Great Sovereign himself

3495 Cf Hom Il 6 202 tr Bryant 6 263ndash4 ldquoshunning every haunt of human-kindrdquo

3496 Eusebius seems to use this phrase much as the modern phrases ldquoThe final philosophyrdquo ldquoThe science of sciencesrdquo ldquoThe

queen of sciencesrdquo when applied to theology

3497 ldquoDivine lightrdquo

1106

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he I mean who is truly great of whom I affirm (nor will the sovereign who hears me be offendedbut will rather approve of this ascription of praise to God) that HE is above and beyond all createdthings the Highest the Greatest the most Mighty One whose throne is the arch of heaven andthe earth the footstool of his feet3498 His being none can worthily comprehend and the ineffablesplendor of the glory which surrounds him repels the gaze of every eye from his Divine majesty

2 His ministers are the heavenly hosts his armies the supernal powers who own allegiance tohim as their Master Lord and King The countless multitudes of angels the companies of archangelsthe chorus of holy spirits draw from and reflect his radiance as from the fountains of everlastinglight Yea every light and specially those divine and incorporeal intelligences whose place is beyondthe heavenly sphere celebrate this august Sovereign with lofty and sacred strains of praise Thevast expanse of heaven like an azure veil is interposed between those without and those whoinhabit his royal mansions while round this expanse the sun and moon with the rest of the heavenlyluminaries (like torch-bearers around the entrance of the imperial palace) perform in honor oftheir sovereign their appointed courses holding forth at the word of his command an ever-burninglight to those whose lot is cast in the darker regions without the pale of heaven

3 And surely when I remember that our own victorious emperor renders praises to this MightySovereign I do well to follow him knowing as I do that to him alone we owe that imperial powerunder which we live The pious Caeligsars instructed by their fatherrsquos wisdom acknowledge him asthe source of every blessing the soldiery the entire body of the people both in the country and inthe cities of the empire with the governors of the several provinces assembling together inaccordance with the precept of their great Saviour and Teacher worship him In short the wholefamily of mankind of every nation tribe and tongue both collectively and severally howeverdiverse their opinions on other subjects are unanimous in this one confession and in obedienceto the reason implanted in them and the spontaneous and uninstructed impulse of their own mindsunite in calling on the One and only God3499

4 Nay does not the universal frame of earth acknowledge him her Lord and declare by thevegetable and animal life which she produces her subjection to the will of a superior Power Therivers flowing with abundant stream and the perennial fountains springing from hidden andexhaustless depths ascribe to him the cause of their marvellous source The mighty waters of thesea enclosed in chambers of unfathomable depth and the swelling surges which lift themselveson high and menace as it were the earth itself shrink back when they approach the shore checkedby the power of his Divine law The duly measured fall of winterrsquos rain the rolling thunder the

3498 Paraphrased from Is lxvi 1

3499 [We must be content here (and probably in other passages of this Oration) to tolerate as rhetorical embellishment that

which regarded literally is in every sense palpably untruemdashBag] The intention of the passage is probably like that of those

who say now that there is no nation where in some form God is not worshiped

1107

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lightningrsquos flash the eddying currents of the winds and the airy courses of the clouds all revealhis presence to those to whom his Person is invisible

5 The all-radiant sun who holds his constant career through the lapse of ages owns him Lordalone and obedient to his will dares not depart from his appointed path The inferior splendor ofthe moon alternately diminished and increased at stated periods is subject to his Divine commandThe beauteous mechanism of the heavens glittering with the hosts of stars moving in harmoniousorder and preserving the measure of each several orbit proclaims him the giver of all light yeaall the heavenly luminaries maintaining at his will and word a grand and perfect unity of motionpursue the track of their ethereal career and complete in the lapse of revolving ages their distantcourse The alternate recurrence of day and night the changing seasons the order and proportionof the universe all declare the manifold wisdom of [his boundless power] To him the unseenagencies which hold their course throughout the expanse of space render the due tribute of praiseTo him this terrestrial globe itself to him the heavens above and the choirs beyond the vault ofheaven give honor as to their mighty Sovereign the angelic hosts greet him with ineffable songsof Praise and the spirits which draw their being from incorporeal light adore him as their Creator

583

The everlasting ages which were before this heaven and earth with other periods beside theminfinite and antecedent to all visible creation acknowledge him the sole and supreme Sovereignand Lord

6 Lastly he who is in all before and after all3500 his only begotten pre-existent Word thegreat High Priest of the mighty God elder than all time and every age devoted to his Fatherrsquosglory first and alone makes intercession with him for the salvation of mankind3501 Supreme andpre-eminent Ruler of the universe he shares the glory of his Fatherrsquos kingdom for he is that Lightwhich transcendent above the universe encircles the Fatherrsquos Person interposing and dividingbetween the eternal and uncreated Essence and all derived existence that Light which streamingfrom on high proceeds from that Deity who knows not origin or end and illumines the super-celestialregions and all that heaven itself contains with the radiance of wisdom bright beyond the splendorof the sun This is he who holds a supreme dominion over this whole world3502 who is over and inall things and pervades all things3503 visible and invisible the Word of God From whom and by

3500 [Referring possibly to Rev i 8 ldquoI am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the ending saith the Lord which is and

which was and which is to come the AlmightyrdquomdashBag] Or possibly refers to Eph iv 6 as it seems to be simply some verbal

suggestion

3501 [The Arianism implied in this passage if referred to the Word as God disappears if we regard it as spoken of Christ as

the Word manifested in human nature See the note of Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3502 Universe

3503 This is directly from Eph iv 6 ldquoWho is over all and through all and in allrdquo It is thus directly referred to the Father and

on the basis of the above note of Bag seems to convict of Arianism but in reality the conception of a pre-existing Word is

distinctly orthodox

1108

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

whom our divinely favored emperor receiving as it were a transcript of the Divine sovereigntydirects in imitation of God himself the administration of this worldrsquos affairs

Chapter II

1 This only begotten Word of God reigns from ages which had no beginning to infinite andendless ages the partner of his Fatherrsquos kingdom And [our emperor] ever beloved by him whoderives the source of imperial authority from above and is strong in the power of his sacred title3504

has controlled the empire of the world for a long period of years2 Again that Preserver of the universe orders these heavens and earth and the celestial kingdom

consistently with his Fatherrsquos will Even so our emperor whom he loves by bringing those whomhe rules on earth to the only begotten Word and Saviour renders them fit subjects of his kingdom

3 And as he who is the common Saviour of mankind by his invisible and Divine power as thegood shepherd drives far away from his flock like savage beasts those apostate spirits which onceflew through the airy tracts above this earth and fastened on the souls of men3505 so this his friendgraced by his heavenly favor with victory over all his foes subdues and chastens the open adversariesof the truth in accordance with the usages of war

4 He who is the pre-existent Word the Preserver of all things imparts to his disciples the seedsof true wisdom and salvation and at once enlightens and gives them understanding in the knowledgeof his Fatherrsquos kingdom Our emperor his friend acting as interpreter to the Word of God aimsat recalling the whole human race to the knowledge of God proclaiming clearly in the ears of alland declaring with powerful voice the laws of truth and godliness to all who dwell on the earth

5 Once more the universal Saviour opens the heavenly gates of his Fatherrsquos kingdom to thosewhose course is thitherward from this world Our emperor emulous of his Divine example havingpurged his earthly dominion from every stain of impious error invites each holy and pious worshiperwithin his imperial mansions earnestly desiring to save with all its crew that mighty vessel of whichhe is the appointed pilot And he alone of all who have wielded the imperial power of Rome beinghonored by the Supreme Sovereign with a reign of three decennial periods now celebrates thisfestival not as his ancestors might have done in honor of infernal demons or the apparitions ofseducing spirits or of the fraud and deceitful arts of impious men but as an act of thanksgiving to

3504 [It is difficult to know precisely what is meant here Possibly the name of ChristianmdashBag]

3505 This is an allusion to what was afterwards known as Vampireismmdasha belief of unknown antiquity and especially prevalent

in various forms in the East Rydberg (Magic of the Middle Ages p 207) describes the mediaeligval form thus ldquoThe vampires

according to the belief of the Middle Ages are disembodied souls which clothe themselves again in their buried bodies steal at

night into houses and suck from the nipple of the sleeping all their bloodrdquo (Cf Perty d myst Ersch 1 [1872] 383 91 Goumlrresrsquo

Chr myst Vol 3 etc) Similar in nature was that notion of the spirits who sucked away the breath of sleeping persons which

has left its trace in the modern superstition that cats suck away the breath of sleeping children

1109

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

590

savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

1120

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

1121

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and sentence ofdeath in every form3528 Thus did these valiant soldiers of the Almighty Sovereign maintain theconflict with steadfast fortitude of soul against the hostile forces of polytheism and thus did theseenemies of God and adversaries of manrsquos salvation more cruel far than the ferocious savage delight

591

in libations of human blood thus did their ministers drain as it were the cup of unrighteous slaughterin honor of the demons whom they served and prepare for them this dread and impious banquetto the ruin of the human race

9 In these sad circ*mstances what course should the God and King of these afflicted onespursue Could he be careless of the safety of his dearest friends or abandon his servants in thisgreat extremity Surely none could deem him a wary pilot who without an effort to save hisfellow-mariners should suffer his vessel to sink with all her crew surely no general could be foundso reckless as to yield his own allies without resistance to the mercy of the foe nor can a faithfulshepherd regard with unconcern the straying of a single sheep from his flock but will rather leavethe rest in safety and dare all things for the wandererrsquos sake even if need be to contend withsavage beasts

10 The zeal however of the great Sovereign of all was for no unconscious3529 sheep his carewas exercised for his own faithful host for those who sustained the battle for his sake whoseconflicts in the cause of godliness he himself approved and honored those who had returned to hispresence with the prize of victory which he only can bestow uniting them to the angelic choirsOthers he still preserved on earth to communicate the living seeds of piety to future generationsto be at once eye-witnesses of his vengeance on the ungodly and narrators of the events

11 After this he outstretched his arm in judgment on the adversaries and utterly destroyedthem with the stroke of Divine wrath compelling them how reluctant soever to confess with theirown lips and recant their wickedness but raising from the ground and exalting gloriously thosewho had long been oppressed and disclaimed by all

12 Such were the dealings of the Supreme Sovereign who ordained an invincible championto be the minister of his heaven-sent vengeance (for our emperorrsquos surpassing piety delights in thetitle of Servant of God) and him he has proved victorious over all that opposed him having raisedhim up an individual against many foes For they were indeed numberless being the friends ofmany evil spirits (though in reality they were nothing and hence are now no more) but our emperoris one appointed by and the representative of the one Almighty Sovereign And they in the veryspirit of impiety destroyed the righteous with cruel slaughter but he in imitation of his Saviour

3528 For account of the various details of persecution mentioned compare the Church History

3529 ldquoἀλόγουrdquo

1122

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and knowing only how to save menrsquos lives has spared and instructed in godliness the impiousthemselves

13 And so as truly worthy the name of Victor he has subdued the twofold race of barbarianssoothing the savage tribes of men by prudent embassies compelling them to know and acknowledgetheir superiors and reclaiming them from a lawless and brutal life to the governance of reason andhumanity at the same time that he proved by the facts themselves that the fierce and ruthless raceof unseen spirits had long ago been vanquished by a higher power For he who is the preserver ofthe universe had punished these invisible spirits by an invisible judgment and our emperor as thedelegate of the Supreme Sovereign has followed up the victory bearing away the spoils of thosewho have long since died and mouldered into dust and distributing the plunder with lavish handamong the soldiers of his victorious Lord3530

Chapter VIII

1 For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain andchildish dread of these bugbears of error wrought in gold and silver he judged it right to removethese also like stumbling-stones thrown in the path of men walking in the dark and henceforwardto open a royal road plain and unobstructed to all

2 Having formed this resolution he considered that no soldiers or military force of any sortwas needed for the repression of the evil a few of his own friends sufficed for this service andthese he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province

3 Accordingly sustained by confidence in the emperorrsquos piety and their own personal devotionto God they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations abolishing this ancientsystem of error in every city and country They ordered the priests themselves in the midst ofgeneral laughter and scorn to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day Theythen stripped them of their ornaments and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality whichhad been hidden beneath a painted exterior and lastly whatever part of the material appeared tobe of value they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth after which they secured andset apart whatever they judged needful for their purposes leaving to the superstitious worshiperswhat was altogether useless as a memorial of their shame

4 Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to that we havedescribed For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped as we have said

3530 [That is stripping the images of those whose temples he destroyed and apportioning the spoils among his Christian

followers See the next chapter which is mostly a transcript of the 54th and 55th chapters of the Third Book of the Life of

ConstantinemdashBag]

1123

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

592

of their precious materials he also attacked those composed of brass causing those to be draggedfrom their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive whom the dotage of mythologyhad esteemed as gods The next care of our august emperor was to kindle as it were a brillianttorch by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around to see if any hidden vestiges oferror might yet exist

5 And as the keen-sighted eagle in its heavenward flight is able to descry from its lofty heightthe most distant objects on the earth so did he whilst residing in the imperial palace of his ownfair city discover as from a watch-tower a hidden and fatal snare of souls in the province ofPhœnicia This was a grove and temple not situated in the midst of any city or in any public placeas for splendor of effect is generally the case but apart from the beaten and frequented road onpart of the summit of Mount Lebanon and dedicated to the foul demon known by the name ofVenus

6 It was a school of wickedness for all the abandoned votaries of impurity and such as destroyedtheir bodies with effeminacy Here men undeserving the name forgot the dignity of their sex andpropitiated the demon by their effeminate conduct here too unlawful commerce of women andadulterous intercourse with other horrible and infamous practices were perpetrated in this templeas in a place beyond the scope and restraint of law

Meantime these evils remained unchecked by the presence of any observer since no one of faircharacter ventured to visit such scenes

7 These proceedings however could not escape the vigilance of our august emperor whohaving himself inspected them with characteristic forethought and judging that such a temple wasunfit for the light of heaven gave orders that the building with its offerings should be utterlydestroyed Accordingly in obedience to the imperial edict these engines of an impure superstitionwere immediately abolished and the hand of military force was made instrumental in purging theplace And now those who had heretofore lived without restraint learned through the imperialthreat of punishment to practice self-control

8 Thus did our emperor tear the mask from this system of delusive wickedness and expose itto the public gaze at the same time proclaiming openly his Saviourrsquos name to all No advocateappeared neither god nor demon prophet nor diviner could lend his aid to the detected authors ofthe imposture For the souls of men were no longer enveloped in thick darkness but enlightenedby the rays of true godliness they deplored the ignorance and pitied the blindness of their forefathersrejoicing at the same time in their own deliverance from such fatal error3531

9 Thus speedily according to the counsel of the mighty God and through our emperorrsquos agencywas every enemy whether visible or unseen utterly removed and henceforward peace the happynurse of youth extended her reign throughout the world Wars were no more for the gods werenot no more did warfare in country or town no more did the effusion of human blood distressmankind as heretofore when demon-worship and the madness of idolatry prevailed

3531 ldquoThe Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God I thank thee that I am not as the rest of menrdquo

1124

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter IX

1 And now we may well compare the present with former things and review these happychanges in contrast with the evils that are past and mark the elaborate care with which in ancienttimes porches and sacred precincts groves and temples were prepared in every city for these falsedeities and how their shrines were enriched with abundant offerings

2 The sovereign rulers of those days had indeed a high regard for the worship of the gods Thenations also and people subject to their power honored them with images both in the country andin every city nay even in their houses and secret chambers according to the religious practice oftheir fathers The fruit however of this devotion far different from the peaceful concord whichnow meets our view appeared in war in battles and seditions which harassed them throughouttheir lives and deluged their countries with blood and civil slaughter

3 Again the objects of their worship could hold out to these sovereigns with artful flattery thepromise of prophecies and oracles and the knowledge of futurity yet could they not predict theirown destruction nor forewarn themselves of the coming ruin and surely this was the greatest andmost convincing proof of their imposture

4 Not one of those whose words once were heard with awe and wonder had announced theglorious advent of the Saviour of mankind3532 or that new revelation of divine knowledge whichhe came to give Not Pythius himself nor any of those mighty gods could apprehend the prospectof their approaching desolation nor could their oracles point at him who was to be their conquerorand destroyer

5 What prophet or diviner could foretell that their rites would vanish at the presence of a newDeity in the world and that the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Sovereign should be freely

593

given to all mankind Which of them foreknew the august and pious reign of our victorious emperoror his triumphant conquests everywhere over the false demons or the overthrow of their highplaces

6 Which of the heroes has announced the melting down and conversion of the lifeless statuesfrom their useless forms to the necessary uses of men Which of the gods have yet had power tospeak of their own images thus melted and contemptuously reduced to fragments

7 Where were the protecting powers that they should not interpose to save their sacredmemorials thus destroyed by man Where I ask are those who once maintained the strife of waryet now behold their conquerors abiding securely in the profoundest peace And where are theywho upheld themselves in a blind and foolish confidence and trusted in these vanities as gods butwho in the very height of their superstitious error and while maintaining an implacable war withthe champions of the truth perished by a fate proportioned to their crimes

3532 He seems to disagree with the view of the heathen prophecy which his imperial hearer maintained in his Oration to the

Saints

1125

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Where is the giant race whose arms were turned against heaven itself the hissings of thoseserpents whose tongues were pointed with impious words against the Almighty King Theseadversaries of the Lord of all confident in the aid of a multitude of gods advanced to the attackwith a powerful array of military force preceded by certain images of the dead and lifeless statuesas their defense On the other side our emperor secure in the armor of godliness opposed to thenumbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving Sign as at the same time a terror to the foe anda protection against every harm and returned victorious at once over the enemy and the demonswhom they served3533 And then with thanksgiving and praise the tokens of a grateful spirit to theAuthor of his victory he proclaimed this triumphant Sign by monuments as well as words to allmankind erecting it as a mighty trophy against every enemy in the midst of the imperial city andexpressly enjoining on all to acknowledge this imperishable symbol of salvation as the safeguardof the power of Rome and of the empire of the world

9 Such were the instructions which he gave to his subjects generally but especially to hissoldiers whom he admonished to repose their confidence not in their weapons or armor or bodilystrength but to acknowledge the Supreme God as the giver of every good and of victory itself

10 Thus did the emperor himself strange and incredible as the fact may seem become theinstructor of his army in their religious exercises and teach them to offer pious prayers in accordancewith the divine ordinances uplifting their hands towards heaven and raising their mental visionhigher still to the King of heaven on whom they should call as the Author of victory their preserverguardian and helper He commanded too that one day should be regarded as a special occasionfor religious worship I mean that which is truly the first and chief of all the day of our Lord andSaviour that day the name of which is connected with light and life and immortality and everygood

11 Prescribing the same pious conduct to himself he honored his Saviour in the chambers ofhis palace performing his devotions according to the Divine commands and storing his mind withinstruction through the hearing of the sacred word The entire care of his household was intrustedto ministers devoted to the service of God and distinguished by gravity of life and every othervirtue while his trusty body-guards strong in affection and fidelity to his person found in theiremperor an instructor in the practice of a godly life

12 Again the honor with which he regards the victorious Sign is founded on his actualexperience of its divine efficacy Before this the hosts of his enemies have disappeared by this thepowers of the unseen spirits have been turned to flight through this the proud boastings of Godrsquosadversaries have come to nought and the tongues of the profane and blasphemous been put tosilence By this Sign the Barbarian tribes were vanquished through this the rites of superstitiousfraud received a just rebuke by this our emperor discharging as it were a sacred debt has performedthe crowning good of all by erecting triumphant memorials of its value in all parts of the world

3533 For details respecting the following enumeration compare the Life of Constantine of which this is a reacutesumeacute This sentence

and the preceding are taken almost word for word from ch 16 of Bk II

1126

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

raising temples and churches on a scale of royal costliness and commanding all to unite inconstructing the sacred houses of prayer

13 Accordingly these signal proofs of our emperorrsquos magnificence forthwith appeared in theprovinces and cities of the empire and soon shone conspicuously in every country convincingmemorials of the rebuke and overthrow of those impious tyrants who but a little while before hadmadly dared to fight against God and raging like savage dogs had vented on unconscious buildingsthat fury which they were unable to level against him had thrown to the ground and upturned thevery foundations of the houses of prayer causing them to present the appearance of a city capturedand abandoned to the enemy Such was the exhibition of that wicked spirit whereby they soughtas it were to assail God himself but soon experienced the result of their own madness and folly

594

But a little time elapsed when a single blast of the storm of Heavenrsquos displeasure swept them utterlyaway leaving neither kindred nor offspring nor memorial of their existence among men for allnumerous as they were disappeared as in a moment beneath the stroke of Divine vengeance

14 Such then was the fate which awaited these furious adversaries of God but he who armedwith the salutary Trophy had alone opposed them (nay rather not alone but aided by the presenceand the power of him who is the only Sovereign) has replaced the ruined edifices on a greaterscale and made the second far superior to the first For example besides erecting various churchesto the honor of God in the city which bears his name and adorning the Bithynian capital withanother on the greatest and most splendid scale he has distinguished the principal cities of the otherprovinces by structures of a similar kind

15 Above all he has selected two places in the eastern division of the empire the one inPalestine (since from thence the life-giving stream has flowed as from a fountain for the blessingof all nations) the other in that metropolis of the East which derives its name from that of Antiochusin which as the head of that portion of the empire he has consecrated to the service of God a churchof unparalleled size and beauty The entire building is encompassed by an enclosure of great extentwithin which the church itself rises to a vast elevation of an octagonal form surrounded by manychambers and courts on every side and decorated with ornaments of the richest kind3534

16 Such was his work here Again in the province of Palestine in that city which was oncethe seat of Hebrew sovereignty on the very site of the Lordrsquos sepulchre he has raised a church ofnoble dimensions and adorned a temple sacred to the salutary Cross with rich and lavishmagnificence honoring that everlasting monument and the trophies of the Saviourrsquos victory overthe power of death with a splendor which no language can describe

17 In the same country he discovered three places venerable as the localities of three sacredcaves and these also he adorned with costly structures paying a fitting tribute of reverence to thescene of the first manifestation of the Saviourrsquos presence while at the second cavern he hallowedthe remembrance of his final ascension from the mountain top and celebrated his mighty conflict

3534 Almost word for word from the Life Bk III ch 50

1127

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and the victory which crowned it at the third3535 All these places our emperor thus adorned in thehope of proclaiming the symbol of redemption to all mankind

18 that Cross which has indeed repaid his pious zeal through which his house and throne alikehave prospered his reign has been confirmed for a lengthened series of years and the rewards ofvirtue bestowed on his noble sons his kindred and their descendants

19 And surely it is a mighty evidence of the power of that God whom he serves that he hasheld the balances of justice with an equal hand and has apportioned to each party their due rewardWith regard to the destroyers of the houses of prayer the penalty of their impious conduct followedhard upon them forthwith were they swept away and left neither race nor house nor family behindOn the other hand he whose pious devotion to his Lord is conspicuous in his every act who raisesroyal temples to his honor and proclaims his name to his subjects by sacred offerings throughoutthe world he I say has deservedly experienced him to be the preserver and defender of his imperialhouse and race Thus clearly have the dealings of God been manifested and this through the sacredefficacy of the salutary Sign

Chapter X

1 Much might indeed be said of this salutary Sign by those who are skilled in the mysteriesof our Divine religion For it is in very truth the symbol of salvation wondrous to speak of morewondrous still to conceive the appearance of which on earth has thrown the fictions of all falsereligion from the beginning into the deepest shade has buried superstitious error in darkness andoblivion and has revealed to all that spiritual light which enlightens the souls of men even theknowledge of the only true God

2 Hence the universal change for the better which leads men to spurn their lifeless idols totrample under foot the lawless rites of their demon deities and laugh to scorn the time-honoredfollies of their fathers Hence too the establishment in every place of those schools of sacredlearning wherein men are taught the precepts of saving truth and dread no more those objects ofcreation which are seen by the natural eye nor direct a gaze of wonder at the sun the moon orstars but acknowledge him who is above all these that invisible Being who is the Creator of themall and learn to worship him alone

3 Such are the blessings resulting to mankind from this great and wondrous Sign by virtue ofwhich the evils which once existed are now no more and virtues heretofore unknown shineeverywhere resplendent with the light of true godliness

3535 [In the Life of Constantine (vide [Bk III ch 41] supra) Eusebius mentions two caves only and speaks of the churches

built by Helena at Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives He here alludes to the magnificent church erected by Constantine at

the Lordrsquos sepulchre and ascribes to him those of Helena also as having been raised at the emperorrsquos expense Valesius ad

locmdashBag]

1128

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

595

4 Discourses and precepts and exhortations to a virtuous and holy life are proclaimed in theears of all nations Nay the emperor himself proclaims them and it is indeed a marvel that thismighty prince raising his voice in the hearing of all the world like an interpreter of the AlmightySovereignrsquos will invites his subjects in every country to the knowledge of the true God

5 No more as in former times is the babbling of impious men heard in the imperial palacebut priests and pious worshipers of God together celebrate his majesty with royal hymns of praiseThe name of the one Supreme Ruler of the universe is proclaimed to all the gospel of glad tidingsconnects the human race with its Almighty King declaring the grace and love of the heavenlyFather to his children on the earth

6 His praise is everywhere sung in triumphant strains the voice of mortal man is blended withthe harmony of the angelic choirs in heaven and the reasoning soul employs the body which investsit as an instrument for sounding forth a fitting tribute of praise and adoration to his name Thenations of the East and the West are instructed at the same moment in his precepts the people ofthe Northern and Southern regions unite with one accord under the influence of the same principlesand laws in the pursuit of a godly life in praising the one Supreme God in acknowledging hisonly begotten Son their Saviour as the source of every blessing and our emperor as the one ruleron the earth together with his pious sons

7 He himself as a skillful pilot sits on high at the helm of state and directs the vessel withunerring course conducting his people as it were with favoring breeze to a secure and tranquilhaven Meanwhile God himself the great Sovereign extends the right hand of his power fromabove for his protection giving him victory over every foe and establishing his empire by alengthened period of years and he will bestow on him yet higher blessings and confirm in everydeed the truth of his own promises But on these we may not at present dwell but must await thechange to a better world for it is not given to mortal eyes or ears of flesh fully to apprehend thethings of God3536

Chapter XI

1 And now victorious and mighty Constantine in this discourse whose noble argument is theglory of the Almighty King let me lay before thee some of the mysteries of his sacred truth notas presuming to instruct thee who art thyself taught of God nor to disclose to thee those secretwonders which he himself not through the agency of man but through our common Saviour andthe frequent light of his Divine presence has long since revealed and unfolded to thy view but inthe hope of leading the unlearned to the light and displaying before those who know them not thecauses and motives of thy pious deeds

3536 At this point according to some (compare Special Prolegomena) one oration ends and another begins

1129

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 True it is that thy noble efforts for the daily worship and honor of the Supreme God throughoutthe habitable world are the theme of universal praise But those records of gratitude to thy Saviourand Preserver which thou hast dedicated in our own province of Palestine and in that city fromwhich as from a fountain-head the Saviour Word3537 has issued forth to all mankind and again thehallowed edifices and consecrated temples which thou hast raised as trophies of his victory overdeath and those lofty and noble structures imperial monuments of an imperial spirit which thouhast erected in honor of the everlasting memory of the Saviourrsquos tomb the cause I say of thesethings is not equally obvious to all

3 Those indeed who are enlightened in heavenly knowledge by the power of the Divine Spiritwell understand the cause and justly admire and bless thee for that counsel and resolution whichHeaven itself inspired On the other hand the ignorant and spiritually blind regard these designswith open mockery and scorn and deem it a strange and unworthy thing indeed that so mighty aprince should waste his zeal on the graves and monuments of the dead

4 ldquoWere it not betterrdquo such a one might say ldquoto cherish those rites which are hallowed byancient usage to seek the favor of those gods and heroes whose worship is observed in everyprovince instead of rejecting and disclaiming them because subject to the calamities incident toman Surely they may claim equal honors with him who himself has suffered or if they are to berejected as not exempt from the sorrows of humanity the same award would justly be pronouncedrespecting himrdquo Thus with important and contracted brow might he give utterance in pompouslanguage to his self-imagined wisdom

5 Filled with compassion for this ignorance the gracious Word of our most beneficent Fatherfreely invites not such a one alone but all who are in the path of error to receive instruction inDivine knowledge and has ordained the means of such instruction throughout the world in everycountry and village in cultivated and desert lands alike and in every city and as a gracious Saviourand Physician of the soul calls on the Greek and the Barbarian the wise and the unlearned the

596

rich and the poor the servant and his master the subject and his lord the ungodly the profane theignorant the evil-doer the blasphemer alike to draw near and hasten to receive his heavenly cureAnd thus in time past had he clearly announced to all the pardon of former transgressions sayingldquoCome unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you restrdquo3538 And again ldquoIam not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentancerdquo3539 And he adds the reason saying

3537 Here the author seems to speak doubly of the Word and the word

3538 Matt xi 28

3539 Matt xi 13 RV ldquoFor I came not to call the righteous but sinnersrdquo The text here has the reading εισμετανοιαν omitted

by Tischendorf and the revisers with א B etc but supported by CEGKL sab cop etc It is worth noting that it is not in the

Sinaitic and if this text reading is correct it would nearly overthrow the possibility that this ms was one of those prepared under

the direction of Eusebius

1130

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ldquoFor they that are whole need not a physician but they that are sickrdquo3540 And again ldquoI desire notthe death of a sinner but rather that he should repentrdquo3541

6 Hence it is only for those who are themselves instructed in Divine things and understand themotives of that zeal of which these works are the result to appreciate the more than human impulseby which our emperor was guided to admire his piety toward God and to believe his care for thememorial of our Saviourrsquos resurrection to be a desire imparted from above and truly inspired bythat Sovereign to be whose faithful servant and minister for good is his proudest boast

7 In full persuasion then of thy approval most mighty emperor I desire at this present timeto proclaim to all the reasons and motives of thy pious works I desire to stand as the interpreter ofthy designs to explain the counsels of a soul devoted to the love of God I propose to teach all menwhat all should know who care to understand the principles on which our Saviour God employshis power the reasons for which he who was the pre-existent Controller of all things at lengthdescended to us from heaven the reasons for which he assumed our nature and submitted even tothe power of death I shall declare the causes of that immortal life which followed and of hisresurrection from the dead Once more I shall adduce convincing proofs and arguments for thesake of those who yet need such testimony

8 and now let me commence my appointed taskThose who transfer the worship due to that God who formed and rules the world to the works

of his hand who hold the sun and moon or other parts of this material system nay the elementsthemselves earth water air and fire in equal honor with the Creator of them all who give thename of gods to things which never would have had existence or even name except as obedientto that Word of God who made the world such persons in my judgment resemble those whooverlook the master hand which gives its magnificence to a royal palace and while lost in wonderat its roofs and walls the paintings of varied beauty and coloring which adorn them and its gildedceilings and sculptures ascribe to them the praise of that skill which belongs to the artist whosework they are whereas they should assign the cause of their wonder not to these visible objectsbut to the architect himself and confess that the proofs of skill are indeed manifest but that healone is the possessor of that skill who has made them what they are

9 Again well might we liken those to children who should admire the seven-stringed lyreand disregard him who invented or has power to use it or those who forget the valiant warrior andadorn his spear and shield with the chaplet of victory or lastly those who hold the squares andstreets the public buildings temples and gymnasia of a great and royal city in equal honor withits founder forgetting that their admiration is due not to lifeless stones but to him whose wisdomplanned and executed these mighty works

3540 Matt xi 12

3541 Ezek xviii 23 RV ldquoHave I any pleasure in the death of the wicked saith the Lord God and not rather that he should

return from his way and liverdquo

1131

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

10 Not less absurd is it for those who regard this universe with the natural eye to ascribe itsorigin to the sun or moon or any other heavenly body Rather let them confess that these arethemselves the works of a higher wisdom remember the Maker and Framer of them all and renderto him the praise and honor above all created objects Nay rather inspired by the sight of these veryobjects let them address themselves with full purpose of heart to glorify and worship him who isnow invisible to mortal eye but perceived by the clear and unclouded vision of the soul thesupremely sovereign Word of God To take the instance of the human body no one has yet conferredthe attribute of wisdom on the eyes or head the hands or feet or other members far less on theoutward clothing of a wise and learned man no one terms the philosopherrsquos household furnitureand utensils wise but every rational person admires that invisible and secret power the mind ofthe man himself

11 How much more then is our admiration due not to the visible mechanism of the universematerial as it is and formed of the selfsame elements but to that invisible Word who has mouldedand arranged it all who is the only-begotten Son of God and whom the Maker of all things whofar transcends all being has begotten of himself and appointed Lord and Governor of this universe

12 For since it was impossible that perishable bodies or the rational spirits which he had

597

created should approach the Supreme God by reason of their immeasurable distance from hisperfections for he is unbegotten above and beyond all creation ineffable inaccessibleunapproachable dwelling as his holy word assures us3542 in the light which none can enter butthey were created from nothing and are infinitely far removed from his unbegotten Essence wellhas the all-gracious and Almighty God interposed as it were an intermediate Power3543 betweenhimself and them even the Divine omnipotence of his only-begotten Word And this Power whichis in perfect nearness and intimacy of union with the Father which abides in him and shares hissecret counsels has yet condescended in fullness of grace as it were to conform itself to thosewho are so far removed from the supreme majesty of God How else consistently with his ownholiness could he who is far above and beyond all things unite himself to corruptible and corporealmatter Accordingly the Divine Word thus connecting himself with this universe and receiving

3542 1 Tim vi 16

3543 [This whole passage (which is defended by Valesius) appears if rigidly interpreted to lie under suspicion of a tinge of

ArianismmdashBag] It savors directly of Philo His doctrine was of an ineffable God above and separate from matter and defiled

by any contact with it To bring him into connection with created things he introduced intermediate beings or ldquopowersrdquo the

universal power including all the rest being the Logos Compare brief account in Zellerrsquos Outlines of Greek Philosophy p

320ndash325 Siegfried Philo von Alexandria (Jena 1875) especially p 199 sq 219 sq and p 362ndash364 where he treats very

inadequately of Eusebiusrsquo dependence on Philo also works of Philo and Eusebiusrsquo Praeligp and Demonst Ev There is a chance

of viewing the Word thus as created but if this is guarded against (as it is by him in the use of ldquobegottenrdquo) there is nothing

intrinsically heterodox in making the Word the Creator of the world and only Revealer of the Father The direct Philonian

influence is seen in the phraseology of the following sentences

1132

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

into his hands the reins as it were of the world turns and directs it as a skillful charioteer accordingto his own will and pleasure

13 The proof of these assertions is evident For supposing that those component parts of theworld which we call elements as earth water air and fire the nature of which is manifestly withoutintelligence are self-existent and if they have one common essence which they who are skilledin natural science call the great receptacle mother and nurse of all things and if this itself be utterlydevoid of shape and figure of soul and reason whence shall we say it has obtained its present formand beauty To what shall we ascribe the distinction of the elements or the union of things contraryin their very nature Who has commanded the liquid water to sustain the heavy element of earthWho has turned back the waters from their downward course and carried them aloft in cloudsWho has bound the force of fire and caused it to lie latent in wood and to combine with substancesmost contrary to itself Who has mingled the cold air with heat and thus reconciled the enmity ofopposing principles Who has devised the continuous succession of the human race and given itas it were an endless term of duration Who has moulded the male and female form adapted theirmutual relations with perfect harmony and given one common principle of production to everyliving creature Who changes the character of the fluid and corruptible seed which in itself is voidof reason and gives it its prolific power Who is at this moment working these and ten thousandeffects more wonderful than these nay surpassing all wonder and with invisible influence is dailyand hourly perpetuating the production of them all

14 Surely the wonder-working and truly omnipotent Word of God may well be deemed theefficient cause of all these things that Word who diffusing himself through all creation pervadingheight and depth with incorporeal energy and embracing the length and breadth of the universewithin his mighty grasp has compacted and reduced to order this entire system from whoseunreasoned and formless matter he has framed for himself an instrument of perfect harmony thenicely balanced chords and notes of which he touches with all-wise and unerring skill He it is whogoverns the sun and moon and the other luminaries of heaven by inexplicable laws and directstheir motions for the service of the universal whole

15 It is this Word of God who has stooped to the earth on which we live and created themanifold species of animals and the fair varieties of the vegetable world It is this same Word whohas penetrated the recesses of the deep has given their being to the finny race and produced thecountless forms of life which there exist It is he who fashions the burden of the womb and informsit in naturersquos laboratory with the principle of life By him the fluid and heavy moisture is raised onhigh and then sweetened by a purifying change descends in measured quantities to the earth andat stated seasons in more profuse supply

16 Like a skillful husbandman he fully irrigates the land tempers the moist and dry in justproportion diversifying the whole with brilliant flowers with aspects of varied beauty with pleasantfragrance with alternating varieties of fruits and countless gratifications for the taste of men Butwhy do I dare essay a hopeless task to recount the mighty works of the Word of God and describean energy which surpasses mortal thought By some indeed he has been termed the Nature of the

1133

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

universe by others the World-Soul by others Fate Others again have declared him to be the mostHigh God himself strangely confounding things most widely different bringing down to this earthuniting to a corruptible and material body and assigning to that supreme and unbegotten Power

598

who is Lord of all an intermediate place between irrational animals and rational mortals on the onehand and immortal beings on the other3544

Chapter XII

1 On the other hand the sacred doctrine teaches that he who is the supreme Source of goodand Cause of all things is beyond all comprehension and therefore inexpressible by word orspeech or name surpassing the power not of language only but of thought itself Uncirc*mscribedby place or body neither in heaven nor in ethereal space nor in any other part of the universebut entirely independent of all things else he pervades the depths of unexplored and secret wisdomThe sacred oracles teach us to acknowledge him as the only true God3545 apart from all corporealessence distinct from all subordinate ministration Hence it is said that all things are from him butnot through him3546

2 And he himself dwelling as Sovereign in secret and undiscovered regions of unapproachablelight ordains and disposes all things by the single power of his own will At his will whatever isexists without that will it cannot be And his will is in every case for good since he is essentiallyGoodness itself But he through whom are all things even God the Word proceeding in an ineffable

3544 [Of this somewhat obscure passage a translator can do no more than give as nearly as possible a literal version The

intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that the author here and in the following chapter has trodden on very dangerous

groundmdashBag] Compare above notes on the relations of Eusebius and Philo

3545 [Referring apparently to John xvii 3 ldquoAnd this is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus

Christ whom thou hast sentrdquo a passage which has been called a stronghold of the impugners of the Deity of Christ but which

simply considered with its context cannot fairly be understood to indicate any inferiority of the Son to the Father but rather

appears to speak of the mission of the former as the manifestation of the grace of him who is called ldquothe only true Godrdquo in

contradistinction to the polytheism of the heathen world In other words the knowledge of ldquothe only true Godrdquo in connection

with that of ldquoJesus Christ whom he has sentrdquo constitutes ldquoeternal liferdquo the one being ineffectual and indeed impossible without

the othermdashBag] Compare 1 John v 20ndash21 ldquoThat we know him that is true and we are in him that is true even in his Son Jesus

Christ This is the true God and eternal liferdquo which seems to show that John had no idea of any subordination in essence in this

matter

3546 [But see for a refutation of this statement Rom xi 36 and Heb ii 10mdashBag] Yet the second of these references clearly

refers to the Son Eusebius speaking of God the Father has in mind the truth that all things were made by the Son ldquoand without

him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo John i 3

1134

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

manner from the Father above as from an everlasting and exhaustless fountain flows onward likea river with a full and abundant stream of power for the preservation of the universal whole

3 And now let us select an illustration from our own experience The invisible and undiscoveredmind within us the essential nature of which no one has ever known sits as a monarch in theseclusion of his secret chambers and alone resolves on our course of action From this proceedsthe only-begotten word from its fatherrsquos bosom begotten in a manner and by a power inexplicableto us and is the first messenger of its fatherrsquos thoughts declares his secret counsels and conveyingitself to the ears of others accomplishes his designs

4 And thus the advantage of this faculty is enjoyed by all yet no one has ever yet beheld thatinvisible and hidden mind which is the parent of the word itself3547 In the same manner or ratherin a manner which far surpasses all likeness or comparison the perfect Word of the Supreme Godas the only-begotten Son of the Father (not consisting in the power of utterance nor comprehendedin syllables and parts of speech nor conveyed by a voice which vibrates on the air but being himselfthe living and effectual Word of the most High and subsisting personally as the Power and Wisdomof God)3548 proceeds from his Fatherrsquos Deity and kingdom3549 Thus being the perfect Offspringof a perfect Father and the common Preserver of all things he diffuses himself with living powerthroughout creation and pours from his own fullness abundant supplies of reason3550 wisdom lightand every other blessing not only on objects nearest to himself but on those most remote whetherin earth or sea or any other sphere of being

5 To all these he appoints with perfect equity their limits places laws and inheritance allottingto each their suited portion according to his sovereign will To some he assigns the super-terrestrialregions to others heaven itself as their habitation others he places in ethereal space others in airand others still on earth He it is who transfers mankind from hence to another sphere impartiallyreviews their conduct here and bestows a recompense according to the life and habits of each Byhim provision is made for the life and food not of rational creatures only but also of the brutecreation for the service of men

6 and while to the latter he grants the enjoyment of a perishable and fleeting term of existencethe former he invites to a share in the possession of immortal life Thus universal is the agency ofthe Word of God everywhere present and pervading all things by the power of his intelligence

3547 The author is now speaking especially of the spoken or ldquoexpressedrdquo word

3548 Compare 1 Cor i 24

3549 This conception that the Divine Word stands in something the same relation with the Father that the human word (internal

and external) does to the human spirit has at least an interesting suggestion towards the unraveling of this curious mystery

which for lack of a better word it is the fashion just now to call a human personality and which certainly is made in the image

and likeness of God Unless there lurks in the idea some subtle heresy one may venture to accept as an interesting analogy this

relation of invisible self self expressed to self (internal word) self revealed (external word) and an expression carried to the

point of embodiment (incarnation)

3550 ldquoLogosrdquo againmdashhere the internal word

1135

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he looks upward to his Father and governs this lower creation inferior to and consequent uponhimself in accordance with his will as the common Preserver of all things

599

7 Intermediate as it were and attracting the created to the uncreated Essence this Word ofGod exists as an unbroken bond between the two uniting things most widely different by aninseparable tie He is the Providence which rules the universe the guardian and director of thewhole he is the Power and Wisdom of God the only-begotten God the Word begotten of Godhimself For ldquoIn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was GodAll things were made by him and without him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo as welearn from the words of the sacred writer3551 Through his vivifying power all nature grows andflourishes refreshed by his continual showers and invested with a vigor and beauty ever new

8 Guiding the reigns of the universe he holds its onward course in conformity to the Fatherrsquoswill and moves as it were the helm of this mighty ship This glorious Agent the only-begottenSon of the Supreme God begotten by the Father as his perfect Offspring the Father has given tothis world as the highest of all goods infusing his word as spirit into a lifeless body into unconsciousnature imparting light and energy to that which in itself was a rude inanimate and formless massthrough the Divine power Him therefore it is ours to acknowledge and regard as everywherepresent and giving life to matter and the elements of nature3552 in him we see Light even thespiritual offspring of inexpressible Light one indeed in essence as being the Son of one Fatherbut possessing in himself many and varied powers

9 The world is indeed divided into many parts yet let us not therefore suppose that there aremany independent Agents nor though creationrsquos works be manifold let us thence assume theexistence of many gods How grievous the error of those childish and infatuated advocates ofpolytheistic worship who deify the constituent parts of the universe and divide into many thatsystem which is only one

10 Such conduct resembles theirs who should abstract the eyes of an individual man and termthem the man himself and the ears another man and so the head or again by an effort of thoughtshould separate the neck the breast and shoulders the feet and hands or other members nay thevery powers of sense and thus pronounce an individual to be a multitude of men Such folly mustsurely be rewarded with contempt by men of sense Yet such is he who from the component partsof a single world can devise for himself a multitude of gods or even deem that world which is thework of a Creator and consists of many parts to be itself a god3553 not knowing that the DivineNature can in no sense be divisible into parts since if compounded it must be so through the

3551 John i 1ndash3

3552 One on the scent for heresy might prick up his ears and sound the alarm of ldquoGnosticismrdquo

3553 A curious work just issued (anonymous) under the authority of the Bureau of Education very complacently evolves the

truth of existence out of the authorrsquos pure untrammeled consciousnessmdashfor he has never read any works either on science or

on theologymdashand arrives at the condescending conclusion that there is a God or rather in the words of Eusebius the author

comes to ldquodeem that worldhellipto be itself Godrdquo

1136

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

agency of another power and that which is so compounded can never be Divine How indeed couldit be so if composed of unequal and dissimilar and hence of worse and better elements Simpleindivisible uncompounded the Divine Nature exists at an infinite elevation above the visibleconstitution of this world

11 And hence we are assured by the clear testimony of the sacred Herald3554 that the Word ofGod who is before all things must be the sole Preserver of all intelligent beings while God whois above all and the Author of the generation of the Word being himself the Cause of all thingsis rightly called the Father of the Word as of his only-begotten Son himself acknowledging nosuperior Cause God therefore himself is One and from him proceeds the one only-begotten Wordthe omnipresent Preserver of all things And as the many-stringed lyre is composed of differentchords both sharp and flat some slightly others tensely strained and others intermediate betweenthe two extremes yet all attuned according to the rules of harmonic art even so this material worldcompounded as it is of many elements containing opposite and antagonist principles as moistureand dryness cold and heat yet blended into one harmonious whole may justly be termed a mightyinstrument framed by the hand of God an instrument on which the Divine Word himself notcomposed of parts or opposing principles but indivisible and uncompounded performs with perfectskill and produces a melody at once accordant with the will of his Father the Supreme Lord of alland glorious to himself Again as there are manifold external and internal parts and memberscomprised in a single body yet one invisible soul one undivided and incorporeal mind pervadesthe whole so is it in this creation which consisting of many parts yet is but one and so the Onemighty yea Almighty Word of God pervading all things and diffusing himself with undeviatingenergy throughout this universe is the Cause of all things that exist therein

12 Survey the compass of this visible world Seest thou not how the same heaven contains

600

within itself the countless courses and companies of the stars Again the sun is one and yet eclipsesmany nay all other luminaries by the surpassing glory of his rays Even so as the Father himselfis One his Word is also One the perfect Son of that perfect Father Should any one object becausethey are not more as well might he complain that there are not many suns or moons or worldsand a thousand things beside like the madman who would fain subvert the fair and perfect courseof Nature herself As in the visible so also in the spiritual world in the one the same sun diffuseshis light throughout this material earth in the other the One Almighty Word of God illumines allthings with invisible and secret power

13 Again there is in man one spirit and one faculty of reason which yet is the active causeof numberless effects The same mind instructed in many things will essay to cultivate the earthto build and guide a ship and construct houses nay the one mind and reason of man is capable ofacquiring knowledge in a thousand forms the same mind shall understand geometry and astronomyand discourse on the rules of grammar and rhetoric and the healing art Nor will it excel in science

3554 [Referring (says Valesius) to St John whose words Eusebius had lately cited ldquoIn the beginning was the Wordrdquo ampc

and now explains paraphrastically The reader will decide for himself on the merits of the paraphrasemdashBag]

1137

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

only but in practice too and yet no one has ever supposed the existence of many minds in onehuman form nor expressed his wonder at a plurality of being in man because he is thus capableof varied knowledge

14 Suppose one were to find a shapeless mass of clay to mould it with his hands and give itthe form of a living creature the head in one figure the hands and feet in another the eyes andcheeks in a third and so to fashion the ears the mouth and nose the breast and shoulders accordingto the rules of the plastic art The result indeed is a variety of figure of parts and members in theone body yet must we not suppose it the work of many hands but ascribe it entirely to the skill ofa single artist and yield the tribute of our praise to him who by the energy of a single mind hasframed it all The same is true of the universe itself which is one though consisting of many partsyet surely we need not suppose many creative powers nor invent a plurality of gods Our duty isto adore the all-wise and all-perfect agency of him who is indeed the Power and the Wisdom ofGod whose undivided force and energy pervades and penetrates the universe creating and givinglife to all things and furnishing to all collectively and severally those manifold supplies of whichhe is himself the source

15 Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once gives lightto the eyes warmth to the touch fertility to the earth and growth to plants The same luminaryconstitutes the course of time governs the motions of the stars performs the circuit of the heavensimparts beauty to the earth and displays the power of God to all and all this he performs by thesole and unaided force of his own nature In like manner fire has the property of refining gold andfusing lead of dissolving wax of parching clay and consuming wood producing these variedeffects by one and the same burning power

16 So also the Supreme Word of God pervading all things everywhere existent everywherepresent in heaven and earth governs and directs the visible and invisible creation the sun theheaven and the universe itself with an energy inexplicable in its nature irresistible in its effectsFrom him as from an everlasting fountain the sun the moon and stars receive their light and heforever rules that heaven which he has framed as the fitting emblem of his own greatness Theangelic and spiritual powers the incorporeal and intelligent beings which exist beyond the sphereof heaven and earth are filled by him with light and life with wisdom and virtue with all that isgreat and good from his own peculiar treasures Once more with one and the same creative skillhe ceases not to furnish the elements with substance to regulate the union and combinations theforms and figures and the innumerable qualities of organized bodies preserving the varieddistinctions of animal and vegetable life of the rational and the brute creation and supplying allthings to all with equal power thus proving himself the Author not indeed of the seven-stringed

1138

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lyre3555 but of that system of perfect harmony which is the workmanship of the One world-creatingWord3556

Chapter XIII

1 And now let us proceed to explain the reasons for which this mighty Word of God descendedto dwell with men Our ignorant and foolish race incapable of comprehending him who is the Lordof heaven and earth proceeding from his Fatherrsquos Deity as from the supreme fountain ever presentthroughout the world and evincing by the clearest proofs his providential care for the interests ofman have ascribed the adorable title of Deity to the sun and moon the heaven and the stars ofheaven Nor did they stop here but deified the earth itself its products and the various substances

601

by which animal life is sustained and devised images of Ceres of Proserpine of Bacchus3557 andmany such as these

2 Nay they shrank not from giving the name of gods to the very conceptions of their ownminds and the speech by which those conceptions are expressed calling the mind itself Minervaand language Mercury3558 and affixing the names of Mnemosyne and the Muses to those facultiesby means of which science is acquired Nor was even this enough advancing still more rapidly inthe career of impiety and folly they deified their own evil passions which it behooved them toregard with aversion or restrain by the principles of self-control Their very lust and passion andimpure disease of soul the members of the body which tempt to obscenity and even the veryuncontrol3559 in shameful pleasure they described under the titles of Cupid Priapus Venus3560 andother kindred terms

3 Nor did they stop even here Degrading their thoughts of God to this corporeal and mortallife they deified their fellow-men conferring the names of gods and heroes on those who hadexperienced the common lot of all and vainly imagining that the Divine and imperishable Essencecould frequent the tombs and monuments of the dead Nay more than this they paid divine honorsto animals of various species and to the most noxious reptiles they felled trees and excavatedrocks they provided themselves with brass and iron and other metals of which they fashioned

3555 [In reference singularly enough to the illustration of the lyre in the preceding chaptermdashBag]

3556 It is idle to treat as philosophically or theologically unworthy of consideration a system of thought so definitely unified

and with such Scriptural basis as the above It may not be profound or original but is definite and clear

3557 ldquoOf Demeter of Cora of Dionysiusrdquo

3558 ldquoAthenehellipHermesrdquo

3559 The word used here ἀκρeuroτεια is the opposite of the famous philosophical word for self-controlmdashἐγκρeuroτεια

3560 ldquoEros Priapus Aphroditerdquo

1139

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

resemblances of the male and female human form of beasts and creeping things and these theymade the objects of their worship

4 Nor did this suffice To the evil spirits themselves which lurked within their statues or layconcealed in secret and dark recesses eager to drink their libations and inhale the odor of theirsacrifices they ascribed the same divine honors Once more they endeavored to secure the familiaraid of these spirits and the unseen powers which move through the tracts of air by charms offorbidden magic and the compulsion of unhallowed songs and incantations Again different nationshave adopted different persons as objects of their worship The Greeks have rendered to BacchusHercules AEligsculapius Apollo and others who were mortal men the titles of gods and heroes TheEgyptians have deified Horus and Isis Osiris and other mortals such as these And thus they whoboast of the wondrous skill whereby they have discovered geometry astronomy and the scienceof number know not wise as they are in their own conceit nor understand how to estimate themeasure of the power of God or calculate his exceeding greatness above the nature of irrationaland mortal beings

5 Hence they shrank not from applying the name of gods to the most hideous of the brutecreation to venomous reptiles and savage beasts The Phœnicians deified Melcatharus Usorus3561

and others mere mortals and with little claim to honor the Arabians Dusaris3562 and Obodas theGetaelig Zamolxis the Cicilians Mopsus and the Thebans Amphiaraus3563 in short each nation hasadopted its own peculiar deities differing in no respect from their fellow-mortals being simplyand truly men Again the Egyptians with one consent the Phœnicians the Greeks nay everynation beneath the sun have united in worshiping the very parts and elements of the world andeven the produce of the ground itself And which is most surprising though acknowledging theadulterous unnatural and licentious crimes of their deities they have not only filled every cityand village and district with temples shrines and statues in their honor but have followed theirevil example to the ruin of their own souls

6 We hear of gods and the sons of gods described by them as heroes and good genii titlesentirely opposed to truth honors utterly at variance with the qualifies they are intended to exalt Itis as if one who desired to point out the sun and the luminaries of heaven instead of directing hisgaze thitherward should grope with his hands on the ground and search for the celestial powersin the mud and mire Even so mankind deceived by their own folly and the craft of evil spiritshave believed that the Divine and spiritual Essence which is far above heaven and earth could becompatible with the birth the affections and death of mortal bodies here below To such a pitchof madness did they proceed as to sacrifice the dearest objects of their affection to their gods

3561 It is probably that ldquoMelkathrosrdquo and ldquoUsousrdquo referred to in the Praeligp Evang 1 10 (ed Gaisford Oxon 1843 1 p 77

and 84) The same passage may be found with English translation in Coryrsquos Ancient Fragments Lond 1832 p 6ndash7 13

3562 Dusaris was it is said equivalent to Bacchus

3563 All the above names excepting those specially noted may be found in Smith Dict of Greek and Roman Biog and Mythol

1140

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

regardless of all natural ties and urged by frenzied feeling to slay their only and best belovedchildren

7 For what can be a greater proof of madness than to offer human sacrifice to pollute everycity and even their own houses with kindred blood Do not the Greeks themselves attest this andis not all history filled with records of the same impiety The Phœnicians devoted their best belovedand only children as an annual sacrifice to Saturn The Rhodians on the sixth day of the month

602

Metageitnion3564 offered human victims to the same god At Salamis a man was pursued in thetemple of Minerva Agraulis and Diomede compelled to run thrice round the altar afterwardspierced with a lance by the priest and consumed as a burnt offering on the blazing pile In Egypthuman sacrifice was most abundant At Heliopolis three victims were daily offered to Juno forwhom king Amoses impressed with the atrocity of the practice commanded the substitution of anequal number of waxen figures In Chios and again in Tenedos a man was slain and offered up toOmadian Bacchus At Sparta they immolated human beings to Mars In Crete they did likewiseoffering human sacrifices to Saturn In Laodicea of Syria a virgin was yearly slain in honor ofMinerva for whom a hart is now the substitute The Libyans and Carthaginians appeased their godswith human victims The Dumateni of Arabia buried a boy annually beneath the altar Historyinforms us that the Greeks without exception the Thracians also and Scythians were accustomedto human sacrifice before they marched forth to battle The Athenians record the immolation of thevirgin children of Leus3565 and the daughter of Erechtheus3566 Who knows not that at this day ahuman victim is offered in Rome itself at the festival of Jupiter Latiaris

8 And these facts are confirmed by the testimony of the most approved philosophers Diodorusthe epitomizer of libraries3567 affirms that two hundred of the noblest youths were sacrificed toSaturn by the Libyan people and that three hundred more were voluntarily offered by their ownparents Dionysius the compiler of Roman history3568 expressly says that Jupiter and Apollodemanded human sacrifices of the so-called Aborigines in Italy He relates that on this demandthey offered a proportion of all their produce to the gods but that because of their refusal to slayhuman victims they became involved in manifold calamities from which they could obtain norelease until they had decimated themselves a sacrifice of life which proved the desolation of theircountry Such and so great were the evils which of old afflicted the whole human race

3564 Corresponding nearly to our August Key Calendarium in Smith Dict Gr and R Ant p 223

3565 [Leus is said to have offered his three daughters Phasithea Theope and Eubule the oracle at Delphi having declared

that the relief of the city from famine could only be effected by the shedding of the blood of his daughters by one of the

citizensmdashBag]

3566 [Alluding to the sacrifice of his daughter Chthonia by Erechtheus son of Pandion the Athenians having been promised

victory by the oracle over the Eleusinians and their Thracian allies on the condition of the death of a daughter of

ErechtheusmdashBag]

3567 Diodorus Siculus whose work is mentioned elsewhere (Praeligp Evang 1 6 ed Gaisford p 40) as a ldquohistorical libraryrdquo

3568 Dionysius of Halicarnassus

1141

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

9 Nor was this the full extent of their misery they groaned beneath the pressure of other evilsequally numerous and irremediable All nations whether civilized or barbarous throughout theworld as if actuated by a demoniac frenzy were infected with sedition as with some fierce andterrible disease insomuch that the human family was irreconcilably divided against itself the greatsystem of society was distracted and torn asunder and in every corner of the earth men stoodopposed to each other and strove with fierce contention on questions of law and government

10 Nay more than this with passions aroused to fury they engaged in mutual conflicts sofrequent that their lives were passed as it were in uninterrupted warfare None could undertake ajourney except as prepared to encounter an enemy in the very country and villages the rusticsgirded on the sword provided themselves with armor rather than with the implements of rural laborand deemed it noble exploit to plunder and enslave any who belonged to a neighboring state

11 Nay more than this from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their owndeities they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life and wrought the ruin of body andsoul by licentiousness of every kind Not content with this they even overstepped the bounds whichnature had defined and together committed incredible and nameless crimes ldquomen with men (inthe words of the sacred writer) working un-seemliness and receiving in themselves that recompenseof their error which was duerdquo

12 Nor did they stop even here but perverted their natural thoughts of God and denied thatthe course of this world was directed by his providential care ascribing the existence and constitutionof all things to the blind operation of chance or the necessity of fate

13 Once more believing that soul and body were alike dissolved by death they led a brutishlife unworthy of the name careless of the nature or existence of the soul they dreaded not thetribunal of Divine justice expected no reward of virtue nor thought of chastisem*nt as the penaltyof an evil life

14 Hence it was that whole nations a prey to wickedness in all its forms were wasted by theeffects of their own brutality some living in the practice of most vile and lawless incest withmothers others with sisters and others again corrupting their own daughters Some were foundwho slew their confiding guests others who fed on human flesh some strangled and then feastedon their aged men others threw them alive to dogs The time would fail me were I to attempt todescribe the multifarious symptoms of the inveterate malady which had asserted its dominion overthe whole human race

15 Such and numberless others like these were the prevailing evils on account of which thegracious Word of God full of compassion for his human flock had long since by the ministry of

603

his prophets and earlier still as well as later by that of men distinguished by pious devotion toGod invited those thus desperately afflicted to their own cure and had by means of lawsexhortations and doctrines of every kind proclaimed to man the principles and elements of truegodliness But when for mankind distracted and torn as I have said not indeed by wolves andsavage beasts but by ruthless and soul-destroying spirits of evil human power no longer sufficedbut a help was needed superior to that of man then it was that the Word of God obedient to his

1142

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

all-gracious Fatherrsquos will at length himself appeared and most willingly made his abode amongstus

16 The causes of his advent I have already described induced by which he condescended tothe society of man not in his wonted form and manner for he is incorporeal and present everywherethroughout the world proving by his agency both in heaven and earth the greatness of his almightypower but in a character new and hitherto unknown Assuming a mortal body he deigned toassociate and converse with men desiring through the medium of their own likeness to save ourmortal race

Chapter XIV

1 And now let us explain the cause for which the incorporeal Word of God assumed this mortalbody as a medium of intercourse with man How indeed else than in human form could that Divineand impalpable that immaterial and invisible Essence manifest itself to those who sought for Godin created and earthly objects unable or unwilling otherwise to discern the Author and Maker ofall things

2 As a fitting means therefore of communication with mankind he assumed a mortal bodyas that with which they were themselves familiar for like it is proverbially said loves its like Tothose then whose affections were engaged by visible objects who looked for gods in statues andlifeless images who imagined the Deity to consist in material and corporeal substance nay whoconferred on men the title of divinity the Word of God presented himself in this form

3 Hence he procured for himself this body as a thrice-hallowed temple a sensible habitationof an intellectual power a noble and most holy form of far higher worth than any lifeless statueThe material and senseless image fashioned by base mechanic hands of brass or iron of gold orivory wood or stone may be a fitting abode for evil spirits but that Divine form wrought by thepower of heavenly wisdom was possessed of life and spiritual being a form animated by everyexcellence the dwelling-place of the Word of God a holy temple of the holy God

4 Thus the indwelling Word3569 conversed with and was known to men as kindred withthemselves yet yielded not to passions such as theirs nor owned as the natural soul subjection tothe body He parted not with aught of his intrinsic greatness nor changed his proper Deity For asthe all-pervading radiance of the sun receives no stain from contact with dead and impure bodiesmuch less can the incorporeal power of the Word of God be injured in its essential purity or partwith any of its greatness from spiritual contact with a human body

5 Thus I say did our common Saviour prove himself the benefactor and preserver of alldisplaying his wisdom through the instrumentality of his human nature even as a musician uses

3569 All these various conceptions of the Word are strictly Biblical (1) The Word the only revealer of the Father who otherwise

could not be known (2) The human body the temple of God (3) The indwelling Word

1143

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

the lyre to evince his skill The Grecian myth tells us that Orpheus had power to charm ferociousbeasts and tame their savage spirit by striking the chords of his instrument with a master handand this story is celebrated by the Greeks and generally believed that an unconscious instrumentcould subdue the untamed brute and draw the trees from their places in obedience to its melodiouspower But he who is the author of perfect harmony the all-wise Word of God desiring to applyevery remedy to the manifold diseases of the souls of men employed that human nature which isthe workmanship of his own wisdom as an instrument by the melodious strains of which he soothednot indeed the brute creation but savages endued with reason healing each furious temper eachfierce and angry passion of the soul both in civilized and barbarous nations by the remedial powerof his Divine doctrine Like a physician of perfect skill he met the diseases of their souls whosought for God in nature and in bodies by a fitting and kindred remedy and showed them God inhuman form

6 And then with no less care for the body than the soul he presented before the eyes of menwonders and signs as proofs of his Divine power at the same time instilling into their ears of fleshthe doctrines which he himself uttered with a corporeal tongue In short he performed all his worksthrough the medium of that body which he had assumed for the sake of those who else were incapableof apprehending his Divine nature

7 In all this he was the servant of his Fatherrsquos will himself remaining still the same as whenwith the Father unchanged in essence unimpaired in nature unfettered by the trammels of mortalflesh nor hindered by his abode in a human body from being elsewhere present3570

604

8 Nay at the very time of his intercourse with men he was pervading all things was with andin the Father and even then was caring for all things both in heaven and earth Nor was he precludedas we are from being present everywhere or from the continued exercise of his Divine power Hegave of his own to man but received nothing in return he imparted of his Divine power to mortalitybut derived no accession from mortality itself

9 Hence his human birth to him brought no defilement nor could his impassible Essence sufferat the dissolution of his mortal body For let us suppose a lyre to receive an accidental injury orits chord to be broken it does not follow that the performer on it suffers nor if a wise manrsquos bodyundergo punishment can we fairly assert that his wisdom or the soul within him are maimed orburned

10 Far less can we affirm that the inherent power of the Word sustained any detriment fromhis bodily passion any more than as in the instance we have already used the solar rays whichare shot from heaven to earth contract defilement though in contact with mire and pollution ofevery kind We may indeed assert that these things partake of the radiance of the light but notthat the light is contaminated or the sun defiled by this contact with other bodies

3570 This ought to relieve Eusebius from any charge of Arianism in this relation however ldquodangerousrdquo the ground he has

trodden on may be

1144

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

11 And indeed these things are themselves not contrary to nature but the Saviour the incorporealWord of God being Life and spiritual Light itself whatever he touches with Divine and incorporealpower must of necessity become endued with the intelligence of light and life Thus if he touch abody it becomes enlightened and sanctified is at once delivered from all disease infirmity andsuffering and that which before was lacking is supplied by a portion of his fullness

12 And such was the tenor of his life on earth now proving the sympathies of his human naturewith our own and now revealing himself as the Word of God wondrous and mighty in his worksas God foretelling the events of the far distant future declaring in every act by signs and wondersand supernatural powers that Word whose presence was so little known and finally by his Divineteaching inviting the souls of men to prepare for those mansions which are above the heavens

Chapter XV

1 What now remains but to account for those which are the crowning facts of all I mean hisdeath so far and widely known the manner of his passion and the mighty miracle of his resurrectionafter death and then to establish the truth of these events by the clearest testimonies

2 For the reasons detailed above he used the instrumentality of a mortal body as a figurebecoming his Divine majesty and like a mighty sovereign employed it as his interpreter in hisintercourse with men performing all things consistently with his own Divine power Supposingthen at the end of his sojourn among men he had by any other means suddenly withdrawn himselffrom their sight and secretly removing that interpreter of himself the form which he had assumedhad hastened to flee from death and afterwards by his own act had consigned his mortal body tocorruption and dissolution doubtless in such a case he would have been deemed a mere phantomby all Nor would he have acted in a manner worthy of himself had he who is Life the Word andthe Power of God abandoned this interpreter of himself to corruption and death

3 Nor again would his warfare with the spirits of evil have received its consummation byconflict with the power of death The place of his retirement must have remained unknown norwould his existence have been believed by those who had not seen him for themselves No proofwould have been given that he was superior to death nor would he have delivered mortality fromthe law of its natural infirmity His name had never been heard throughout the world nor could hehave inspired his disciples with contempt of death or encouraged those who embraced his doctrineto hope for the enjoyment of a future life with God Nor would he have fulfilled the assurances ofhis own promise nor have accomplished the predictions of the prophets concerning himself Norwould he have undergone the last conflict of all for this was to be the struggle with the power ofdeath

4 For all these reasons then and inasmuch as it was necessary that the mortal body which hadrendered such service to the Divine Word should meet with an end worthy its sacred occupant themanner of his death was ordained accordingly For since but two alternatives remained either to

1145

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

consign his body entirely to corruption and so to bring the scene of life to a dishonored close orelse to prove himself victorious over death and render mortality immortal by the act of Divinepower the former of these alternatives would have contravened his own promise For as it is notthe property of fire to cool nor of light to darken no more is it compatible with life to deprive oflife or with Divine intelligence to act in a manner contrary to reason For how would it be consistent

605

with reason that he who had promised life to others should permit his own body the form whichhe had chosen to perish beneath the power of corruption That he who had inspired his discipleswith hopes of immortality should yield this exponent of his Divine counsels to be destroyed bydeath

5 The second alternative was therefore needful I mean that he should assert his dominionover the power of death But how should this be a furtive and secret act or openly performed andin the sight of all So mighty an achievement had it remained unknown and unrevealed must havefailed of its effect as regards the interests of men whereas the same event if openly declared andunderstood would from its wondrous character redound to the common benefit of all With reasontherefore since it was needful to prove his body victorious over death and that not secretly butbefore the eyes of men he shrank not from the trial for this indeed would have argued fear and asense of inferiority to the power of death but maintained that conflict with the enemy which hasrendered mortality immortal a conflict undertaken for the life the immortality the salvation ofall

6 Suppose one desired to show us that a vessel could resist the force of fire how could hebetter prove the fact than by casting it into the furnace and thence withdrawing it entire andunconsumed Even thus the Word of God who is the source of life to all desiring to prove thetriumph of that body over death which he had assumed for manrsquos salvation and to make this bodypartake his own life and immortality pursued a course consistent with this object Leaving his bodyfor a little while3571 and delivering it up to death in proof of its mortal nature he soon redeemed itfrom death in vindication of that Divine power whereby he has manifested the immortality whichhe has promised to be utterly beyond the sphere of death

7 The reason of this is clear It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof ofthe certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive forrising superior to the fear of death It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue alife of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth more needful still for thosewho were destined to declare his name in all the world and to communicate to mankind thatknowledge of God which he had before ordained for all nations

8 For such the strongest conviction of a future life was necessary that they might be able withfearless and unshrinking zeal to maintain the conflict with Gentile and polytheistic error a conflictthe dangers of which they would never have been prepared to meet except as habituated to thecontempt of death Accordingly in arming his disciples against the power of this last enemy he

3571 [These words (as Valesius observes) need not be too rigidly interpretedmdashBag]

1146

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

delivered not his doctrines in mere verbal precepts nor attempted to prove the soulrsquos immortalityby persuasive and probable arguments but displayed to them in his own person a real victory overdeath

9 Such was the first and greatest reason of our Saviourrsquos conflict with the power of deathwhereby he proved to his disciples the nothingness of that which is the terror of all mankind andafforded a visible evidence of the reality of that life which he had promised presenting as it werea first-fruit of our common hope of future life and immortality in the presence of God

10 The second cause of his resurrection was that the Divine power might be manifested whichdwelt in his mortal body Mankind had heretofore conferred Divine honors on men who had yieldedto the power of death and had given the titles of gods and heroes to mortals like themselves Forthis reason therefore the Word of God evinced his gracious character and proved to man his ownsuperiority over death recalling his mortal body to a second life displaying an immortal triumphover death in the eyes of all and teaching them to acknowledge the Author of such a victory to bethe only true God even in death itself

11 I may allege yet a third cause of the Saviourrsquos death He was the victim offered to theSupreme Sovereign of the universe for the whole human race a victim consecrated for the need ofthe human race and for the overthrow of the errors of demon worship For as soon as the one holyand mighty sacrifice the sacred body of our Saviour had been slain for man to be as a ransom forall nations heretofore involved in the guilt of impious superstition thenceforward the power ofimpure and unholy spirits was utterly abolished and every earth-born and delusive error was atonce weakened and destroyed

12 Thus then this salutary victim taken from among themselves I mean the mortal body ofthe Word was offered on behalf of the common race of men This was that sacrifice delivered upto death of which the sacred oracles speak ldquoBehold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sinof the worldrdquo3572 And again as follows ldquoHe was led as a sheep to the slaughter and as a lambbefore the shearer is dumbrdquo They declare also the cause saying ldquoHe bears our sins and is painedfor us yet we accounted him to be in trouble and in suffering and in affliction But he was wounded

606

on account of our sins and bruised because of our iniquities the chastisem*nt of our peace wasupon him and by his bruises we were healed All we as sheep have gone astray every one hasgone astray in this way and the Lord gave him up for our sinsrdquo3573

13 Such were the causes which led to the offering of the human body of the Word of God Butforasmuch as he was the great high priest consecrated to the Supreme Lord and King and thereforemore than a victim the Word the Power and the Wisdom of God he soon recalled his body fromthe grasp of death presented it to his Father as the first-fruit of our common salvation and raised

3572 John i 29

3573 [Isaiah liii 4 5 6 7 Septuagint English translation p 728mdashBag] P 889 of the Bagster ed 1879 Though the first

reasons make one feel as if the author had been in danger of slighting the atoning work of the Word he here very clearly comes

up as usual to the Biblical position

1147

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

this trophy a proof at once of his victory over death and Satan and of the abolition of humansacrifices for the blessing of all mankind

Chapter XVI

1 And now the time is come for us to proceed to the demonstration of these things if indeedsuch truths require demonstration and if the aid of testimony be needful to confirm the certaintyof palpable facts Such testimony however shall be here given and let it be received with anattentive and gracious ear

2 Of old the nations of the earth the entire human race were variously distributed intoprovincial national and local governments3574 subject to kingdoms and principalities of manykinds The consequences of this variety were war and strife depopulation and captivity whichraged in country and city with unceasing fury Hence too the countless subjects of history adulteriesand rapes of women hence the woes of Troy and the ancient tragedies so known among all peoples

3 The origin of these may justly be ascribed to the delusion of polytheistic error But when thatinstrument of our redemption the thrice holy body of Christ which proved itself superior to allSatanic fraud and free from evil both in word and deed was raised at once for the abolition ofancient evils and in token of his victory over the powers of darkness the energy of these evil spiritswas at once destroyed The manifold forms of government the tyrannies and republics the siegeof cities and devastation of countries caused thereby were now no more and one God wasproclaimed to all mankind

4 At the same time one universal power the Roman empire arose and flourished while theenduring and implacable hatred of nation against nation was now removed and as the knowledgeof one God and one way of religion and salvation even the doctrine of Christ was made knownto all mankind so at the self-same period the entire dominion of the Roman empire being vestedin a single sovereign profound peace reigned throughout the world And thus by the expressappointment of the same God two roots of blessing the Roman empire and the doctrine of Christianpiety sprang up together for the benefit of men

5 For before this time the various countries of the world as Syria Asia Macedonia Egyptand Arabia had been severally subject to different rulers The Jewish people again had establishedtheir dominion in the land of Palestine And these nations in every village city and district actuatedby some insane spirit were engaged in incessant and murderous war and conflict But two mightypowers starting from the same point the Roman empire which henceforth was swayed by a singlesovereign and the Christian religion subdued and reconciled these contending elements

6 Our Saviourrsquos mighty power destroyed at once the many governments and the many godsof the powers of darkness and proclaimed to all men both rude and civilized to the extremities

3574 Eparchies ethnarchies and toparchies

1148

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

of the earth the sole sovereignty of God himself Meantime the Roman empire the causes ofmultiplied governments being thus removed effected an easy conquest of those which yet remainedits object being to unite all nations in one harmonious whole an object in great measure alreadysecured and destined to be still more perfectly attained even to the final conquest of the ends ofthe habitable world by means of the salutary doctrine and through the aid of that Divine powerwhich facilitates and smooths its way

7 And surely this must appear a wondrous fact to those who will examine the question in thelove of truth and desire not to cavil at these blessings3575 The falsehood of demon superstition wasconvicted the inveterate strife and mutual hatred of the nations was removed at the same time OneGod and the knowledge of that God were proclaimed to all one universal empire prevailed andthe whole human race subdued by the controlling power of peace and concord received one anotheras brethren and responded to the feelings of their common nature Hence as children of one Godand Father and owning true religion as their common mother they saluted and welcomed eachother with words of peace Thus the whole world appeared like one well-ordered and united family

607

each one might journey unhindered as far as and whithersoever he pleased men might securelytravel from West to East and from East to West as to their own native country in short the ancientoracles and predictions of the prophets were fulfilled more numerous than we can at present citeand those especially which speak as follows concerning the saving Word ldquoHe shall have dominionfrom sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earthrdquo And again ldquoIn his days shallrighteousness spring up and abundance of peacerdquo ldquoAnd they shall beat their swords intoplough-shares and their spears into sickles and nation shall not take up sword against nationneither shall they learn to war any morerdquo3576

8 These words predicted ages before in the Hebrew tongue have received in our own day avisible fulfillment by which the testimonies of the ancient oracles are clearly confirmed And nowif thou still desire more ample proof receive it not in words but from the facts themselves Openthe eyes of thine understanding expand the gates of thought pause awhile and consider inquireof thyself as though thou wert another and thus diligently examine the nature of the case Whatking or prince in any age of the world what philosopher legislator or prophet in civilized orbarbarous lands has attained so great a height of excellence I say not after death but while livingstill and full of mighty power as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of hisname Surely none save our only Saviour has done this when after his victory over death he spokethe word to his followers and fulfilled it by the event saying to them ldquoGo ye and make disciplesof all nations in my namerdquo3577 He it was who gave the distinct assurance that his gospel must be

3575 This is a fair appeal applicable to his present hearers It at least was true of Constantinersquos reign that it produced a state

of relative peace and prosperity

3576 [Psalm lxxi 7 8 Isaiah ii 4 SeptuagintmdashBag] Psalm lxxii English version

3577 Matt xxviii 19 There is an interesting various reading here where Eusebius with B as against Aleph adds something

but where B and others have ουν and D and others have νυν Eusebius has γουν

1149

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations and immediately verified his word forwithin a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine

9 How then will those who caviled at the commencement of my speech be able to reply tothis For surely the force of ocular testimony is superior to any verbal argument Who else thanhe with an invisible and yet potent hand has driven from human society like savage beasts thatever noxious and destructive tribe of evil spirits who of old had made all nations their prey and bythe motions of their images had practiced many a delusion among men Who else beside ourSaviour by the invocation of his name and by unfeigned prayer addressed through him to theSupreme God has given power to banish from the world the remnant of those wicked spirits tothose who with genuine and sincere obedience pursue the course of life and conduct which he hashimself prescribed Who else but our Saviour has taught his followers to offer those bloodless andreasonable sacrifices which are performed by prayer and the secret worship of God

10 Hence is it that throughout the habitable world altars are erected and churches dedicatedwherein these spiritual and rational sacrifices are offered as a sacred service by every nation to theOne Supreme God Once more who but he with invisible and secret power has suppressed andutterly abolished those bloody sacrifices which were offered with fire and smoke as well as thecruel and senseless immolation of human victims a fact which is attested by the heathen historiansthemselves For it was not till after the publication of the Saviourrsquos Divine doctrine about the timeof Hadrianrsquos reign that the practice of human sacrifice was universally abandoned

11 Such and so manifest are the proofs of our Saviourrsquos power and energy after death Whothen can be found of spirit so obdurate as to withhold his assent to the truth and refuse toacknowledge his life to be Divine Such deeds as I have described are done by the living not thedead and visible acts are to us as evidence of those which we cannot see It is as it were an eventof yesterday that an impious and godless race disturbed and confounded the peace of human societyand possessed mighty power But these as soon as life departed lay prostrate on the earth worthlessas dung breathless motionless bereft of speech and have left neither fame nor memorial behindFor such is the condition of the dead and he who no longer lives is nothing and how can he whois nothing be capable of any act But how shall his existence be called in question whose activepower and energy are greater than in those who are still alive And though he be invisible to thenatural eye yet the discerning faculty is not in outward sense We do not comprehend the rules ofart or the theories of science by bodily sensation nor has any eye yet discerned the mind of manFar less then the power of God and in such cases our judgment is formed from apparent results

12 Even thus are we bound to judge of our Saviourrsquos invisible power and decide by its manifesteffects whether we shall acknowledge the mighty operations which he is even now carrying on tobe the works of a living agent or whether they shall be ascribed to one who has no existence orlastly whether the inquiry be not absurd and inconsistent in itself For with what reason can we

608

assert the existence of one who is not Since all allow that that which has no existence is devoidof that power and energy and action for these are characteristics of the living but the contrary ischaracteristic of the dead

1150

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter XVII

1 And now the time is come for us to consider the works of our Saviour in our own age andto contemplate the living operations of the living God For how shall we describe these mightyworks save as living proofs of the power of a living agent who truly enjoys the life of God If anyone inquire the nature of these works let him now attend

2 But recently a class of persons impelled by furious zeal and backed by equal power andmilitary force evinced their enmity against God by destroying his churches and overthrowingfrom their foundations the buildings dedicated to his worship In short in every way they directedtheir attacks against the unseen God and assailed him with a thousand shafts of impious wordsBut he who is invisible avenged himself with an invisible hand

3 By the single fiat of his will his enemies were utterly destroyed they who a little while beforehad been flourishing in great prosperity exalted by their fellow men as worthy of divine honorand blessed with a continued period of power and glory3578 so long as they had maintained peaceand amity with him whom they afterwards opposed As soon however as they dared openly toresist his will and to set their gods in array against him whom we adore immediately accordingto the will and power of that God against whom their arms were raised they all received the judgmentdue to their audacious deeds Constrained to yield and flee before his power together theyacknowledged his Divine nature and hastened to reverse the measures which they had beforeessayed

4 Our Saviour therefore without delay erected trophies of this victory everywhere and oncemore adorned the world with holy temples and consecrated houses of prayer in every city andvillage nay throughout all countries and even in barbaric wilds ordaining the erection of churchesand sacred buildings to the honor of the Supreme God and Lord of all Hence it is that these hallowededifices are deemed worthy to bear his name and receive not their appellation from men but fromthe Lord himself from which circ*mstances they are called churches (or houses of the Lord)3579

5 And now let him who will stand forth and tell us who after so complete a desolation hasrestored these sacred buildings from foundation to roof Who when all hope appeared extinct hascaused them to rise on a nobler scale than heretofore And well may it claim our wonder that thisrenovation was not subsequent to the death of those adversaries of God but whilst the destroyersof these edifices were still alive so that the recantation of their evil deeds came in their own wordsand edicts3580 And this they did not in the sunshine of prosperity and ease (for then we mightsuppose that benevolence or clemency might be the cause) but at the very time that they weresuffering under the stroke of Divine vengeance

3578 [Referring to Diocletian and others of the persecuting emperorsmdashBag]

3579 [Κυριακῶν ἠξίωνται τῶν ἐπωνυμιῶν The German ldquoKircherdquo the Scotch ldquoKirkrdquo and the English ldquoChurchrdquo are said

probably enough to derive their origin from this Greek wordmdashBag]

3580 Compare literature on the edicts of toleration

1151

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

6 Who again has been able to retain in obedience to his heavenly precepts after so manysuccessive storms of persecution nay in the very crisis of danger so many persons throughout theworld devoted to philosophy and the service of God and those holy choirs of virgins who haddedicated themselves to a life of perpetual chastity and purity Who taught them cheerfully topersevere in the exercise of protracted fasting and to embrace a life of severe and consistentself-denial Who has persuaded multitudes of either sex to devote themselves to the study of sacredthings and prefer to bodily nutriment that intellectual food which is suited to the wants of a rationalsoul3581 Who has instructed barbarians and peasants yea feeble women slaves and children inshort unnumbered multitudes of all nations to live in the contempt of death persuaded of theimmortality of their souls conscious that human actions are observed by the unerring eye of justiceexpecting Godrsquos award to the righteous and the wicked and therefore true to the practice of a justand virtuous life For they could not otherwise have persevered in the course of godliness Surelythese are the acts which our Saviour and he alone even now performs

7 And now let us pass from these topics and endeavor by inquiries such as these that followto convince the objectorrsquos obdurate understanding Come forward then whoever thou art andspeak the words of reason utter not the thoughts of a senseless heart but those of an intelligentand enlightened mind speak I say after deep solemn converse with thyself Who of the sageswhose names have yet been known to fame has ever been fore-known and proclaimed from theremotest ages as our Saviour was by the prophetic oracles to the once divinely-favored Hebrew

609

nation But his very birth-place the period of his advent the manner of his life his miracles andwords and mighty acts were anticipated and recorded in the sacred volumes of these prophets

8 Again who so present an avenger of crimes against himself so that as the immediateconsequence of their impiety the entire Jewish people were scattered by an unseen power theirroyal seat utterly removed and their very temple with its holy things levelled with the groundWho like our Saviour has uttered predictions at once concerning that impious nation and theestablishment of his church throughout the world and has equally verified both by the eventRespecting the temple of these wicked men our Saviour said ldquoYour house is left unto youdesolaterdquo3582 and ldquoThere shall not be left one stone upon another in this place that shall not bethrown downrdquo3583 And again of his church he says ldquoI will build my church upon a rock and thegates of hell shall not prevail against itrdquo3584

9 How wondrous too must that power be deemed which summoned obscure and unletteredmen from their fisherrsquos trade and made them the legislators and instructors of the human race And

3581 [There is nothing which need surprise us in the praises of virginity monkery and asceticism in a writer of the fourth

century The intelligent Christian will surely shrink from the thought of ascribing with Eusebius these fruitful sources of

corruption to the Lord himselfmdashBag]

3582 Matt xxiii 38

3583 Matt xxiv 2mdashapparently a paraphrase from memory

3584 Matt xvi 18

1152

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

how clear a demonstration of his deity do we find in the promise so well performed that he wouldmake them fishers of men in the power and energy which he bestowed so that they composed andpublished writings of such authority that they were translated into every civilized and barbarouslanguage3585 were read and pondered by all nations and the doctrines contained in them accreditedas the oracles of God

10 How marvelous his predictions of the future and the testimony whereby his disciples wereforewarned that they should be brought before kings and rulers and should endure the severestpunishments not indeed as criminals but simply for their confession of his name Or who shalladequately describe the power with which he prepared them thus to suffer with a willing mind andenabled them strong in the armor of godliness to maintain a constancy of spirit indomitable in themidst of conflict

11 Or how shall we enough admire that steadfast firmness of soul which strengthened notmerely his immediate followers but their successors also even to our present age in the joyfulendurance of every infliction and every form of torture in proof of their devotion to the SupremeGod Again what monarch has prolonged his government through so vast a series of ages Whoelse has power to make war after death to triumph over every enemy to subjugate each barbarousand civilized nation and city and to subdue his adversaries with an invisible and secret hand

12 Lastly and chief of all what slanderous lip shall dare to question that universal peace towhich we have already referred established by his power throughout the world3586 For thus themutual concord and harmony of all nations coincided in point of time with the extension of ourSaviourrsquos doctrine and preaching in all the world a concurrence of events predicted in long agespast by the prophets of God The day itself would fail me gracious emperor should I attempt toexhibit in a single view those cogent proofs of our Saviourrsquos Divine power which even now arevisible in their effects for no human being in civilized or barbarous nations has ever yet exhibitedsuch power of Divine virtue as our Saviour

13 But why do I speak of men since of the beings whom all nations have deemed divine nonehas appeared on earth with power like to his If there has let the fact now be proved Come forwardye philosophers and tell us what god or hero has yet been known to fame who has delivered thedoctrines of eternal life and a heavenly kingdom as he has done who is our Saviour Who likehim has persuaded multitudes throughout the world to pursue the principles of Divine wisdom tofix their hope on heaven itself and look forward to the mansions there reserved for them that loveGod What god or hero in human form has ever held his course from the rising to the setting suna course co-extensive as it were with the solar light and irradiated mankind with the bright andglorious beams of his doctrine causing each nation of the earth to render united worship to the Onetrue God What god or hero yet as he has done has set aside all gods and heroes among civilized

3585 The Syriac Peschito and possibly the Curetonian the old Latin (Itala) probably both the Thebaic and Memphitic Coptic

versions at least had been made at this time

3586 [The peace which Christ at his birth bestowed on the Roman world (Valesius)mdashBag]

1153

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

or barbarous nations has ordained that divine honors should be withheld from all and claimedobedience to that command and then though singly conflicting with the power of all has utterlydestroyed the opposing hosts victorious over the gods and heroes of every age and causing himselfalone in every region of the habitable world to be acknowledged by all people as the only Son ofGod

14 Who else has commanded the nations inhabiting the continents and islands of this mightyglobe to assemble weekly on the Lordrsquos day and to observe it as a festival not indeed for thepampering of the body but for the invigoration of the soul by instruction in Divine truth What

610

god or hero exposed as our Saviour was to so sore a conflict has raised the trophy of victory overevery foe For they indeed from first to last unceasingly assailed his doctrine and his people buthe who is invisible by the exercise of a secret power has raised his servants and the sacred housesof their worship to the height of glory

But why should we still vainly aim at detailing those Divine proofs of our Saviourrsquos powerwhich no language can worthily express which need indeed no words of ours but themselvesappeal in loudest tones to those whose mental ears are open to the truth Surely it is a strange awondrous fact unparalleled in the annals of human life that the blessings we have described shouldbe accorded to our mortal race and that he who is in truth the only the eternal Son of God shouldthus be visible on earth

Chapter XVIII

1 These words of ours however [gracious] Sovereign may well appear superfluous in yourears convinced as you are by frequent and personal experience of our Saviourrsquos Deity yourselfalso in actions still more than words a herald of the truth to all mankind Yourself it may be willvouchsafe at a time of leisure to relate to us the abundant manifestations which your Saviour hasaccorded you of his presence and the oft-repeated visions of himself which have attended you inthe hours of sleep I speak not of those secret suggestions which to us are unrevealed but of thoseprinciples which he has instilled into your own mind and which are fraught with general interestand benefit to the human race You will yourself relate in worthy terms the visible protection whichyour Divine shield and guardian has extended in the hour of battle the ruin of your open and secretfoes and his ready aid in time of peril To him you will ascribe relief in the midst of perplexitydefence in solitude expedients in extremity foreknowledge of events yet future your forethoughtfor the general weal your power to investigate uncertain questions your conduct of most importantenterprises your administration of civil affairs3587 your military arrangements and correction ofabuses in all departments your ordinances respecting public right and lastly your legislation forthe common benefit of all You will it may be also detail to us those particulars of his favor which

3587 Literally ldquoYour political economiesrdquo

1154

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

are secret to us but known to you alone and treasured in your royal memory as in secret storehousesSuch doubtless are the reasons and such the convincing proofs of your Saviourrsquos power whichcaused you to raise that sacred edifice which presents to all believers and unbelievers alike atrophy of his victory over death a holy temple of the holy God to consecrate those noble andsplendid monuments of immortal life and his heavenly kingdom to offer memorials of our AlmightySaviourrsquos conquest which well become the imperial dignity of him by whom they are bestowedWith such memorials have you adorned that edifice which witnesses of eternal life thus as it werein imperial characters ascribing victory and triumph to the heavenly Word of God thus proclaimingto all nations with clear and unmistakable voice in deed and word your own devout and piousconfession of his name

1155

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (3)

2 I come then prepared to celebrate our emperorrsquos praises in a newer strain and though thenumber be infinite of those who desire to be my companions in my present task I am resolved toshun the common track of men3495 and to pursue that untrodden path which it is unlawful to enteron with unwashed feet Let those who admire a vulgar style abounding in puerile subtleties andwho court a pleasing and popular muse essay since pleasure is the object they have in view tocharm the ears of men by a narrative of merely human merits Those however who are initiatedinto the universal science3496 and have attained to Divine as well as human knowledge and accountthe choice of the latter as the real excellence will prefer those virtues of the emperor which Heavenitself approves and his pious actions to his merely human accomplishments and will leave toinferior encomiasts the task of celebrating his lesser merits

3 For since our emperor is gifted as well with that sacred wisdom which has immediate referenceto God as with the knowledge which concerns the interests of men let those who are competentto such a task describe his secular acquirements great and transcendent as they are and fraughtwith advantage to mankind (for all that characterizes the emperor is great and noble) yet stillinferior to his diviner qualifies to those who stand without the sacred precincts

4 Let those however who are within the sanctuary and have access to its inmost and untroddenrecesses close the doors against every profane ear and unfold as it were the secret mysteries ofour emperorrsquos character to the initiated alone And let those who have purified their ears in thestreams of piety and raised their thoughts on the soaring wing of the mind itself join the companywhich surrounds the Sovereign Lord of all and learn in silence the divine mysteries

5 Meanwhile let the sacred oracles given not by the spirit of divination (or rather let me sayof madness and folly) but by the inspiration of Divine truth3497 be our instructors in these mysteriesspeaking to us of sovereignty generally of him who is the Supreme Sovereign of all and the

582

heavenly array which surrounds the Lord of all of that exemplar of imperial power which is beforeus and that counterfeit coin and lastly of the consequences which result from both With theseoracles then to initiate us in the knowledge of the sacred rites let us essay as follows thecommencement of our divine mysteries

Chapter ImdashThe Oration

1 To-day is the festival of our great emperor and we his children rejoice therein feeling theinspiration of our sacred theme He who presides over our solemnity is the Great Sovereign himself

3495 Cf Hom Il 6 202 tr Bryant 6 263ndash4 ldquoshunning every haunt of human-kindrdquo

3496 Eusebius seems to use this phrase much as the modern phrases ldquoThe final philosophyrdquo ldquoThe science of sciencesrdquo ldquoThe

queen of sciencesrdquo when applied to theology

3497 ldquoDivine lightrdquo

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Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he I mean who is truly great of whom I affirm (nor will the sovereign who hears me be offendedbut will rather approve of this ascription of praise to God) that HE is above and beyond all createdthings the Highest the Greatest the most Mighty One whose throne is the arch of heaven andthe earth the footstool of his feet3498 His being none can worthily comprehend and the ineffablesplendor of the glory which surrounds him repels the gaze of every eye from his Divine majesty

2 His ministers are the heavenly hosts his armies the supernal powers who own allegiance tohim as their Master Lord and King The countless multitudes of angels the companies of archangelsthe chorus of holy spirits draw from and reflect his radiance as from the fountains of everlastinglight Yea every light and specially those divine and incorporeal intelligences whose place is beyondthe heavenly sphere celebrate this august Sovereign with lofty and sacred strains of praise Thevast expanse of heaven like an azure veil is interposed between those without and those whoinhabit his royal mansions while round this expanse the sun and moon with the rest of the heavenlyluminaries (like torch-bearers around the entrance of the imperial palace) perform in honor oftheir sovereign their appointed courses holding forth at the word of his command an ever-burninglight to those whose lot is cast in the darker regions without the pale of heaven

3 And surely when I remember that our own victorious emperor renders praises to this MightySovereign I do well to follow him knowing as I do that to him alone we owe that imperial powerunder which we live The pious Caeligsars instructed by their fatherrsquos wisdom acknowledge him asthe source of every blessing the soldiery the entire body of the people both in the country and inthe cities of the empire with the governors of the several provinces assembling together inaccordance with the precept of their great Saviour and Teacher worship him In short the wholefamily of mankind of every nation tribe and tongue both collectively and severally howeverdiverse their opinions on other subjects are unanimous in this one confession and in obedienceto the reason implanted in them and the spontaneous and uninstructed impulse of their own mindsunite in calling on the One and only God3499

4 Nay does not the universal frame of earth acknowledge him her Lord and declare by thevegetable and animal life which she produces her subjection to the will of a superior Power Therivers flowing with abundant stream and the perennial fountains springing from hidden andexhaustless depths ascribe to him the cause of their marvellous source The mighty waters of thesea enclosed in chambers of unfathomable depth and the swelling surges which lift themselveson high and menace as it were the earth itself shrink back when they approach the shore checkedby the power of his Divine law The duly measured fall of winterrsquos rain the rolling thunder the

3498 Paraphrased from Is lxvi 1

3499 [We must be content here (and probably in other passages of this Oration) to tolerate as rhetorical embellishment that

which regarded literally is in every sense palpably untruemdashBag] The intention of the passage is probably like that of those

who say now that there is no nation where in some form God is not worshiped

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Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lightningrsquos flash the eddying currents of the winds and the airy courses of the clouds all revealhis presence to those to whom his Person is invisible

5 The all-radiant sun who holds his constant career through the lapse of ages owns him Lordalone and obedient to his will dares not depart from his appointed path The inferior splendor ofthe moon alternately diminished and increased at stated periods is subject to his Divine commandThe beauteous mechanism of the heavens glittering with the hosts of stars moving in harmoniousorder and preserving the measure of each several orbit proclaims him the giver of all light yeaall the heavenly luminaries maintaining at his will and word a grand and perfect unity of motionpursue the track of their ethereal career and complete in the lapse of revolving ages their distantcourse The alternate recurrence of day and night the changing seasons the order and proportionof the universe all declare the manifold wisdom of [his boundless power] To him the unseenagencies which hold their course throughout the expanse of space render the due tribute of praiseTo him this terrestrial globe itself to him the heavens above and the choirs beyond the vault ofheaven give honor as to their mighty Sovereign the angelic hosts greet him with ineffable songsof Praise and the spirits which draw their being from incorporeal light adore him as their Creator

583

The everlasting ages which were before this heaven and earth with other periods beside theminfinite and antecedent to all visible creation acknowledge him the sole and supreme Sovereignand Lord

6 Lastly he who is in all before and after all3500 his only begotten pre-existent Word thegreat High Priest of the mighty God elder than all time and every age devoted to his Fatherrsquosglory first and alone makes intercession with him for the salvation of mankind3501 Supreme andpre-eminent Ruler of the universe he shares the glory of his Fatherrsquos kingdom for he is that Lightwhich transcendent above the universe encircles the Fatherrsquos Person interposing and dividingbetween the eternal and uncreated Essence and all derived existence that Light which streamingfrom on high proceeds from that Deity who knows not origin or end and illumines the super-celestialregions and all that heaven itself contains with the radiance of wisdom bright beyond the splendorof the sun This is he who holds a supreme dominion over this whole world3502 who is over and inall things and pervades all things3503 visible and invisible the Word of God From whom and by

3500 [Referring possibly to Rev i 8 ldquoI am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the ending saith the Lord which is and

which was and which is to come the AlmightyrdquomdashBag] Or possibly refers to Eph iv 6 as it seems to be simply some verbal

suggestion

3501 [The Arianism implied in this passage if referred to the Word as God disappears if we regard it as spoken of Christ as

the Word manifested in human nature See the note of Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3502 Universe

3503 This is directly from Eph iv 6 ldquoWho is over all and through all and in allrdquo It is thus directly referred to the Father and

on the basis of the above note of Bag seems to convict of Arianism but in reality the conception of a pre-existing Word is

distinctly orthodox

1108

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

whom our divinely favored emperor receiving as it were a transcript of the Divine sovereigntydirects in imitation of God himself the administration of this worldrsquos affairs

Chapter II

1 This only begotten Word of God reigns from ages which had no beginning to infinite andendless ages the partner of his Fatherrsquos kingdom And [our emperor] ever beloved by him whoderives the source of imperial authority from above and is strong in the power of his sacred title3504

has controlled the empire of the world for a long period of years2 Again that Preserver of the universe orders these heavens and earth and the celestial kingdom

consistently with his Fatherrsquos will Even so our emperor whom he loves by bringing those whomhe rules on earth to the only begotten Word and Saviour renders them fit subjects of his kingdom

3 And as he who is the common Saviour of mankind by his invisible and Divine power as thegood shepherd drives far away from his flock like savage beasts those apostate spirits which onceflew through the airy tracts above this earth and fastened on the souls of men3505 so this his friendgraced by his heavenly favor with victory over all his foes subdues and chastens the open adversariesof the truth in accordance with the usages of war

4 He who is the pre-existent Word the Preserver of all things imparts to his disciples the seedsof true wisdom and salvation and at once enlightens and gives them understanding in the knowledgeof his Fatherrsquos kingdom Our emperor his friend acting as interpreter to the Word of God aimsat recalling the whole human race to the knowledge of God proclaiming clearly in the ears of alland declaring with powerful voice the laws of truth and godliness to all who dwell on the earth

5 Once more the universal Saviour opens the heavenly gates of his Fatherrsquos kingdom to thosewhose course is thitherward from this world Our emperor emulous of his Divine example havingpurged his earthly dominion from every stain of impious error invites each holy and pious worshiperwithin his imperial mansions earnestly desiring to save with all its crew that mighty vessel of whichhe is the appointed pilot And he alone of all who have wielded the imperial power of Rome beinghonored by the Supreme Sovereign with a reign of three decennial periods now celebrates thisfestival not as his ancestors might have done in honor of infernal demons or the apparitions ofseducing spirits or of the fraud and deceitful arts of impious men but as an act of thanksgiving to

3504 [It is difficult to know precisely what is meant here Possibly the name of ChristianmdashBag]

3505 This is an allusion to what was afterwards known as Vampireismmdasha belief of unknown antiquity and especially prevalent

in various forms in the East Rydberg (Magic of the Middle Ages p 207) describes the mediaeligval form thus ldquoThe vampires

according to the belief of the Middle Ages are disembodied souls which clothe themselves again in their buried bodies steal at

night into houses and suck from the nipple of the sleeping all their bloodrdquo (Cf Perty d myst Ersch 1 [1872] 383 91 Goumlrresrsquo

Chr myst Vol 3 etc) Similar in nature was that notion of the spirits who sucked away the breath of sleeping persons which

has left its trace in the modern superstition that cats suck away the breath of sleeping children

1109

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

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3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

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and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

590

savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

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Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

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8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and sentence ofdeath in every form3528 Thus did these valiant soldiers of the Almighty Sovereign maintain theconflict with steadfast fortitude of soul against the hostile forces of polytheism and thus did theseenemies of God and adversaries of manrsquos salvation more cruel far than the ferocious savage delight

591

in libations of human blood thus did their ministers drain as it were the cup of unrighteous slaughterin honor of the demons whom they served and prepare for them this dread and impious banquetto the ruin of the human race

9 In these sad circ*mstances what course should the God and King of these afflicted onespursue Could he be careless of the safety of his dearest friends or abandon his servants in thisgreat extremity Surely none could deem him a wary pilot who without an effort to save hisfellow-mariners should suffer his vessel to sink with all her crew surely no general could be foundso reckless as to yield his own allies without resistance to the mercy of the foe nor can a faithfulshepherd regard with unconcern the straying of a single sheep from his flock but will rather leavethe rest in safety and dare all things for the wandererrsquos sake even if need be to contend withsavage beasts

10 The zeal however of the great Sovereign of all was for no unconscious3529 sheep his carewas exercised for his own faithful host for those who sustained the battle for his sake whoseconflicts in the cause of godliness he himself approved and honored those who had returned to hispresence with the prize of victory which he only can bestow uniting them to the angelic choirsOthers he still preserved on earth to communicate the living seeds of piety to future generationsto be at once eye-witnesses of his vengeance on the ungodly and narrators of the events

11 After this he outstretched his arm in judgment on the adversaries and utterly destroyedthem with the stroke of Divine wrath compelling them how reluctant soever to confess with theirown lips and recant their wickedness but raising from the ground and exalting gloriously thosewho had long been oppressed and disclaimed by all

12 Such were the dealings of the Supreme Sovereign who ordained an invincible championto be the minister of his heaven-sent vengeance (for our emperorrsquos surpassing piety delights in thetitle of Servant of God) and him he has proved victorious over all that opposed him having raisedhim up an individual against many foes For they were indeed numberless being the friends ofmany evil spirits (though in reality they were nothing and hence are now no more) but our emperoris one appointed by and the representative of the one Almighty Sovereign And they in the veryspirit of impiety destroyed the righteous with cruel slaughter but he in imitation of his Saviour

3528 For account of the various details of persecution mentioned compare the Church History

3529 ldquoἀλόγουrdquo

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and knowing only how to save menrsquos lives has spared and instructed in godliness the impiousthemselves

13 And so as truly worthy the name of Victor he has subdued the twofold race of barbarianssoothing the savage tribes of men by prudent embassies compelling them to know and acknowledgetheir superiors and reclaiming them from a lawless and brutal life to the governance of reason andhumanity at the same time that he proved by the facts themselves that the fierce and ruthless raceof unseen spirits had long ago been vanquished by a higher power For he who is the preserver ofthe universe had punished these invisible spirits by an invisible judgment and our emperor as thedelegate of the Supreme Sovereign has followed up the victory bearing away the spoils of thosewho have long since died and mouldered into dust and distributing the plunder with lavish handamong the soldiers of his victorious Lord3530

Chapter VIII

1 For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain andchildish dread of these bugbears of error wrought in gold and silver he judged it right to removethese also like stumbling-stones thrown in the path of men walking in the dark and henceforwardto open a royal road plain and unobstructed to all

2 Having formed this resolution he considered that no soldiers or military force of any sortwas needed for the repression of the evil a few of his own friends sufficed for this service andthese he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province

3 Accordingly sustained by confidence in the emperorrsquos piety and their own personal devotionto God they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations abolishing this ancientsystem of error in every city and country They ordered the priests themselves in the midst ofgeneral laughter and scorn to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day Theythen stripped them of their ornaments and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality whichhad been hidden beneath a painted exterior and lastly whatever part of the material appeared tobe of value they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth after which they secured andset apart whatever they judged needful for their purposes leaving to the superstitious worshiperswhat was altogether useless as a memorial of their shame

4 Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to that we havedescribed For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped as we have said

3530 [That is stripping the images of those whose temples he destroyed and apportioning the spoils among his Christian

followers See the next chapter which is mostly a transcript of the 54th and 55th chapters of the Third Book of the Life of

ConstantinemdashBag]

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Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

592

of their precious materials he also attacked those composed of brass causing those to be draggedfrom their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive whom the dotage of mythologyhad esteemed as gods The next care of our august emperor was to kindle as it were a brillianttorch by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around to see if any hidden vestiges oferror might yet exist

5 And as the keen-sighted eagle in its heavenward flight is able to descry from its lofty heightthe most distant objects on the earth so did he whilst residing in the imperial palace of his ownfair city discover as from a watch-tower a hidden and fatal snare of souls in the province ofPhœnicia This was a grove and temple not situated in the midst of any city or in any public placeas for splendor of effect is generally the case but apart from the beaten and frequented road onpart of the summit of Mount Lebanon and dedicated to the foul demon known by the name ofVenus

6 It was a school of wickedness for all the abandoned votaries of impurity and such as destroyedtheir bodies with effeminacy Here men undeserving the name forgot the dignity of their sex andpropitiated the demon by their effeminate conduct here too unlawful commerce of women andadulterous intercourse with other horrible and infamous practices were perpetrated in this templeas in a place beyond the scope and restraint of law

Meantime these evils remained unchecked by the presence of any observer since no one of faircharacter ventured to visit such scenes

7 These proceedings however could not escape the vigilance of our august emperor whohaving himself inspected them with characteristic forethought and judging that such a temple wasunfit for the light of heaven gave orders that the building with its offerings should be utterlydestroyed Accordingly in obedience to the imperial edict these engines of an impure superstitionwere immediately abolished and the hand of military force was made instrumental in purging theplace And now those who had heretofore lived without restraint learned through the imperialthreat of punishment to practice self-control

8 Thus did our emperor tear the mask from this system of delusive wickedness and expose itto the public gaze at the same time proclaiming openly his Saviourrsquos name to all No advocateappeared neither god nor demon prophet nor diviner could lend his aid to the detected authors ofthe imposture For the souls of men were no longer enveloped in thick darkness but enlightenedby the rays of true godliness they deplored the ignorance and pitied the blindness of their forefathersrejoicing at the same time in their own deliverance from such fatal error3531

9 Thus speedily according to the counsel of the mighty God and through our emperorrsquos agencywas every enemy whether visible or unseen utterly removed and henceforward peace the happynurse of youth extended her reign throughout the world Wars were no more for the gods werenot no more did warfare in country or town no more did the effusion of human blood distressmankind as heretofore when demon-worship and the madness of idolatry prevailed

3531 ldquoThe Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God I thank thee that I am not as the rest of menrdquo

1124

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter IX

1 And now we may well compare the present with former things and review these happychanges in contrast with the evils that are past and mark the elaborate care with which in ancienttimes porches and sacred precincts groves and temples were prepared in every city for these falsedeities and how their shrines were enriched with abundant offerings

2 The sovereign rulers of those days had indeed a high regard for the worship of the gods Thenations also and people subject to their power honored them with images both in the country andin every city nay even in their houses and secret chambers according to the religious practice oftheir fathers The fruit however of this devotion far different from the peaceful concord whichnow meets our view appeared in war in battles and seditions which harassed them throughouttheir lives and deluged their countries with blood and civil slaughter

3 Again the objects of their worship could hold out to these sovereigns with artful flattery thepromise of prophecies and oracles and the knowledge of futurity yet could they not predict theirown destruction nor forewarn themselves of the coming ruin and surely this was the greatest andmost convincing proof of their imposture

4 Not one of those whose words once were heard with awe and wonder had announced theglorious advent of the Saviour of mankind3532 or that new revelation of divine knowledge whichhe came to give Not Pythius himself nor any of those mighty gods could apprehend the prospectof their approaching desolation nor could their oracles point at him who was to be their conquerorand destroyer

5 What prophet or diviner could foretell that their rites would vanish at the presence of a newDeity in the world and that the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Sovereign should be freely

593

given to all mankind Which of them foreknew the august and pious reign of our victorious emperoror his triumphant conquests everywhere over the false demons or the overthrow of their highplaces

6 Which of the heroes has announced the melting down and conversion of the lifeless statuesfrom their useless forms to the necessary uses of men Which of the gods have yet had power tospeak of their own images thus melted and contemptuously reduced to fragments

7 Where were the protecting powers that they should not interpose to save their sacredmemorials thus destroyed by man Where I ask are those who once maintained the strife of waryet now behold their conquerors abiding securely in the profoundest peace And where are theywho upheld themselves in a blind and foolish confidence and trusted in these vanities as gods butwho in the very height of their superstitious error and while maintaining an implacable war withthe champions of the truth perished by a fate proportioned to their crimes

3532 He seems to disagree with the view of the heathen prophecy which his imperial hearer maintained in his Oration to the

Saints

1125

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Where is the giant race whose arms were turned against heaven itself the hissings of thoseserpents whose tongues were pointed with impious words against the Almighty King Theseadversaries of the Lord of all confident in the aid of a multitude of gods advanced to the attackwith a powerful array of military force preceded by certain images of the dead and lifeless statuesas their defense On the other side our emperor secure in the armor of godliness opposed to thenumbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving Sign as at the same time a terror to the foe anda protection against every harm and returned victorious at once over the enemy and the demonswhom they served3533 And then with thanksgiving and praise the tokens of a grateful spirit to theAuthor of his victory he proclaimed this triumphant Sign by monuments as well as words to allmankind erecting it as a mighty trophy against every enemy in the midst of the imperial city andexpressly enjoining on all to acknowledge this imperishable symbol of salvation as the safeguardof the power of Rome and of the empire of the world

9 Such were the instructions which he gave to his subjects generally but especially to hissoldiers whom he admonished to repose their confidence not in their weapons or armor or bodilystrength but to acknowledge the Supreme God as the giver of every good and of victory itself

10 Thus did the emperor himself strange and incredible as the fact may seem become theinstructor of his army in their religious exercises and teach them to offer pious prayers in accordancewith the divine ordinances uplifting their hands towards heaven and raising their mental visionhigher still to the King of heaven on whom they should call as the Author of victory their preserverguardian and helper He commanded too that one day should be regarded as a special occasionfor religious worship I mean that which is truly the first and chief of all the day of our Lord andSaviour that day the name of which is connected with light and life and immortality and everygood

11 Prescribing the same pious conduct to himself he honored his Saviour in the chambers ofhis palace performing his devotions according to the Divine commands and storing his mind withinstruction through the hearing of the sacred word The entire care of his household was intrustedto ministers devoted to the service of God and distinguished by gravity of life and every othervirtue while his trusty body-guards strong in affection and fidelity to his person found in theiremperor an instructor in the practice of a godly life

12 Again the honor with which he regards the victorious Sign is founded on his actualexperience of its divine efficacy Before this the hosts of his enemies have disappeared by this thepowers of the unseen spirits have been turned to flight through this the proud boastings of Godrsquosadversaries have come to nought and the tongues of the profane and blasphemous been put tosilence By this Sign the Barbarian tribes were vanquished through this the rites of superstitiousfraud received a just rebuke by this our emperor discharging as it were a sacred debt has performedthe crowning good of all by erecting triumphant memorials of its value in all parts of the world

3533 For details respecting the following enumeration compare the Life of Constantine of which this is a reacutesumeacute This sentence

and the preceding are taken almost word for word from ch 16 of Bk II

1126

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

raising temples and churches on a scale of royal costliness and commanding all to unite inconstructing the sacred houses of prayer

13 Accordingly these signal proofs of our emperorrsquos magnificence forthwith appeared in theprovinces and cities of the empire and soon shone conspicuously in every country convincingmemorials of the rebuke and overthrow of those impious tyrants who but a little while before hadmadly dared to fight against God and raging like savage dogs had vented on unconscious buildingsthat fury which they were unable to level against him had thrown to the ground and upturned thevery foundations of the houses of prayer causing them to present the appearance of a city capturedand abandoned to the enemy Such was the exhibition of that wicked spirit whereby they soughtas it were to assail God himself but soon experienced the result of their own madness and folly

594

But a little time elapsed when a single blast of the storm of Heavenrsquos displeasure swept them utterlyaway leaving neither kindred nor offspring nor memorial of their existence among men for allnumerous as they were disappeared as in a moment beneath the stroke of Divine vengeance

14 Such then was the fate which awaited these furious adversaries of God but he who armedwith the salutary Trophy had alone opposed them (nay rather not alone but aided by the presenceand the power of him who is the only Sovereign) has replaced the ruined edifices on a greaterscale and made the second far superior to the first For example besides erecting various churchesto the honor of God in the city which bears his name and adorning the Bithynian capital withanother on the greatest and most splendid scale he has distinguished the principal cities of the otherprovinces by structures of a similar kind

15 Above all he has selected two places in the eastern division of the empire the one inPalestine (since from thence the life-giving stream has flowed as from a fountain for the blessingof all nations) the other in that metropolis of the East which derives its name from that of Antiochusin which as the head of that portion of the empire he has consecrated to the service of God a churchof unparalleled size and beauty The entire building is encompassed by an enclosure of great extentwithin which the church itself rises to a vast elevation of an octagonal form surrounded by manychambers and courts on every side and decorated with ornaments of the richest kind3534

16 Such was his work here Again in the province of Palestine in that city which was oncethe seat of Hebrew sovereignty on the very site of the Lordrsquos sepulchre he has raised a church ofnoble dimensions and adorned a temple sacred to the salutary Cross with rich and lavishmagnificence honoring that everlasting monument and the trophies of the Saviourrsquos victory overthe power of death with a splendor which no language can describe

17 In the same country he discovered three places venerable as the localities of three sacredcaves and these also he adorned with costly structures paying a fitting tribute of reverence to thescene of the first manifestation of the Saviourrsquos presence while at the second cavern he hallowedthe remembrance of his final ascension from the mountain top and celebrated his mighty conflict

3534 Almost word for word from the Life Bk III ch 50

1127

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and the victory which crowned it at the third3535 All these places our emperor thus adorned in thehope of proclaiming the symbol of redemption to all mankind

18 that Cross which has indeed repaid his pious zeal through which his house and throne alikehave prospered his reign has been confirmed for a lengthened series of years and the rewards ofvirtue bestowed on his noble sons his kindred and their descendants

19 And surely it is a mighty evidence of the power of that God whom he serves that he hasheld the balances of justice with an equal hand and has apportioned to each party their due rewardWith regard to the destroyers of the houses of prayer the penalty of their impious conduct followedhard upon them forthwith were they swept away and left neither race nor house nor family behindOn the other hand he whose pious devotion to his Lord is conspicuous in his every act who raisesroyal temples to his honor and proclaims his name to his subjects by sacred offerings throughoutthe world he I say has deservedly experienced him to be the preserver and defender of his imperialhouse and race Thus clearly have the dealings of God been manifested and this through the sacredefficacy of the salutary Sign

Chapter X

1 Much might indeed be said of this salutary Sign by those who are skilled in the mysteriesof our Divine religion For it is in very truth the symbol of salvation wondrous to speak of morewondrous still to conceive the appearance of which on earth has thrown the fictions of all falsereligion from the beginning into the deepest shade has buried superstitious error in darkness andoblivion and has revealed to all that spiritual light which enlightens the souls of men even theknowledge of the only true God

2 Hence the universal change for the better which leads men to spurn their lifeless idols totrample under foot the lawless rites of their demon deities and laugh to scorn the time-honoredfollies of their fathers Hence too the establishment in every place of those schools of sacredlearning wherein men are taught the precepts of saving truth and dread no more those objects ofcreation which are seen by the natural eye nor direct a gaze of wonder at the sun the moon orstars but acknowledge him who is above all these that invisible Being who is the Creator of themall and learn to worship him alone

3 Such are the blessings resulting to mankind from this great and wondrous Sign by virtue ofwhich the evils which once existed are now no more and virtues heretofore unknown shineeverywhere resplendent with the light of true godliness

3535 [In the Life of Constantine (vide [Bk III ch 41] supra) Eusebius mentions two caves only and speaks of the churches

built by Helena at Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives He here alludes to the magnificent church erected by Constantine at

the Lordrsquos sepulchre and ascribes to him those of Helena also as having been raised at the emperorrsquos expense Valesius ad

locmdashBag]

1128

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

595

4 Discourses and precepts and exhortations to a virtuous and holy life are proclaimed in theears of all nations Nay the emperor himself proclaims them and it is indeed a marvel that thismighty prince raising his voice in the hearing of all the world like an interpreter of the AlmightySovereignrsquos will invites his subjects in every country to the knowledge of the true God

5 No more as in former times is the babbling of impious men heard in the imperial palacebut priests and pious worshipers of God together celebrate his majesty with royal hymns of praiseThe name of the one Supreme Ruler of the universe is proclaimed to all the gospel of glad tidingsconnects the human race with its Almighty King declaring the grace and love of the heavenlyFather to his children on the earth

6 His praise is everywhere sung in triumphant strains the voice of mortal man is blended withthe harmony of the angelic choirs in heaven and the reasoning soul employs the body which investsit as an instrument for sounding forth a fitting tribute of praise and adoration to his name Thenations of the East and the West are instructed at the same moment in his precepts the people ofthe Northern and Southern regions unite with one accord under the influence of the same principlesand laws in the pursuit of a godly life in praising the one Supreme God in acknowledging hisonly begotten Son their Saviour as the source of every blessing and our emperor as the one ruleron the earth together with his pious sons

7 He himself as a skillful pilot sits on high at the helm of state and directs the vessel withunerring course conducting his people as it were with favoring breeze to a secure and tranquilhaven Meanwhile God himself the great Sovereign extends the right hand of his power fromabove for his protection giving him victory over every foe and establishing his empire by alengthened period of years and he will bestow on him yet higher blessings and confirm in everydeed the truth of his own promises But on these we may not at present dwell but must await thechange to a better world for it is not given to mortal eyes or ears of flesh fully to apprehend thethings of God3536

Chapter XI

1 And now victorious and mighty Constantine in this discourse whose noble argument is theglory of the Almighty King let me lay before thee some of the mysteries of his sacred truth notas presuming to instruct thee who art thyself taught of God nor to disclose to thee those secretwonders which he himself not through the agency of man but through our common Saviour andthe frequent light of his Divine presence has long since revealed and unfolded to thy view but inthe hope of leading the unlearned to the light and displaying before those who know them not thecauses and motives of thy pious deeds

3536 At this point according to some (compare Special Prolegomena) one oration ends and another begins

1129

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 True it is that thy noble efforts for the daily worship and honor of the Supreme God throughoutthe habitable world are the theme of universal praise But those records of gratitude to thy Saviourand Preserver which thou hast dedicated in our own province of Palestine and in that city fromwhich as from a fountain-head the Saviour Word3537 has issued forth to all mankind and again thehallowed edifices and consecrated temples which thou hast raised as trophies of his victory overdeath and those lofty and noble structures imperial monuments of an imperial spirit which thouhast erected in honor of the everlasting memory of the Saviourrsquos tomb the cause I say of thesethings is not equally obvious to all

3 Those indeed who are enlightened in heavenly knowledge by the power of the Divine Spiritwell understand the cause and justly admire and bless thee for that counsel and resolution whichHeaven itself inspired On the other hand the ignorant and spiritually blind regard these designswith open mockery and scorn and deem it a strange and unworthy thing indeed that so mighty aprince should waste his zeal on the graves and monuments of the dead

4 ldquoWere it not betterrdquo such a one might say ldquoto cherish those rites which are hallowed byancient usage to seek the favor of those gods and heroes whose worship is observed in everyprovince instead of rejecting and disclaiming them because subject to the calamities incident toman Surely they may claim equal honors with him who himself has suffered or if they are to berejected as not exempt from the sorrows of humanity the same award would justly be pronouncedrespecting himrdquo Thus with important and contracted brow might he give utterance in pompouslanguage to his self-imagined wisdom

5 Filled with compassion for this ignorance the gracious Word of our most beneficent Fatherfreely invites not such a one alone but all who are in the path of error to receive instruction inDivine knowledge and has ordained the means of such instruction throughout the world in everycountry and village in cultivated and desert lands alike and in every city and as a gracious Saviourand Physician of the soul calls on the Greek and the Barbarian the wise and the unlearned the

596

rich and the poor the servant and his master the subject and his lord the ungodly the profane theignorant the evil-doer the blasphemer alike to draw near and hasten to receive his heavenly cureAnd thus in time past had he clearly announced to all the pardon of former transgressions sayingldquoCome unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you restrdquo3538 And again ldquoIam not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentancerdquo3539 And he adds the reason saying

3537 Here the author seems to speak doubly of the Word and the word

3538 Matt xi 28

3539 Matt xi 13 RV ldquoFor I came not to call the righteous but sinnersrdquo The text here has the reading εισμετανοιαν omitted

by Tischendorf and the revisers with א B etc but supported by CEGKL sab cop etc It is worth noting that it is not in the

Sinaitic and if this text reading is correct it would nearly overthrow the possibility that this ms was one of those prepared under

the direction of Eusebius

1130

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ldquoFor they that are whole need not a physician but they that are sickrdquo3540 And again ldquoI desire notthe death of a sinner but rather that he should repentrdquo3541

6 Hence it is only for those who are themselves instructed in Divine things and understand themotives of that zeal of which these works are the result to appreciate the more than human impulseby which our emperor was guided to admire his piety toward God and to believe his care for thememorial of our Saviourrsquos resurrection to be a desire imparted from above and truly inspired bythat Sovereign to be whose faithful servant and minister for good is his proudest boast

7 In full persuasion then of thy approval most mighty emperor I desire at this present timeto proclaim to all the reasons and motives of thy pious works I desire to stand as the interpreter ofthy designs to explain the counsels of a soul devoted to the love of God I propose to teach all menwhat all should know who care to understand the principles on which our Saviour God employshis power the reasons for which he who was the pre-existent Controller of all things at lengthdescended to us from heaven the reasons for which he assumed our nature and submitted even tothe power of death I shall declare the causes of that immortal life which followed and of hisresurrection from the dead Once more I shall adduce convincing proofs and arguments for thesake of those who yet need such testimony

8 and now let me commence my appointed taskThose who transfer the worship due to that God who formed and rules the world to the works

of his hand who hold the sun and moon or other parts of this material system nay the elementsthemselves earth water air and fire in equal honor with the Creator of them all who give thename of gods to things which never would have had existence or even name except as obedientto that Word of God who made the world such persons in my judgment resemble those whooverlook the master hand which gives its magnificence to a royal palace and while lost in wonderat its roofs and walls the paintings of varied beauty and coloring which adorn them and its gildedceilings and sculptures ascribe to them the praise of that skill which belongs to the artist whosework they are whereas they should assign the cause of their wonder not to these visible objectsbut to the architect himself and confess that the proofs of skill are indeed manifest but that healone is the possessor of that skill who has made them what they are

9 Again well might we liken those to children who should admire the seven-stringed lyreand disregard him who invented or has power to use it or those who forget the valiant warrior andadorn his spear and shield with the chaplet of victory or lastly those who hold the squares andstreets the public buildings temples and gymnasia of a great and royal city in equal honor withits founder forgetting that their admiration is due not to lifeless stones but to him whose wisdomplanned and executed these mighty works

3540 Matt xi 12

3541 Ezek xviii 23 RV ldquoHave I any pleasure in the death of the wicked saith the Lord God and not rather that he should

return from his way and liverdquo

1131

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

10 Not less absurd is it for those who regard this universe with the natural eye to ascribe itsorigin to the sun or moon or any other heavenly body Rather let them confess that these arethemselves the works of a higher wisdom remember the Maker and Framer of them all and renderto him the praise and honor above all created objects Nay rather inspired by the sight of these veryobjects let them address themselves with full purpose of heart to glorify and worship him who isnow invisible to mortal eye but perceived by the clear and unclouded vision of the soul thesupremely sovereign Word of God To take the instance of the human body no one has yet conferredthe attribute of wisdom on the eyes or head the hands or feet or other members far less on theoutward clothing of a wise and learned man no one terms the philosopherrsquos household furnitureand utensils wise but every rational person admires that invisible and secret power the mind ofthe man himself

11 How much more then is our admiration due not to the visible mechanism of the universematerial as it is and formed of the selfsame elements but to that invisible Word who has mouldedand arranged it all who is the only-begotten Son of God and whom the Maker of all things whofar transcends all being has begotten of himself and appointed Lord and Governor of this universe

12 For since it was impossible that perishable bodies or the rational spirits which he had

597

created should approach the Supreme God by reason of their immeasurable distance from hisperfections for he is unbegotten above and beyond all creation ineffable inaccessibleunapproachable dwelling as his holy word assures us3542 in the light which none can enter butthey were created from nothing and are infinitely far removed from his unbegotten Essence wellhas the all-gracious and Almighty God interposed as it were an intermediate Power3543 betweenhimself and them even the Divine omnipotence of his only-begotten Word And this Power whichis in perfect nearness and intimacy of union with the Father which abides in him and shares hissecret counsels has yet condescended in fullness of grace as it were to conform itself to thosewho are so far removed from the supreme majesty of God How else consistently with his ownholiness could he who is far above and beyond all things unite himself to corruptible and corporealmatter Accordingly the Divine Word thus connecting himself with this universe and receiving

3542 1 Tim vi 16

3543 [This whole passage (which is defended by Valesius) appears if rigidly interpreted to lie under suspicion of a tinge of

ArianismmdashBag] It savors directly of Philo His doctrine was of an ineffable God above and separate from matter and defiled

by any contact with it To bring him into connection with created things he introduced intermediate beings or ldquopowersrdquo the

universal power including all the rest being the Logos Compare brief account in Zellerrsquos Outlines of Greek Philosophy p

320ndash325 Siegfried Philo von Alexandria (Jena 1875) especially p 199 sq 219 sq and p 362ndash364 where he treats very

inadequately of Eusebiusrsquo dependence on Philo also works of Philo and Eusebiusrsquo Praeligp and Demonst Ev There is a chance

of viewing the Word thus as created but if this is guarded against (as it is by him in the use of ldquobegottenrdquo) there is nothing

intrinsically heterodox in making the Word the Creator of the world and only Revealer of the Father The direct Philonian

influence is seen in the phraseology of the following sentences

1132

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

into his hands the reins as it were of the world turns and directs it as a skillful charioteer accordingto his own will and pleasure

13 The proof of these assertions is evident For supposing that those component parts of theworld which we call elements as earth water air and fire the nature of which is manifestly withoutintelligence are self-existent and if they have one common essence which they who are skilledin natural science call the great receptacle mother and nurse of all things and if this itself be utterlydevoid of shape and figure of soul and reason whence shall we say it has obtained its present formand beauty To what shall we ascribe the distinction of the elements or the union of things contraryin their very nature Who has commanded the liquid water to sustain the heavy element of earthWho has turned back the waters from their downward course and carried them aloft in cloudsWho has bound the force of fire and caused it to lie latent in wood and to combine with substancesmost contrary to itself Who has mingled the cold air with heat and thus reconciled the enmity ofopposing principles Who has devised the continuous succession of the human race and given itas it were an endless term of duration Who has moulded the male and female form adapted theirmutual relations with perfect harmony and given one common principle of production to everyliving creature Who changes the character of the fluid and corruptible seed which in itself is voidof reason and gives it its prolific power Who is at this moment working these and ten thousandeffects more wonderful than these nay surpassing all wonder and with invisible influence is dailyand hourly perpetuating the production of them all

14 Surely the wonder-working and truly omnipotent Word of God may well be deemed theefficient cause of all these things that Word who diffusing himself through all creation pervadingheight and depth with incorporeal energy and embracing the length and breadth of the universewithin his mighty grasp has compacted and reduced to order this entire system from whoseunreasoned and formless matter he has framed for himself an instrument of perfect harmony thenicely balanced chords and notes of which he touches with all-wise and unerring skill He it is whogoverns the sun and moon and the other luminaries of heaven by inexplicable laws and directstheir motions for the service of the universal whole

15 It is this Word of God who has stooped to the earth on which we live and created themanifold species of animals and the fair varieties of the vegetable world It is this same Word whohas penetrated the recesses of the deep has given their being to the finny race and produced thecountless forms of life which there exist It is he who fashions the burden of the womb and informsit in naturersquos laboratory with the principle of life By him the fluid and heavy moisture is raised onhigh and then sweetened by a purifying change descends in measured quantities to the earth andat stated seasons in more profuse supply

16 Like a skillful husbandman he fully irrigates the land tempers the moist and dry in justproportion diversifying the whole with brilliant flowers with aspects of varied beauty with pleasantfragrance with alternating varieties of fruits and countless gratifications for the taste of men Butwhy do I dare essay a hopeless task to recount the mighty works of the Word of God and describean energy which surpasses mortal thought By some indeed he has been termed the Nature of the

1133

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

universe by others the World-Soul by others Fate Others again have declared him to be the mostHigh God himself strangely confounding things most widely different bringing down to this earthuniting to a corruptible and material body and assigning to that supreme and unbegotten Power

598

who is Lord of all an intermediate place between irrational animals and rational mortals on the onehand and immortal beings on the other3544

Chapter XII

1 On the other hand the sacred doctrine teaches that he who is the supreme Source of goodand Cause of all things is beyond all comprehension and therefore inexpressible by word orspeech or name surpassing the power not of language only but of thought itself Uncirc*mscribedby place or body neither in heaven nor in ethereal space nor in any other part of the universebut entirely independent of all things else he pervades the depths of unexplored and secret wisdomThe sacred oracles teach us to acknowledge him as the only true God3545 apart from all corporealessence distinct from all subordinate ministration Hence it is said that all things are from him butnot through him3546

2 And he himself dwelling as Sovereign in secret and undiscovered regions of unapproachablelight ordains and disposes all things by the single power of his own will At his will whatever isexists without that will it cannot be And his will is in every case for good since he is essentiallyGoodness itself But he through whom are all things even God the Word proceeding in an ineffable

3544 [Of this somewhat obscure passage a translator can do no more than give as nearly as possible a literal version The

intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that the author here and in the following chapter has trodden on very dangerous

groundmdashBag] Compare above notes on the relations of Eusebius and Philo

3545 [Referring apparently to John xvii 3 ldquoAnd this is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus

Christ whom thou hast sentrdquo a passage which has been called a stronghold of the impugners of the Deity of Christ but which

simply considered with its context cannot fairly be understood to indicate any inferiority of the Son to the Father but rather

appears to speak of the mission of the former as the manifestation of the grace of him who is called ldquothe only true Godrdquo in

contradistinction to the polytheism of the heathen world In other words the knowledge of ldquothe only true Godrdquo in connection

with that of ldquoJesus Christ whom he has sentrdquo constitutes ldquoeternal liferdquo the one being ineffectual and indeed impossible without

the othermdashBag] Compare 1 John v 20ndash21 ldquoThat we know him that is true and we are in him that is true even in his Son Jesus

Christ This is the true God and eternal liferdquo which seems to show that John had no idea of any subordination in essence in this

matter

3546 [But see for a refutation of this statement Rom xi 36 and Heb ii 10mdashBag] Yet the second of these references clearly

refers to the Son Eusebius speaking of God the Father has in mind the truth that all things were made by the Son ldquoand without

him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo John i 3

1134

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

manner from the Father above as from an everlasting and exhaustless fountain flows onward likea river with a full and abundant stream of power for the preservation of the universal whole

3 And now let us select an illustration from our own experience The invisible and undiscoveredmind within us the essential nature of which no one has ever known sits as a monarch in theseclusion of his secret chambers and alone resolves on our course of action From this proceedsthe only-begotten word from its fatherrsquos bosom begotten in a manner and by a power inexplicableto us and is the first messenger of its fatherrsquos thoughts declares his secret counsels and conveyingitself to the ears of others accomplishes his designs

4 And thus the advantage of this faculty is enjoyed by all yet no one has ever yet beheld thatinvisible and hidden mind which is the parent of the word itself3547 In the same manner or ratherin a manner which far surpasses all likeness or comparison the perfect Word of the Supreme Godas the only-begotten Son of the Father (not consisting in the power of utterance nor comprehendedin syllables and parts of speech nor conveyed by a voice which vibrates on the air but being himselfthe living and effectual Word of the most High and subsisting personally as the Power and Wisdomof God)3548 proceeds from his Fatherrsquos Deity and kingdom3549 Thus being the perfect Offspringof a perfect Father and the common Preserver of all things he diffuses himself with living powerthroughout creation and pours from his own fullness abundant supplies of reason3550 wisdom lightand every other blessing not only on objects nearest to himself but on those most remote whetherin earth or sea or any other sphere of being

5 To all these he appoints with perfect equity their limits places laws and inheritance allottingto each their suited portion according to his sovereign will To some he assigns the super-terrestrialregions to others heaven itself as their habitation others he places in ethereal space others in airand others still on earth He it is who transfers mankind from hence to another sphere impartiallyreviews their conduct here and bestows a recompense according to the life and habits of each Byhim provision is made for the life and food not of rational creatures only but also of the brutecreation for the service of men

6 and while to the latter he grants the enjoyment of a perishable and fleeting term of existencethe former he invites to a share in the possession of immortal life Thus universal is the agency ofthe Word of God everywhere present and pervading all things by the power of his intelligence

3547 The author is now speaking especially of the spoken or ldquoexpressedrdquo word

3548 Compare 1 Cor i 24

3549 This conception that the Divine Word stands in something the same relation with the Father that the human word (internal

and external) does to the human spirit has at least an interesting suggestion towards the unraveling of this curious mystery

which for lack of a better word it is the fashion just now to call a human personality and which certainly is made in the image

and likeness of God Unless there lurks in the idea some subtle heresy one may venture to accept as an interesting analogy this

relation of invisible self self expressed to self (internal word) self revealed (external word) and an expression carried to the

point of embodiment (incarnation)

3550 ldquoLogosrdquo againmdashhere the internal word

1135

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he looks upward to his Father and governs this lower creation inferior to and consequent uponhimself in accordance with his will as the common Preserver of all things

599

7 Intermediate as it were and attracting the created to the uncreated Essence this Word ofGod exists as an unbroken bond between the two uniting things most widely different by aninseparable tie He is the Providence which rules the universe the guardian and director of thewhole he is the Power and Wisdom of God the only-begotten God the Word begotten of Godhimself For ldquoIn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was GodAll things were made by him and without him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo as welearn from the words of the sacred writer3551 Through his vivifying power all nature grows andflourishes refreshed by his continual showers and invested with a vigor and beauty ever new

8 Guiding the reigns of the universe he holds its onward course in conformity to the Fatherrsquoswill and moves as it were the helm of this mighty ship This glorious Agent the only-begottenSon of the Supreme God begotten by the Father as his perfect Offspring the Father has given tothis world as the highest of all goods infusing his word as spirit into a lifeless body into unconsciousnature imparting light and energy to that which in itself was a rude inanimate and formless massthrough the Divine power Him therefore it is ours to acknowledge and regard as everywherepresent and giving life to matter and the elements of nature3552 in him we see Light even thespiritual offspring of inexpressible Light one indeed in essence as being the Son of one Fatherbut possessing in himself many and varied powers

9 The world is indeed divided into many parts yet let us not therefore suppose that there aremany independent Agents nor though creationrsquos works be manifold let us thence assume theexistence of many gods How grievous the error of those childish and infatuated advocates ofpolytheistic worship who deify the constituent parts of the universe and divide into many thatsystem which is only one

10 Such conduct resembles theirs who should abstract the eyes of an individual man and termthem the man himself and the ears another man and so the head or again by an effort of thoughtshould separate the neck the breast and shoulders the feet and hands or other members nay thevery powers of sense and thus pronounce an individual to be a multitude of men Such folly mustsurely be rewarded with contempt by men of sense Yet such is he who from the component partsof a single world can devise for himself a multitude of gods or even deem that world which is thework of a Creator and consists of many parts to be itself a god3553 not knowing that the DivineNature can in no sense be divisible into parts since if compounded it must be so through the

3551 John i 1ndash3

3552 One on the scent for heresy might prick up his ears and sound the alarm of ldquoGnosticismrdquo

3553 A curious work just issued (anonymous) under the authority of the Bureau of Education very complacently evolves the

truth of existence out of the authorrsquos pure untrammeled consciousnessmdashfor he has never read any works either on science or

on theologymdashand arrives at the condescending conclusion that there is a God or rather in the words of Eusebius the author

comes to ldquodeem that worldhellipto be itself Godrdquo

1136

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

agency of another power and that which is so compounded can never be Divine How indeed couldit be so if composed of unequal and dissimilar and hence of worse and better elements Simpleindivisible uncompounded the Divine Nature exists at an infinite elevation above the visibleconstitution of this world

11 And hence we are assured by the clear testimony of the sacred Herald3554 that the Word ofGod who is before all things must be the sole Preserver of all intelligent beings while God whois above all and the Author of the generation of the Word being himself the Cause of all thingsis rightly called the Father of the Word as of his only-begotten Son himself acknowledging nosuperior Cause God therefore himself is One and from him proceeds the one only-begotten Wordthe omnipresent Preserver of all things And as the many-stringed lyre is composed of differentchords both sharp and flat some slightly others tensely strained and others intermediate betweenthe two extremes yet all attuned according to the rules of harmonic art even so this material worldcompounded as it is of many elements containing opposite and antagonist principles as moistureand dryness cold and heat yet blended into one harmonious whole may justly be termed a mightyinstrument framed by the hand of God an instrument on which the Divine Word himself notcomposed of parts or opposing principles but indivisible and uncompounded performs with perfectskill and produces a melody at once accordant with the will of his Father the Supreme Lord of alland glorious to himself Again as there are manifold external and internal parts and memberscomprised in a single body yet one invisible soul one undivided and incorporeal mind pervadesthe whole so is it in this creation which consisting of many parts yet is but one and so the Onemighty yea Almighty Word of God pervading all things and diffusing himself with undeviatingenergy throughout this universe is the Cause of all things that exist therein

12 Survey the compass of this visible world Seest thou not how the same heaven contains

600

within itself the countless courses and companies of the stars Again the sun is one and yet eclipsesmany nay all other luminaries by the surpassing glory of his rays Even so as the Father himselfis One his Word is also One the perfect Son of that perfect Father Should any one object becausethey are not more as well might he complain that there are not many suns or moons or worldsand a thousand things beside like the madman who would fain subvert the fair and perfect courseof Nature herself As in the visible so also in the spiritual world in the one the same sun diffuseshis light throughout this material earth in the other the One Almighty Word of God illumines allthings with invisible and secret power

13 Again there is in man one spirit and one faculty of reason which yet is the active causeof numberless effects The same mind instructed in many things will essay to cultivate the earthto build and guide a ship and construct houses nay the one mind and reason of man is capable ofacquiring knowledge in a thousand forms the same mind shall understand geometry and astronomyand discourse on the rules of grammar and rhetoric and the healing art Nor will it excel in science

3554 [Referring (says Valesius) to St John whose words Eusebius had lately cited ldquoIn the beginning was the Wordrdquo ampc

and now explains paraphrastically The reader will decide for himself on the merits of the paraphrasemdashBag]

1137

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

only but in practice too and yet no one has ever supposed the existence of many minds in onehuman form nor expressed his wonder at a plurality of being in man because he is thus capableof varied knowledge

14 Suppose one were to find a shapeless mass of clay to mould it with his hands and give itthe form of a living creature the head in one figure the hands and feet in another the eyes andcheeks in a third and so to fashion the ears the mouth and nose the breast and shoulders accordingto the rules of the plastic art The result indeed is a variety of figure of parts and members in theone body yet must we not suppose it the work of many hands but ascribe it entirely to the skill ofa single artist and yield the tribute of our praise to him who by the energy of a single mind hasframed it all The same is true of the universe itself which is one though consisting of many partsyet surely we need not suppose many creative powers nor invent a plurality of gods Our duty isto adore the all-wise and all-perfect agency of him who is indeed the Power and the Wisdom ofGod whose undivided force and energy pervades and penetrates the universe creating and givinglife to all things and furnishing to all collectively and severally those manifold supplies of whichhe is himself the source

15 Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once gives lightto the eyes warmth to the touch fertility to the earth and growth to plants The same luminaryconstitutes the course of time governs the motions of the stars performs the circuit of the heavensimparts beauty to the earth and displays the power of God to all and all this he performs by thesole and unaided force of his own nature In like manner fire has the property of refining gold andfusing lead of dissolving wax of parching clay and consuming wood producing these variedeffects by one and the same burning power

16 So also the Supreme Word of God pervading all things everywhere existent everywherepresent in heaven and earth governs and directs the visible and invisible creation the sun theheaven and the universe itself with an energy inexplicable in its nature irresistible in its effectsFrom him as from an everlasting fountain the sun the moon and stars receive their light and heforever rules that heaven which he has framed as the fitting emblem of his own greatness Theangelic and spiritual powers the incorporeal and intelligent beings which exist beyond the sphereof heaven and earth are filled by him with light and life with wisdom and virtue with all that isgreat and good from his own peculiar treasures Once more with one and the same creative skillhe ceases not to furnish the elements with substance to regulate the union and combinations theforms and figures and the innumerable qualities of organized bodies preserving the varieddistinctions of animal and vegetable life of the rational and the brute creation and supplying allthings to all with equal power thus proving himself the Author not indeed of the seven-stringed

1138

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lyre3555 but of that system of perfect harmony which is the workmanship of the One world-creatingWord3556

Chapter XIII

1 And now let us proceed to explain the reasons for which this mighty Word of God descendedto dwell with men Our ignorant and foolish race incapable of comprehending him who is the Lordof heaven and earth proceeding from his Fatherrsquos Deity as from the supreme fountain ever presentthroughout the world and evincing by the clearest proofs his providential care for the interests ofman have ascribed the adorable title of Deity to the sun and moon the heaven and the stars ofheaven Nor did they stop here but deified the earth itself its products and the various substances

601

by which animal life is sustained and devised images of Ceres of Proserpine of Bacchus3557 andmany such as these

2 Nay they shrank not from giving the name of gods to the very conceptions of their ownminds and the speech by which those conceptions are expressed calling the mind itself Minervaand language Mercury3558 and affixing the names of Mnemosyne and the Muses to those facultiesby means of which science is acquired Nor was even this enough advancing still more rapidly inthe career of impiety and folly they deified their own evil passions which it behooved them toregard with aversion or restrain by the principles of self-control Their very lust and passion andimpure disease of soul the members of the body which tempt to obscenity and even the veryuncontrol3559 in shameful pleasure they described under the titles of Cupid Priapus Venus3560 andother kindred terms

3 Nor did they stop even here Degrading their thoughts of God to this corporeal and mortallife they deified their fellow-men conferring the names of gods and heroes on those who hadexperienced the common lot of all and vainly imagining that the Divine and imperishable Essencecould frequent the tombs and monuments of the dead Nay more than this they paid divine honorsto animals of various species and to the most noxious reptiles they felled trees and excavatedrocks they provided themselves with brass and iron and other metals of which they fashioned

3555 [In reference singularly enough to the illustration of the lyre in the preceding chaptermdashBag]

3556 It is idle to treat as philosophically or theologically unworthy of consideration a system of thought so definitely unified

and with such Scriptural basis as the above It may not be profound or original but is definite and clear

3557 ldquoOf Demeter of Cora of Dionysiusrdquo

3558 ldquoAthenehellipHermesrdquo

3559 The word used here ἀκρeuroτεια is the opposite of the famous philosophical word for self-controlmdashἐγκρeuroτεια

3560 ldquoEros Priapus Aphroditerdquo

1139

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

resemblances of the male and female human form of beasts and creeping things and these theymade the objects of their worship

4 Nor did this suffice To the evil spirits themselves which lurked within their statues or layconcealed in secret and dark recesses eager to drink their libations and inhale the odor of theirsacrifices they ascribed the same divine honors Once more they endeavored to secure the familiaraid of these spirits and the unseen powers which move through the tracts of air by charms offorbidden magic and the compulsion of unhallowed songs and incantations Again different nationshave adopted different persons as objects of their worship The Greeks have rendered to BacchusHercules AEligsculapius Apollo and others who were mortal men the titles of gods and heroes TheEgyptians have deified Horus and Isis Osiris and other mortals such as these And thus they whoboast of the wondrous skill whereby they have discovered geometry astronomy and the scienceof number know not wise as they are in their own conceit nor understand how to estimate themeasure of the power of God or calculate his exceeding greatness above the nature of irrationaland mortal beings

5 Hence they shrank not from applying the name of gods to the most hideous of the brutecreation to venomous reptiles and savage beasts The Phœnicians deified Melcatharus Usorus3561

and others mere mortals and with little claim to honor the Arabians Dusaris3562 and Obodas theGetaelig Zamolxis the Cicilians Mopsus and the Thebans Amphiaraus3563 in short each nation hasadopted its own peculiar deities differing in no respect from their fellow-mortals being simplyand truly men Again the Egyptians with one consent the Phœnicians the Greeks nay everynation beneath the sun have united in worshiping the very parts and elements of the world andeven the produce of the ground itself And which is most surprising though acknowledging theadulterous unnatural and licentious crimes of their deities they have not only filled every cityand village and district with temples shrines and statues in their honor but have followed theirevil example to the ruin of their own souls

6 We hear of gods and the sons of gods described by them as heroes and good genii titlesentirely opposed to truth honors utterly at variance with the qualifies they are intended to exalt Itis as if one who desired to point out the sun and the luminaries of heaven instead of directing hisgaze thitherward should grope with his hands on the ground and search for the celestial powersin the mud and mire Even so mankind deceived by their own folly and the craft of evil spiritshave believed that the Divine and spiritual Essence which is far above heaven and earth could becompatible with the birth the affections and death of mortal bodies here below To such a pitchof madness did they proceed as to sacrifice the dearest objects of their affection to their gods

3561 It is probably that ldquoMelkathrosrdquo and ldquoUsousrdquo referred to in the Praeligp Evang 1 10 (ed Gaisford Oxon 1843 1 p 77

and 84) The same passage may be found with English translation in Coryrsquos Ancient Fragments Lond 1832 p 6ndash7 13

3562 Dusaris was it is said equivalent to Bacchus

3563 All the above names excepting those specially noted may be found in Smith Dict of Greek and Roman Biog and Mythol

1140

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

regardless of all natural ties and urged by frenzied feeling to slay their only and best belovedchildren

7 For what can be a greater proof of madness than to offer human sacrifice to pollute everycity and even their own houses with kindred blood Do not the Greeks themselves attest this andis not all history filled with records of the same impiety The Phœnicians devoted their best belovedand only children as an annual sacrifice to Saturn The Rhodians on the sixth day of the month

602

Metageitnion3564 offered human victims to the same god At Salamis a man was pursued in thetemple of Minerva Agraulis and Diomede compelled to run thrice round the altar afterwardspierced with a lance by the priest and consumed as a burnt offering on the blazing pile In Egypthuman sacrifice was most abundant At Heliopolis three victims were daily offered to Juno forwhom king Amoses impressed with the atrocity of the practice commanded the substitution of anequal number of waxen figures In Chios and again in Tenedos a man was slain and offered up toOmadian Bacchus At Sparta they immolated human beings to Mars In Crete they did likewiseoffering human sacrifices to Saturn In Laodicea of Syria a virgin was yearly slain in honor ofMinerva for whom a hart is now the substitute The Libyans and Carthaginians appeased their godswith human victims The Dumateni of Arabia buried a boy annually beneath the altar Historyinforms us that the Greeks without exception the Thracians also and Scythians were accustomedto human sacrifice before they marched forth to battle The Athenians record the immolation of thevirgin children of Leus3565 and the daughter of Erechtheus3566 Who knows not that at this day ahuman victim is offered in Rome itself at the festival of Jupiter Latiaris

8 And these facts are confirmed by the testimony of the most approved philosophers Diodorusthe epitomizer of libraries3567 affirms that two hundred of the noblest youths were sacrificed toSaturn by the Libyan people and that three hundred more were voluntarily offered by their ownparents Dionysius the compiler of Roman history3568 expressly says that Jupiter and Apollodemanded human sacrifices of the so-called Aborigines in Italy He relates that on this demandthey offered a proportion of all their produce to the gods but that because of their refusal to slayhuman victims they became involved in manifold calamities from which they could obtain norelease until they had decimated themselves a sacrifice of life which proved the desolation of theircountry Such and so great were the evils which of old afflicted the whole human race

3564 Corresponding nearly to our August Key Calendarium in Smith Dict Gr and R Ant p 223

3565 [Leus is said to have offered his three daughters Phasithea Theope and Eubule the oracle at Delphi having declared

that the relief of the city from famine could only be effected by the shedding of the blood of his daughters by one of the

citizensmdashBag]

3566 [Alluding to the sacrifice of his daughter Chthonia by Erechtheus son of Pandion the Athenians having been promised

victory by the oracle over the Eleusinians and their Thracian allies on the condition of the death of a daughter of

ErechtheusmdashBag]

3567 Diodorus Siculus whose work is mentioned elsewhere (Praeligp Evang 1 6 ed Gaisford p 40) as a ldquohistorical libraryrdquo

3568 Dionysius of Halicarnassus

1141

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

9 Nor was this the full extent of their misery they groaned beneath the pressure of other evilsequally numerous and irremediable All nations whether civilized or barbarous throughout theworld as if actuated by a demoniac frenzy were infected with sedition as with some fierce andterrible disease insomuch that the human family was irreconcilably divided against itself the greatsystem of society was distracted and torn asunder and in every corner of the earth men stoodopposed to each other and strove with fierce contention on questions of law and government

10 Nay more than this with passions aroused to fury they engaged in mutual conflicts sofrequent that their lives were passed as it were in uninterrupted warfare None could undertake ajourney except as prepared to encounter an enemy in the very country and villages the rusticsgirded on the sword provided themselves with armor rather than with the implements of rural laborand deemed it noble exploit to plunder and enslave any who belonged to a neighboring state

11 Nay more than this from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their owndeities they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life and wrought the ruin of body andsoul by licentiousness of every kind Not content with this they even overstepped the bounds whichnature had defined and together committed incredible and nameless crimes ldquomen with men (inthe words of the sacred writer) working un-seemliness and receiving in themselves that recompenseof their error which was duerdquo

12 Nor did they stop even here but perverted their natural thoughts of God and denied thatthe course of this world was directed by his providential care ascribing the existence and constitutionof all things to the blind operation of chance or the necessity of fate

13 Once more believing that soul and body were alike dissolved by death they led a brutishlife unworthy of the name careless of the nature or existence of the soul they dreaded not thetribunal of Divine justice expected no reward of virtue nor thought of chastisem*nt as the penaltyof an evil life

14 Hence it was that whole nations a prey to wickedness in all its forms were wasted by theeffects of their own brutality some living in the practice of most vile and lawless incest withmothers others with sisters and others again corrupting their own daughters Some were foundwho slew their confiding guests others who fed on human flesh some strangled and then feastedon their aged men others threw them alive to dogs The time would fail me were I to attempt todescribe the multifarious symptoms of the inveterate malady which had asserted its dominion overthe whole human race

15 Such and numberless others like these were the prevailing evils on account of which thegracious Word of God full of compassion for his human flock had long since by the ministry of

603

his prophets and earlier still as well as later by that of men distinguished by pious devotion toGod invited those thus desperately afflicted to their own cure and had by means of lawsexhortations and doctrines of every kind proclaimed to man the principles and elements of truegodliness But when for mankind distracted and torn as I have said not indeed by wolves andsavage beasts but by ruthless and soul-destroying spirits of evil human power no longer sufficedbut a help was needed superior to that of man then it was that the Word of God obedient to his

1142

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

all-gracious Fatherrsquos will at length himself appeared and most willingly made his abode amongstus

16 The causes of his advent I have already described induced by which he condescended tothe society of man not in his wonted form and manner for he is incorporeal and present everywherethroughout the world proving by his agency both in heaven and earth the greatness of his almightypower but in a character new and hitherto unknown Assuming a mortal body he deigned toassociate and converse with men desiring through the medium of their own likeness to save ourmortal race

Chapter XIV

1 And now let us explain the cause for which the incorporeal Word of God assumed this mortalbody as a medium of intercourse with man How indeed else than in human form could that Divineand impalpable that immaterial and invisible Essence manifest itself to those who sought for Godin created and earthly objects unable or unwilling otherwise to discern the Author and Maker ofall things

2 As a fitting means therefore of communication with mankind he assumed a mortal bodyas that with which they were themselves familiar for like it is proverbially said loves its like Tothose then whose affections were engaged by visible objects who looked for gods in statues andlifeless images who imagined the Deity to consist in material and corporeal substance nay whoconferred on men the title of divinity the Word of God presented himself in this form

3 Hence he procured for himself this body as a thrice-hallowed temple a sensible habitationof an intellectual power a noble and most holy form of far higher worth than any lifeless statueThe material and senseless image fashioned by base mechanic hands of brass or iron of gold orivory wood or stone may be a fitting abode for evil spirits but that Divine form wrought by thepower of heavenly wisdom was possessed of life and spiritual being a form animated by everyexcellence the dwelling-place of the Word of God a holy temple of the holy God

4 Thus the indwelling Word3569 conversed with and was known to men as kindred withthemselves yet yielded not to passions such as theirs nor owned as the natural soul subjection tothe body He parted not with aught of his intrinsic greatness nor changed his proper Deity For asthe all-pervading radiance of the sun receives no stain from contact with dead and impure bodiesmuch less can the incorporeal power of the Word of God be injured in its essential purity or partwith any of its greatness from spiritual contact with a human body

5 Thus I say did our common Saviour prove himself the benefactor and preserver of alldisplaying his wisdom through the instrumentality of his human nature even as a musician uses

3569 All these various conceptions of the Word are strictly Biblical (1) The Word the only revealer of the Father who otherwise

could not be known (2) The human body the temple of God (3) The indwelling Word

1143

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

the lyre to evince his skill The Grecian myth tells us that Orpheus had power to charm ferociousbeasts and tame their savage spirit by striking the chords of his instrument with a master handand this story is celebrated by the Greeks and generally believed that an unconscious instrumentcould subdue the untamed brute and draw the trees from their places in obedience to its melodiouspower But he who is the author of perfect harmony the all-wise Word of God desiring to applyevery remedy to the manifold diseases of the souls of men employed that human nature which isthe workmanship of his own wisdom as an instrument by the melodious strains of which he soothednot indeed the brute creation but savages endued with reason healing each furious temper eachfierce and angry passion of the soul both in civilized and barbarous nations by the remedial powerof his Divine doctrine Like a physician of perfect skill he met the diseases of their souls whosought for God in nature and in bodies by a fitting and kindred remedy and showed them God inhuman form

6 And then with no less care for the body than the soul he presented before the eyes of menwonders and signs as proofs of his Divine power at the same time instilling into their ears of fleshthe doctrines which he himself uttered with a corporeal tongue In short he performed all his worksthrough the medium of that body which he had assumed for the sake of those who else were incapableof apprehending his Divine nature

7 In all this he was the servant of his Fatherrsquos will himself remaining still the same as whenwith the Father unchanged in essence unimpaired in nature unfettered by the trammels of mortalflesh nor hindered by his abode in a human body from being elsewhere present3570

604

8 Nay at the very time of his intercourse with men he was pervading all things was with andin the Father and even then was caring for all things both in heaven and earth Nor was he precludedas we are from being present everywhere or from the continued exercise of his Divine power Hegave of his own to man but received nothing in return he imparted of his Divine power to mortalitybut derived no accession from mortality itself

9 Hence his human birth to him brought no defilement nor could his impassible Essence sufferat the dissolution of his mortal body For let us suppose a lyre to receive an accidental injury orits chord to be broken it does not follow that the performer on it suffers nor if a wise manrsquos bodyundergo punishment can we fairly assert that his wisdom or the soul within him are maimed orburned

10 Far less can we affirm that the inherent power of the Word sustained any detriment fromhis bodily passion any more than as in the instance we have already used the solar rays whichare shot from heaven to earth contract defilement though in contact with mire and pollution ofevery kind We may indeed assert that these things partake of the radiance of the light but notthat the light is contaminated or the sun defiled by this contact with other bodies

3570 This ought to relieve Eusebius from any charge of Arianism in this relation however ldquodangerousrdquo the ground he has

trodden on may be

1144

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

11 And indeed these things are themselves not contrary to nature but the Saviour the incorporealWord of God being Life and spiritual Light itself whatever he touches with Divine and incorporealpower must of necessity become endued with the intelligence of light and life Thus if he touch abody it becomes enlightened and sanctified is at once delivered from all disease infirmity andsuffering and that which before was lacking is supplied by a portion of his fullness

12 And such was the tenor of his life on earth now proving the sympathies of his human naturewith our own and now revealing himself as the Word of God wondrous and mighty in his worksas God foretelling the events of the far distant future declaring in every act by signs and wondersand supernatural powers that Word whose presence was so little known and finally by his Divineteaching inviting the souls of men to prepare for those mansions which are above the heavens

Chapter XV

1 What now remains but to account for those which are the crowning facts of all I mean hisdeath so far and widely known the manner of his passion and the mighty miracle of his resurrectionafter death and then to establish the truth of these events by the clearest testimonies

2 For the reasons detailed above he used the instrumentality of a mortal body as a figurebecoming his Divine majesty and like a mighty sovereign employed it as his interpreter in hisintercourse with men performing all things consistently with his own Divine power Supposingthen at the end of his sojourn among men he had by any other means suddenly withdrawn himselffrom their sight and secretly removing that interpreter of himself the form which he had assumedhad hastened to flee from death and afterwards by his own act had consigned his mortal body tocorruption and dissolution doubtless in such a case he would have been deemed a mere phantomby all Nor would he have acted in a manner worthy of himself had he who is Life the Word andthe Power of God abandoned this interpreter of himself to corruption and death

3 Nor again would his warfare with the spirits of evil have received its consummation byconflict with the power of death The place of his retirement must have remained unknown norwould his existence have been believed by those who had not seen him for themselves No proofwould have been given that he was superior to death nor would he have delivered mortality fromthe law of its natural infirmity His name had never been heard throughout the world nor could hehave inspired his disciples with contempt of death or encouraged those who embraced his doctrineto hope for the enjoyment of a future life with God Nor would he have fulfilled the assurances ofhis own promise nor have accomplished the predictions of the prophets concerning himself Norwould he have undergone the last conflict of all for this was to be the struggle with the power ofdeath

4 For all these reasons then and inasmuch as it was necessary that the mortal body which hadrendered such service to the Divine Word should meet with an end worthy its sacred occupant themanner of his death was ordained accordingly For since but two alternatives remained either to

1145

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

consign his body entirely to corruption and so to bring the scene of life to a dishonored close orelse to prove himself victorious over death and render mortality immortal by the act of Divinepower the former of these alternatives would have contravened his own promise For as it is notthe property of fire to cool nor of light to darken no more is it compatible with life to deprive oflife or with Divine intelligence to act in a manner contrary to reason For how would it be consistent

605

with reason that he who had promised life to others should permit his own body the form whichhe had chosen to perish beneath the power of corruption That he who had inspired his discipleswith hopes of immortality should yield this exponent of his Divine counsels to be destroyed bydeath

5 The second alternative was therefore needful I mean that he should assert his dominionover the power of death But how should this be a furtive and secret act or openly performed andin the sight of all So mighty an achievement had it remained unknown and unrevealed must havefailed of its effect as regards the interests of men whereas the same event if openly declared andunderstood would from its wondrous character redound to the common benefit of all With reasontherefore since it was needful to prove his body victorious over death and that not secretly butbefore the eyes of men he shrank not from the trial for this indeed would have argued fear and asense of inferiority to the power of death but maintained that conflict with the enemy which hasrendered mortality immortal a conflict undertaken for the life the immortality the salvation ofall

6 Suppose one desired to show us that a vessel could resist the force of fire how could hebetter prove the fact than by casting it into the furnace and thence withdrawing it entire andunconsumed Even thus the Word of God who is the source of life to all desiring to prove thetriumph of that body over death which he had assumed for manrsquos salvation and to make this bodypartake his own life and immortality pursued a course consistent with this object Leaving his bodyfor a little while3571 and delivering it up to death in proof of its mortal nature he soon redeemed itfrom death in vindication of that Divine power whereby he has manifested the immortality whichhe has promised to be utterly beyond the sphere of death

7 The reason of this is clear It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof ofthe certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive forrising superior to the fear of death It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue alife of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth more needful still for thosewho were destined to declare his name in all the world and to communicate to mankind thatknowledge of God which he had before ordained for all nations

8 For such the strongest conviction of a future life was necessary that they might be able withfearless and unshrinking zeal to maintain the conflict with Gentile and polytheistic error a conflictthe dangers of which they would never have been prepared to meet except as habituated to thecontempt of death Accordingly in arming his disciples against the power of this last enemy he

3571 [These words (as Valesius observes) need not be too rigidly interpretedmdashBag]

1146

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

delivered not his doctrines in mere verbal precepts nor attempted to prove the soulrsquos immortalityby persuasive and probable arguments but displayed to them in his own person a real victory overdeath

9 Such was the first and greatest reason of our Saviourrsquos conflict with the power of deathwhereby he proved to his disciples the nothingness of that which is the terror of all mankind andafforded a visible evidence of the reality of that life which he had promised presenting as it werea first-fruit of our common hope of future life and immortality in the presence of God

10 The second cause of his resurrection was that the Divine power might be manifested whichdwelt in his mortal body Mankind had heretofore conferred Divine honors on men who had yieldedto the power of death and had given the titles of gods and heroes to mortals like themselves Forthis reason therefore the Word of God evinced his gracious character and proved to man his ownsuperiority over death recalling his mortal body to a second life displaying an immortal triumphover death in the eyes of all and teaching them to acknowledge the Author of such a victory to bethe only true God even in death itself

11 I may allege yet a third cause of the Saviourrsquos death He was the victim offered to theSupreme Sovereign of the universe for the whole human race a victim consecrated for the need ofthe human race and for the overthrow of the errors of demon worship For as soon as the one holyand mighty sacrifice the sacred body of our Saviour had been slain for man to be as a ransom forall nations heretofore involved in the guilt of impious superstition thenceforward the power ofimpure and unholy spirits was utterly abolished and every earth-born and delusive error was atonce weakened and destroyed

12 Thus then this salutary victim taken from among themselves I mean the mortal body ofthe Word was offered on behalf of the common race of men This was that sacrifice delivered upto death of which the sacred oracles speak ldquoBehold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sinof the worldrdquo3572 And again as follows ldquoHe was led as a sheep to the slaughter and as a lambbefore the shearer is dumbrdquo They declare also the cause saying ldquoHe bears our sins and is painedfor us yet we accounted him to be in trouble and in suffering and in affliction But he was wounded

606

on account of our sins and bruised because of our iniquities the chastisem*nt of our peace wasupon him and by his bruises we were healed All we as sheep have gone astray every one hasgone astray in this way and the Lord gave him up for our sinsrdquo3573

13 Such were the causes which led to the offering of the human body of the Word of God Butforasmuch as he was the great high priest consecrated to the Supreme Lord and King and thereforemore than a victim the Word the Power and the Wisdom of God he soon recalled his body fromthe grasp of death presented it to his Father as the first-fruit of our common salvation and raised

3572 John i 29

3573 [Isaiah liii 4 5 6 7 Septuagint English translation p 728mdashBag] P 889 of the Bagster ed 1879 Though the first

reasons make one feel as if the author had been in danger of slighting the atoning work of the Word he here very clearly comes

up as usual to the Biblical position

1147

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

this trophy a proof at once of his victory over death and Satan and of the abolition of humansacrifices for the blessing of all mankind

Chapter XVI

1 And now the time is come for us to proceed to the demonstration of these things if indeedsuch truths require demonstration and if the aid of testimony be needful to confirm the certaintyof palpable facts Such testimony however shall be here given and let it be received with anattentive and gracious ear

2 Of old the nations of the earth the entire human race were variously distributed intoprovincial national and local governments3574 subject to kingdoms and principalities of manykinds The consequences of this variety were war and strife depopulation and captivity whichraged in country and city with unceasing fury Hence too the countless subjects of history adulteriesand rapes of women hence the woes of Troy and the ancient tragedies so known among all peoples

3 The origin of these may justly be ascribed to the delusion of polytheistic error But when thatinstrument of our redemption the thrice holy body of Christ which proved itself superior to allSatanic fraud and free from evil both in word and deed was raised at once for the abolition ofancient evils and in token of his victory over the powers of darkness the energy of these evil spiritswas at once destroyed The manifold forms of government the tyrannies and republics the siegeof cities and devastation of countries caused thereby were now no more and one God wasproclaimed to all mankind

4 At the same time one universal power the Roman empire arose and flourished while theenduring and implacable hatred of nation against nation was now removed and as the knowledgeof one God and one way of religion and salvation even the doctrine of Christ was made knownto all mankind so at the self-same period the entire dominion of the Roman empire being vestedin a single sovereign profound peace reigned throughout the world And thus by the expressappointment of the same God two roots of blessing the Roman empire and the doctrine of Christianpiety sprang up together for the benefit of men

5 For before this time the various countries of the world as Syria Asia Macedonia Egyptand Arabia had been severally subject to different rulers The Jewish people again had establishedtheir dominion in the land of Palestine And these nations in every village city and district actuatedby some insane spirit were engaged in incessant and murderous war and conflict But two mightypowers starting from the same point the Roman empire which henceforth was swayed by a singlesovereign and the Christian religion subdued and reconciled these contending elements

6 Our Saviourrsquos mighty power destroyed at once the many governments and the many godsof the powers of darkness and proclaimed to all men both rude and civilized to the extremities

3574 Eparchies ethnarchies and toparchies

1148

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

of the earth the sole sovereignty of God himself Meantime the Roman empire the causes ofmultiplied governments being thus removed effected an easy conquest of those which yet remainedits object being to unite all nations in one harmonious whole an object in great measure alreadysecured and destined to be still more perfectly attained even to the final conquest of the ends ofthe habitable world by means of the salutary doctrine and through the aid of that Divine powerwhich facilitates and smooths its way

7 And surely this must appear a wondrous fact to those who will examine the question in thelove of truth and desire not to cavil at these blessings3575 The falsehood of demon superstition wasconvicted the inveterate strife and mutual hatred of the nations was removed at the same time OneGod and the knowledge of that God were proclaimed to all one universal empire prevailed andthe whole human race subdued by the controlling power of peace and concord received one anotheras brethren and responded to the feelings of their common nature Hence as children of one Godand Father and owning true religion as their common mother they saluted and welcomed eachother with words of peace Thus the whole world appeared like one well-ordered and united family

607

each one might journey unhindered as far as and whithersoever he pleased men might securelytravel from West to East and from East to West as to their own native country in short the ancientoracles and predictions of the prophets were fulfilled more numerous than we can at present citeand those especially which speak as follows concerning the saving Word ldquoHe shall have dominionfrom sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earthrdquo And again ldquoIn his days shallrighteousness spring up and abundance of peacerdquo ldquoAnd they shall beat their swords intoplough-shares and their spears into sickles and nation shall not take up sword against nationneither shall they learn to war any morerdquo3576

8 These words predicted ages before in the Hebrew tongue have received in our own day avisible fulfillment by which the testimonies of the ancient oracles are clearly confirmed And nowif thou still desire more ample proof receive it not in words but from the facts themselves Openthe eyes of thine understanding expand the gates of thought pause awhile and consider inquireof thyself as though thou wert another and thus diligently examine the nature of the case Whatking or prince in any age of the world what philosopher legislator or prophet in civilized orbarbarous lands has attained so great a height of excellence I say not after death but while livingstill and full of mighty power as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of hisname Surely none save our only Saviour has done this when after his victory over death he spokethe word to his followers and fulfilled it by the event saying to them ldquoGo ye and make disciplesof all nations in my namerdquo3577 He it was who gave the distinct assurance that his gospel must be

3575 This is a fair appeal applicable to his present hearers It at least was true of Constantinersquos reign that it produced a state

of relative peace and prosperity

3576 [Psalm lxxi 7 8 Isaiah ii 4 SeptuagintmdashBag] Psalm lxxii English version

3577 Matt xxviii 19 There is an interesting various reading here where Eusebius with B as against Aleph adds something

but where B and others have ουν and D and others have νυν Eusebius has γουν

1149

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations and immediately verified his word forwithin a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine

9 How then will those who caviled at the commencement of my speech be able to reply tothis For surely the force of ocular testimony is superior to any verbal argument Who else thanhe with an invisible and yet potent hand has driven from human society like savage beasts thatever noxious and destructive tribe of evil spirits who of old had made all nations their prey and bythe motions of their images had practiced many a delusion among men Who else beside ourSaviour by the invocation of his name and by unfeigned prayer addressed through him to theSupreme God has given power to banish from the world the remnant of those wicked spirits tothose who with genuine and sincere obedience pursue the course of life and conduct which he hashimself prescribed Who else but our Saviour has taught his followers to offer those bloodless andreasonable sacrifices which are performed by prayer and the secret worship of God

10 Hence is it that throughout the habitable world altars are erected and churches dedicatedwherein these spiritual and rational sacrifices are offered as a sacred service by every nation to theOne Supreme God Once more who but he with invisible and secret power has suppressed andutterly abolished those bloody sacrifices which were offered with fire and smoke as well as thecruel and senseless immolation of human victims a fact which is attested by the heathen historiansthemselves For it was not till after the publication of the Saviourrsquos Divine doctrine about the timeof Hadrianrsquos reign that the practice of human sacrifice was universally abandoned

11 Such and so manifest are the proofs of our Saviourrsquos power and energy after death Whothen can be found of spirit so obdurate as to withhold his assent to the truth and refuse toacknowledge his life to be Divine Such deeds as I have described are done by the living not thedead and visible acts are to us as evidence of those which we cannot see It is as it were an eventof yesterday that an impious and godless race disturbed and confounded the peace of human societyand possessed mighty power But these as soon as life departed lay prostrate on the earth worthlessas dung breathless motionless bereft of speech and have left neither fame nor memorial behindFor such is the condition of the dead and he who no longer lives is nothing and how can he whois nothing be capable of any act But how shall his existence be called in question whose activepower and energy are greater than in those who are still alive And though he be invisible to thenatural eye yet the discerning faculty is not in outward sense We do not comprehend the rules ofart or the theories of science by bodily sensation nor has any eye yet discerned the mind of manFar less then the power of God and in such cases our judgment is formed from apparent results

12 Even thus are we bound to judge of our Saviourrsquos invisible power and decide by its manifesteffects whether we shall acknowledge the mighty operations which he is even now carrying on tobe the works of a living agent or whether they shall be ascribed to one who has no existence orlastly whether the inquiry be not absurd and inconsistent in itself For with what reason can we

608

assert the existence of one who is not Since all allow that that which has no existence is devoidof that power and energy and action for these are characteristics of the living but the contrary ischaracteristic of the dead

1150

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter XVII

1 And now the time is come for us to consider the works of our Saviour in our own age andto contemplate the living operations of the living God For how shall we describe these mightyworks save as living proofs of the power of a living agent who truly enjoys the life of God If anyone inquire the nature of these works let him now attend

2 But recently a class of persons impelled by furious zeal and backed by equal power andmilitary force evinced their enmity against God by destroying his churches and overthrowingfrom their foundations the buildings dedicated to his worship In short in every way they directedtheir attacks against the unseen God and assailed him with a thousand shafts of impious wordsBut he who is invisible avenged himself with an invisible hand

3 By the single fiat of his will his enemies were utterly destroyed they who a little while beforehad been flourishing in great prosperity exalted by their fellow men as worthy of divine honorand blessed with a continued period of power and glory3578 so long as they had maintained peaceand amity with him whom they afterwards opposed As soon however as they dared openly toresist his will and to set their gods in array against him whom we adore immediately accordingto the will and power of that God against whom their arms were raised they all received the judgmentdue to their audacious deeds Constrained to yield and flee before his power together theyacknowledged his Divine nature and hastened to reverse the measures which they had beforeessayed

4 Our Saviour therefore without delay erected trophies of this victory everywhere and oncemore adorned the world with holy temples and consecrated houses of prayer in every city andvillage nay throughout all countries and even in barbaric wilds ordaining the erection of churchesand sacred buildings to the honor of the Supreme God and Lord of all Hence it is that these hallowededifices are deemed worthy to bear his name and receive not their appellation from men but fromthe Lord himself from which circ*mstances they are called churches (or houses of the Lord)3579

5 And now let him who will stand forth and tell us who after so complete a desolation hasrestored these sacred buildings from foundation to roof Who when all hope appeared extinct hascaused them to rise on a nobler scale than heretofore And well may it claim our wonder that thisrenovation was not subsequent to the death of those adversaries of God but whilst the destroyersof these edifices were still alive so that the recantation of their evil deeds came in their own wordsand edicts3580 And this they did not in the sunshine of prosperity and ease (for then we mightsuppose that benevolence or clemency might be the cause) but at the very time that they weresuffering under the stroke of Divine vengeance

3578 [Referring to Diocletian and others of the persecuting emperorsmdashBag]

3579 [Κυριακῶν ἠξίωνται τῶν ἐπωνυμιῶν The German ldquoKircherdquo the Scotch ldquoKirkrdquo and the English ldquoChurchrdquo are said

probably enough to derive their origin from this Greek wordmdashBag]

3580 Compare literature on the edicts of toleration

1151

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

6 Who again has been able to retain in obedience to his heavenly precepts after so manysuccessive storms of persecution nay in the very crisis of danger so many persons throughout theworld devoted to philosophy and the service of God and those holy choirs of virgins who haddedicated themselves to a life of perpetual chastity and purity Who taught them cheerfully topersevere in the exercise of protracted fasting and to embrace a life of severe and consistentself-denial Who has persuaded multitudes of either sex to devote themselves to the study of sacredthings and prefer to bodily nutriment that intellectual food which is suited to the wants of a rationalsoul3581 Who has instructed barbarians and peasants yea feeble women slaves and children inshort unnumbered multitudes of all nations to live in the contempt of death persuaded of theimmortality of their souls conscious that human actions are observed by the unerring eye of justiceexpecting Godrsquos award to the righteous and the wicked and therefore true to the practice of a justand virtuous life For they could not otherwise have persevered in the course of godliness Surelythese are the acts which our Saviour and he alone even now performs

7 And now let us pass from these topics and endeavor by inquiries such as these that followto convince the objectorrsquos obdurate understanding Come forward then whoever thou art andspeak the words of reason utter not the thoughts of a senseless heart but those of an intelligentand enlightened mind speak I say after deep solemn converse with thyself Who of the sageswhose names have yet been known to fame has ever been fore-known and proclaimed from theremotest ages as our Saviour was by the prophetic oracles to the once divinely-favored Hebrew

609

nation But his very birth-place the period of his advent the manner of his life his miracles andwords and mighty acts were anticipated and recorded in the sacred volumes of these prophets

8 Again who so present an avenger of crimes against himself so that as the immediateconsequence of their impiety the entire Jewish people were scattered by an unseen power theirroyal seat utterly removed and their very temple with its holy things levelled with the groundWho like our Saviour has uttered predictions at once concerning that impious nation and theestablishment of his church throughout the world and has equally verified both by the eventRespecting the temple of these wicked men our Saviour said ldquoYour house is left unto youdesolaterdquo3582 and ldquoThere shall not be left one stone upon another in this place that shall not bethrown downrdquo3583 And again of his church he says ldquoI will build my church upon a rock and thegates of hell shall not prevail against itrdquo3584

9 How wondrous too must that power be deemed which summoned obscure and unletteredmen from their fisherrsquos trade and made them the legislators and instructors of the human race And

3581 [There is nothing which need surprise us in the praises of virginity monkery and asceticism in a writer of the fourth

century The intelligent Christian will surely shrink from the thought of ascribing with Eusebius these fruitful sources of

corruption to the Lord himselfmdashBag]

3582 Matt xxiii 38

3583 Matt xxiv 2mdashapparently a paraphrase from memory

3584 Matt xvi 18

1152

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

how clear a demonstration of his deity do we find in the promise so well performed that he wouldmake them fishers of men in the power and energy which he bestowed so that they composed andpublished writings of such authority that they were translated into every civilized and barbarouslanguage3585 were read and pondered by all nations and the doctrines contained in them accreditedas the oracles of God

10 How marvelous his predictions of the future and the testimony whereby his disciples wereforewarned that they should be brought before kings and rulers and should endure the severestpunishments not indeed as criminals but simply for their confession of his name Or who shalladequately describe the power with which he prepared them thus to suffer with a willing mind andenabled them strong in the armor of godliness to maintain a constancy of spirit indomitable in themidst of conflict

11 Or how shall we enough admire that steadfast firmness of soul which strengthened notmerely his immediate followers but their successors also even to our present age in the joyfulendurance of every infliction and every form of torture in proof of their devotion to the SupremeGod Again what monarch has prolonged his government through so vast a series of ages Whoelse has power to make war after death to triumph over every enemy to subjugate each barbarousand civilized nation and city and to subdue his adversaries with an invisible and secret hand

12 Lastly and chief of all what slanderous lip shall dare to question that universal peace towhich we have already referred established by his power throughout the world3586 For thus themutual concord and harmony of all nations coincided in point of time with the extension of ourSaviourrsquos doctrine and preaching in all the world a concurrence of events predicted in long agespast by the prophets of God The day itself would fail me gracious emperor should I attempt toexhibit in a single view those cogent proofs of our Saviourrsquos Divine power which even now arevisible in their effects for no human being in civilized or barbarous nations has ever yet exhibitedsuch power of Divine virtue as our Saviour

13 But why do I speak of men since of the beings whom all nations have deemed divine nonehas appeared on earth with power like to his If there has let the fact now be proved Come forwardye philosophers and tell us what god or hero has yet been known to fame who has delivered thedoctrines of eternal life and a heavenly kingdom as he has done who is our Saviour Who likehim has persuaded multitudes throughout the world to pursue the principles of Divine wisdom tofix their hope on heaven itself and look forward to the mansions there reserved for them that loveGod What god or hero in human form has ever held his course from the rising to the setting suna course co-extensive as it were with the solar light and irradiated mankind with the bright andglorious beams of his doctrine causing each nation of the earth to render united worship to the Onetrue God What god or hero yet as he has done has set aside all gods and heroes among civilized

3585 The Syriac Peschito and possibly the Curetonian the old Latin (Itala) probably both the Thebaic and Memphitic Coptic

versions at least had been made at this time

3586 [The peace which Christ at his birth bestowed on the Roman world (Valesius)mdashBag]

1153

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

or barbarous nations has ordained that divine honors should be withheld from all and claimedobedience to that command and then though singly conflicting with the power of all has utterlydestroyed the opposing hosts victorious over the gods and heroes of every age and causing himselfalone in every region of the habitable world to be acknowledged by all people as the only Son ofGod

14 Who else has commanded the nations inhabiting the continents and islands of this mightyglobe to assemble weekly on the Lordrsquos day and to observe it as a festival not indeed for thepampering of the body but for the invigoration of the soul by instruction in Divine truth What

610

god or hero exposed as our Saviour was to so sore a conflict has raised the trophy of victory overevery foe For they indeed from first to last unceasingly assailed his doctrine and his people buthe who is invisible by the exercise of a secret power has raised his servants and the sacred housesof their worship to the height of glory

But why should we still vainly aim at detailing those Divine proofs of our Saviourrsquos powerwhich no language can worthily express which need indeed no words of ours but themselvesappeal in loudest tones to those whose mental ears are open to the truth Surely it is a strange awondrous fact unparalleled in the annals of human life that the blessings we have described shouldbe accorded to our mortal race and that he who is in truth the only the eternal Son of God shouldthus be visible on earth

Chapter XVIII

1 These words of ours however [gracious] Sovereign may well appear superfluous in yourears convinced as you are by frequent and personal experience of our Saviourrsquos Deity yourselfalso in actions still more than words a herald of the truth to all mankind Yourself it may be willvouchsafe at a time of leisure to relate to us the abundant manifestations which your Saviour hasaccorded you of his presence and the oft-repeated visions of himself which have attended you inthe hours of sleep I speak not of those secret suggestions which to us are unrevealed but of thoseprinciples which he has instilled into your own mind and which are fraught with general interestand benefit to the human race You will yourself relate in worthy terms the visible protection whichyour Divine shield and guardian has extended in the hour of battle the ruin of your open and secretfoes and his ready aid in time of peril To him you will ascribe relief in the midst of perplexitydefence in solitude expedients in extremity foreknowledge of events yet future your forethoughtfor the general weal your power to investigate uncertain questions your conduct of most importantenterprises your administration of civil affairs3587 your military arrangements and correction ofabuses in all departments your ordinances respecting public right and lastly your legislation forthe common benefit of all You will it may be also detail to us those particulars of his favor which

3587 Literally ldquoYour political economiesrdquo

1154

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

are secret to us but known to you alone and treasured in your royal memory as in secret storehousesSuch doubtless are the reasons and such the convincing proofs of your Saviourrsquos power whichcaused you to raise that sacred edifice which presents to all believers and unbelievers alike atrophy of his victory over death a holy temple of the holy God to consecrate those noble andsplendid monuments of immortal life and his heavenly kingdom to offer memorials of our AlmightySaviourrsquos conquest which well become the imperial dignity of him by whom they are bestowedWith such memorials have you adorned that edifice which witnesses of eternal life thus as it werein imperial characters ascribing victory and triumph to the heavenly Word of God thus proclaimingto all nations with clear and unmistakable voice in deed and word your own devout and piousconfession of his name

1155

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (4)

he I mean who is truly great of whom I affirm (nor will the sovereign who hears me be offendedbut will rather approve of this ascription of praise to God) that HE is above and beyond all createdthings the Highest the Greatest the most Mighty One whose throne is the arch of heaven andthe earth the footstool of his feet3498 His being none can worthily comprehend and the ineffablesplendor of the glory which surrounds him repels the gaze of every eye from his Divine majesty

2 His ministers are the heavenly hosts his armies the supernal powers who own allegiance tohim as their Master Lord and King The countless multitudes of angels the companies of archangelsthe chorus of holy spirits draw from and reflect his radiance as from the fountains of everlastinglight Yea every light and specially those divine and incorporeal intelligences whose place is beyondthe heavenly sphere celebrate this august Sovereign with lofty and sacred strains of praise Thevast expanse of heaven like an azure veil is interposed between those without and those whoinhabit his royal mansions while round this expanse the sun and moon with the rest of the heavenlyluminaries (like torch-bearers around the entrance of the imperial palace) perform in honor oftheir sovereign their appointed courses holding forth at the word of his command an ever-burninglight to those whose lot is cast in the darker regions without the pale of heaven

3 And surely when I remember that our own victorious emperor renders praises to this MightySovereign I do well to follow him knowing as I do that to him alone we owe that imperial powerunder which we live The pious Caeligsars instructed by their fatherrsquos wisdom acknowledge him asthe source of every blessing the soldiery the entire body of the people both in the country and inthe cities of the empire with the governors of the several provinces assembling together inaccordance with the precept of their great Saviour and Teacher worship him In short the wholefamily of mankind of every nation tribe and tongue both collectively and severally howeverdiverse their opinions on other subjects are unanimous in this one confession and in obedienceto the reason implanted in them and the spontaneous and uninstructed impulse of their own mindsunite in calling on the One and only God3499

4 Nay does not the universal frame of earth acknowledge him her Lord and declare by thevegetable and animal life which she produces her subjection to the will of a superior Power Therivers flowing with abundant stream and the perennial fountains springing from hidden andexhaustless depths ascribe to him the cause of their marvellous source The mighty waters of thesea enclosed in chambers of unfathomable depth and the swelling surges which lift themselveson high and menace as it were the earth itself shrink back when they approach the shore checkedby the power of his Divine law The duly measured fall of winterrsquos rain the rolling thunder the

3498 Paraphrased from Is lxvi 1

3499 [We must be content here (and probably in other passages of this Oration) to tolerate as rhetorical embellishment that

which regarded literally is in every sense palpably untruemdashBag] The intention of the passage is probably like that of those

who say now that there is no nation where in some form God is not worshiped

1107

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lightningrsquos flash the eddying currents of the winds and the airy courses of the clouds all revealhis presence to those to whom his Person is invisible

5 The all-radiant sun who holds his constant career through the lapse of ages owns him Lordalone and obedient to his will dares not depart from his appointed path The inferior splendor ofthe moon alternately diminished and increased at stated periods is subject to his Divine commandThe beauteous mechanism of the heavens glittering with the hosts of stars moving in harmoniousorder and preserving the measure of each several orbit proclaims him the giver of all light yeaall the heavenly luminaries maintaining at his will and word a grand and perfect unity of motionpursue the track of their ethereal career and complete in the lapse of revolving ages their distantcourse The alternate recurrence of day and night the changing seasons the order and proportionof the universe all declare the manifold wisdom of [his boundless power] To him the unseenagencies which hold their course throughout the expanse of space render the due tribute of praiseTo him this terrestrial globe itself to him the heavens above and the choirs beyond the vault ofheaven give honor as to their mighty Sovereign the angelic hosts greet him with ineffable songsof Praise and the spirits which draw their being from incorporeal light adore him as their Creator

583

The everlasting ages which were before this heaven and earth with other periods beside theminfinite and antecedent to all visible creation acknowledge him the sole and supreme Sovereignand Lord

6 Lastly he who is in all before and after all3500 his only begotten pre-existent Word thegreat High Priest of the mighty God elder than all time and every age devoted to his Fatherrsquosglory first and alone makes intercession with him for the salvation of mankind3501 Supreme andpre-eminent Ruler of the universe he shares the glory of his Fatherrsquos kingdom for he is that Lightwhich transcendent above the universe encircles the Fatherrsquos Person interposing and dividingbetween the eternal and uncreated Essence and all derived existence that Light which streamingfrom on high proceeds from that Deity who knows not origin or end and illumines the super-celestialregions and all that heaven itself contains with the radiance of wisdom bright beyond the splendorof the sun This is he who holds a supreme dominion over this whole world3502 who is over and inall things and pervades all things3503 visible and invisible the Word of God From whom and by

3500 [Referring possibly to Rev i 8 ldquoI am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the ending saith the Lord which is and

which was and which is to come the AlmightyrdquomdashBag] Or possibly refers to Eph iv 6 as it seems to be simply some verbal

suggestion

3501 [The Arianism implied in this passage if referred to the Word as God disappears if we regard it as spoken of Christ as

the Word manifested in human nature See the note of Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3502 Universe

3503 This is directly from Eph iv 6 ldquoWho is over all and through all and in allrdquo It is thus directly referred to the Father and

on the basis of the above note of Bag seems to convict of Arianism but in reality the conception of a pre-existing Word is

distinctly orthodox

1108

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

whom our divinely favored emperor receiving as it were a transcript of the Divine sovereigntydirects in imitation of God himself the administration of this worldrsquos affairs

Chapter II

1 This only begotten Word of God reigns from ages which had no beginning to infinite andendless ages the partner of his Fatherrsquos kingdom And [our emperor] ever beloved by him whoderives the source of imperial authority from above and is strong in the power of his sacred title3504

has controlled the empire of the world for a long period of years2 Again that Preserver of the universe orders these heavens and earth and the celestial kingdom

consistently with his Fatherrsquos will Even so our emperor whom he loves by bringing those whomhe rules on earth to the only begotten Word and Saviour renders them fit subjects of his kingdom

3 And as he who is the common Saviour of mankind by his invisible and Divine power as thegood shepherd drives far away from his flock like savage beasts those apostate spirits which onceflew through the airy tracts above this earth and fastened on the souls of men3505 so this his friendgraced by his heavenly favor with victory over all his foes subdues and chastens the open adversariesof the truth in accordance with the usages of war

4 He who is the pre-existent Word the Preserver of all things imparts to his disciples the seedsof true wisdom and salvation and at once enlightens and gives them understanding in the knowledgeof his Fatherrsquos kingdom Our emperor his friend acting as interpreter to the Word of God aimsat recalling the whole human race to the knowledge of God proclaiming clearly in the ears of alland declaring with powerful voice the laws of truth and godliness to all who dwell on the earth

5 Once more the universal Saviour opens the heavenly gates of his Fatherrsquos kingdom to thosewhose course is thitherward from this world Our emperor emulous of his Divine example havingpurged his earthly dominion from every stain of impious error invites each holy and pious worshiperwithin his imperial mansions earnestly desiring to save with all its crew that mighty vessel of whichhe is the appointed pilot And he alone of all who have wielded the imperial power of Rome beinghonored by the Supreme Sovereign with a reign of three decennial periods now celebrates thisfestival not as his ancestors might have done in honor of infernal demons or the apparitions ofseducing spirits or of the fraud and deceitful arts of impious men but as an act of thanksgiving to

3504 [It is difficult to know precisely what is meant here Possibly the name of ChristianmdashBag]

3505 This is an allusion to what was afterwards known as Vampireismmdasha belief of unknown antiquity and especially prevalent

in various forms in the East Rydberg (Magic of the Middle Ages p 207) describes the mediaeligval form thus ldquoThe vampires

according to the belief of the Middle Ages are disembodied souls which clothe themselves again in their buried bodies steal at

night into houses and suck from the nipple of the sleeping all their bloodrdquo (Cf Perty d myst Ersch 1 [1872] 383 91 Goumlrresrsquo

Chr myst Vol 3 etc) Similar in nature was that notion of the spirits who sucked away the breath of sleeping persons which

has left its trace in the modern superstition that cats suck away the breath of sleeping children

1109

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

590

savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

1120

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

1121

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and sentence ofdeath in every form3528 Thus did these valiant soldiers of the Almighty Sovereign maintain theconflict with steadfast fortitude of soul against the hostile forces of polytheism and thus did theseenemies of God and adversaries of manrsquos salvation more cruel far than the ferocious savage delight

591

in libations of human blood thus did their ministers drain as it were the cup of unrighteous slaughterin honor of the demons whom they served and prepare for them this dread and impious banquetto the ruin of the human race

9 In these sad circ*mstances what course should the God and King of these afflicted onespursue Could he be careless of the safety of his dearest friends or abandon his servants in thisgreat extremity Surely none could deem him a wary pilot who without an effort to save hisfellow-mariners should suffer his vessel to sink with all her crew surely no general could be foundso reckless as to yield his own allies without resistance to the mercy of the foe nor can a faithfulshepherd regard with unconcern the straying of a single sheep from his flock but will rather leavethe rest in safety and dare all things for the wandererrsquos sake even if need be to contend withsavage beasts

10 The zeal however of the great Sovereign of all was for no unconscious3529 sheep his carewas exercised for his own faithful host for those who sustained the battle for his sake whoseconflicts in the cause of godliness he himself approved and honored those who had returned to hispresence with the prize of victory which he only can bestow uniting them to the angelic choirsOthers he still preserved on earth to communicate the living seeds of piety to future generationsto be at once eye-witnesses of his vengeance on the ungodly and narrators of the events

11 After this he outstretched his arm in judgment on the adversaries and utterly destroyedthem with the stroke of Divine wrath compelling them how reluctant soever to confess with theirown lips and recant their wickedness but raising from the ground and exalting gloriously thosewho had long been oppressed and disclaimed by all

12 Such were the dealings of the Supreme Sovereign who ordained an invincible championto be the minister of his heaven-sent vengeance (for our emperorrsquos surpassing piety delights in thetitle of Servant of God) and him he has proved victorious over all that opposed him having raisedhim up an individual against many foes For they were indeed numberless being the friends ofmany evil spirits (though in reality they were nothing and hence are now no more) but our emperoris one appointed by and the representative of the one Almighty Sovereign And they in the veryspirit of impiety destroyed the righteous with cruel slaughter but he in imitation of his Saviour

3528 For account of the various details of persecution mentioned compare the Church History

3529 ldquoἀλόγουrdquo

1122

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and knowing only how to save menrsquos lives has spared and instructed in godliness the impiousthemselves

13 And so as truly worthy the name of Victor he has subdued the twofold race of barbarianssoothing the savage tribes of men by prudent embassies compelling them to know and acknowledgetheir superiors and reclaiming them from a lawless and brutal life to the governance of reason andhumanity at the same time that he proved by the facts themselves that the fierce and ruthless raceof unseen spirits had long ago been vanquished by a higher power For he who is the preserver ofthe universe had punished these invisible spirits by an invisible judgment and our emperor as thedelegate of the Supreme Sovereign has followed up the victory bearing away the spoils of thosewho have long since died and mouldered into dust and distributing the plunder with lavish handamong the soldiers of his victorious Lord3530

Chapter VIII

1 For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain andchildish dread of these bugbears of error wrought in gold and silver he judged it right to removethese also like stumbling-stones thrown in the path of men walking in the dark and henceforwardto open a royal road plain and unobstructed to all

2 Having formed this resolution he considered that no soldiers or military force of any sortwas needed for the repression of the evil a few of his own friends sufficed for this service andthese he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province

3 Accordingly sustained by confidence in the emperorrsquos piety and their own personal devotionto God they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations abolishing this ancientsystem of error in every city and country They ordered the priests themselves in the midst ofgeneral laughter and scorn to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day Theythen stripped them of their ornaments and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality whichhad been hidden beneath a painted exterior and lastly whatever part of the material appeared tobe of value they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth after which they secured andset apart whatever they judged needful for their purposes leaving to the superstitious worshiperswhat was altogether useless as a memorial of their shame

4 Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to that we havedescribed For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped as we have said

3530 [That is stripping the images of those whose temples he destroyed and apportioning the spoils among his Christian

followers See the next chapter which is mostly a transcript of the 54th and 55th chapters of the Third Book of the Life of

ConstantinemdashBag]

1123

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

592

of their precious materials he also attacked those composed of brass causing those to be draggedfrom their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive whom the dotage of mythologyhad esteemed as gods The next care of our august emperor was to kindle as it were a brillianttorch by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around to see if any hidden vestiges oferror might yet exist

5 And as the keen-sighted eagle in its heavenward flight is able to descry from its lofty heightthe most distant objects on the earth so did he whilst residing in the imperial palace of his ownfair city discover as from a watch-tower a hidden and fatal snare of souls in the province ofPhœnicia This was a grove and temple not situated in the midst of any city or in any public placeas for splendor of effect is generally the case but apart from the beaten and frequented road onpart of the summit of Mount Lebanon and dedicated to the foul demon known by the name ofVenus

6 It was a school of wickedness for all the abandoned votaries of impurity and such as destroyedtheir bodies with effeminacy Here men undeserving the name forgot the dignity of their sex andpropitiated the demon by their effeminate conduct here too unlawful commerce of women andadulterous intercourse with other horrible and infamous practices were perpetrated in this templeas in a place beyond the scope and restraint of law

Meantime these evils remained unchecked by the presence of any observer since no one of faircharacter ventured to visit such scenes

7 These proceedings however could not escape the vigilance of our august emperor whohaving himself inspected them with characteristic forethought and judging that such a temple wasunfit for the light of heaven gave orders that the building with its offerings should be utterlydestroyed Accordingly in obedience to the imperial edict these engines of an impure superstitionwere immediately abolished and the hand of military force was made instrumental in purging theplace And now those who had heretofore lived without restraint learned through the imperialthreat of punishment to practice self-control

8 Thus did our emperor tear the mask from this system of delusive wickedness and expose itto the public gaze at the same time proclaiming openly his Saviourrsquos name to all No advocateappeared neither god nor demon prophet nor diviner could lend his aid to the detected authors ofthe imposture For the souls of men were no longer enveloped in thick darkness but enlightenedby the rays of true godliness they deplored the ignorance and pitied the blindness of their forefathersrejoicing at the same time in their own deliverance from such fatal error3531

9 Thus speedily according to the counsel of the mighty God and through our emperorrsquos agencywas every enemy whether visible or unseen utterly removed and henceforward peace the happynurse of youth extended her reign throughout the world Wars were no more for the gods werenot no more did warfare in country or town no more did the effusion of human blood distressmankind as heretofore when demon-worship and the madness of idolatry prevailed

3531 ldquoThe Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God I thank thee that I am not as the rest of menrdquo

1124

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter IX

1 And now we may well compare the present with former things and review these happychanges in contrast with the evils that are past and mark the elaborate care with which in ancienttimes porches and sacred precincts groves and temples were prepared in every city for these falsedeities and how their shrines were enriched with abundant offerings

2 The sovereign rulers of those days had indeed a high regard for the worship of the gods Thenations also and people subject to their power honored them with images both in the country andin every city nay even in their houses and secret chambers according to the religious practice oftheir fathers The fruit however of this devotion far different from the peaceful concord whichnow meets our view appeared in war in battles and seditions which harassed them throughouttheir lives and deluged their countries with blood and civil slaughter

3 Again the objects of their worship could hold out to these sovereigns with artful flattery thepromise of prophecies and oracles and the knowledge of futurity yet could they not predict theirown destruction nor forewarn themselves of the coming ruin and surely this was the greatest andmost convincing proof of their imposture

4 Not one of those whose words once were heard with awe and wonder had announced theglorious advent of the Saviour of mankind3532 or that new revelation of divine knowledge whichhe came to give Not Pythius himself nor any of those mighty gods could apprehend the prospectof their approaching desolation nor could their oracles point at him who was to be their conquerorand destroyer

5 What prophet or diviner could foretell that their rites would vanish at the presence of a newDeity in the world and that the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Sovereign should be freely

593

given to all mankind Which of them foreknew the august and pious reign of our victorious emperoror his triumphant conquests everywhere over the false demons or the overthrow of their highplaces

6 Which of the heroes has announced the melting down and conversion of the lifeless statuesfrom their useless forms to the necessary uses of men Which of the gods have yet had power tospeak of their own images thus melted and contemptuously reduced to fragments

7 Where were the protecting powers that they should not interpose to save their sacredmemorials thus destroyed by man Where I ask are those who once maintained the strife of waryet now behold their conquerors abiding securely in the profoundest peace And where are theywho upheld themselves in a blind and foolish confidence and trusted in these vanities as gods butwho in the very height of their superstitious error and while maintaining an implacable war withthe champions of the truth perished by a fate proportioned to their crimes

3532 He seems to disagree with the view of the heathen prophecy which his imperial hearer maintained in his Oration to the

Saints

1125

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Where is the giant race whose arms were turned against heaven itself the hissings of thoseserpents whose tongues were pointed with impious words against the Almighty King Theseadversaries of the Lord of all confident in the aid of a multitude of gods advanced to the attackwith a powerful array of military force preceded by certain images of the dead and lifeless statuesas their defense On the other side our emperor secure in the armor of godliness opposed to thenumbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving Sign as at the same time a terror to the foe anda protection against every harm and returned victorious at once over the enemy and the demonswhom they served3533 And then with thanksgiving and praise the tokens of a grateful spirit to theAuthor of his victory he proclaimed this triumphant Sign by monuments as well as words to allmankind erecting it as a mighty trophy against every enemy in the midst of the imperial city andexpressly enjoining on all to acknowledge this imperishable symbol of salvation as the safeguardof the power of Rome and of the empire of the world

9 Such were the instructions which he gave to his subjects generally but especially to hissoldiers whom he admonished to repose their confidence not in their weapons or armor or bodilystrength but to acknowledge the Supreme God as the giver of every good and of victory itself

10 Thus did the emperor himself strange and incredible as the fact may seem become theinstructor of his army in their religious exercises and teach them to offer pious prayers in accordancewith the divine ordinances uplifting their hands towards heaven and raising their mental visionhigher still to the King of heaven on whom they should call as the Author of victory their preserverguardian and helper He commanded too that one day should be regarded as a special occasionfor religious worship I mean that which is truly the first and chief of all the day of our Lord andSaviour that day the name of which is connected with light and life and immortality and everygood

11 Prescribing the same pious conduct to himself he honored his Saviour in the chambers ofhis palace performing his devotions according to the Divine commands and storing his mind withinstruction through the hearing of the sacred word The entire care of his household was intrustedto ministers devoted to the service of God and distinguished by gravity of life and every othervirtue while his trusty body-guards strong in affection and fidelity to his person found in theiremperor an instructor in the practice of a godly life

12 Again the honor with which he regards the victorious Sign is founded on his actualexperience of its divine efficacy Before this the hosts of his enemies have disappeared by this thepowers of the unseen spirits have been turned to flight through this the proud boastings of Godrsquosadversaries have come to nought and the tongues of the profane and blasphemous been put tosilence By this Sign the Barbarian tribes were vanquished through this the rites of superstitiousfraud received a just rebuke by this our emperor discharging as it were a sacred debt has performedthe crowning good of all by erecting triumphant memorials of its value in all parts of the world

3533 For details respecting the following enumeration compare the Life of Constantine of which this is a reacutesumeacute This sentence

and the preceding are taken almost word for word from ch 16 of Bk II

1126

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

raising temples and churches on a scale of royal costliness and commanding all to unite inconstructing the sacred houses of prayer

13 Accordingly these signal proofs of our emperorrsquos magnificence forthwith appeared in theprovinces and cities of the empire and soon shone conspicuously in every country convincingmemorials of the rebuke and overthrow of those impious tyrants who but a little while before hadmadly dared to fight against God and raging like savage dogs had vented on unconscious buildingsthat fury which they were unable to level against him had thrown to the ground and upturned thevery foundations of the houses of prayer causing them to present the appearance of a city capturedand abandoned to the enemy Such was the exhibition of that wicked spirit whereby they soughtas it were to assail God himself but soon experienced the result of their own madness and folly

594

But a little time elapsed when a single blast of the storm of Heavenrsquos displeasure swept them utterlyaway leaving neither kindred nor offspring nor memorial of their existence among men for allnumerous as they were disappeared as in a moment beneath the stroke of Divine vengeance

14 Such then was the fate which awaited these furious adversaries of God but he who armedwith the salutary Trophy had alone opposed them (nay rather not alone but aided by the presenceand the power of him who is the only Sovereign) has replaced the ruined edifices on a greaterscale and made the second far superior to the first For example besides erecting various churchesto the honor of God in the city which bears his name and adorning the Bithynian capital withanother on the greatest and most splendid scale he has distinguished the principal cities of the otherprovinces by structures of a similar kind

15 Above all he has selected two places in the eastern division of the empire the one inPalestine (since from thence the life-giving stream has flowed as from a fountain for the blessingof all nations) the other in that metropolis of the East which derives its name from that of Antiochusin which as the head of that portion of the empire he has consecrated to the service of God a churchof unparalleled size and beauty The entire building is encompassed by an enclosure of great extentwithin which the church itself rises to a vast elevation of an octagonal form surrounded by manychambers and courts on every side and decorated with ornaments of the richest kind3534

16 Such was his work here Again in the province of Palestine in that city which was oncethe seat of Hebrew sovereignty on the very site of the Lordrsquos sepulchre he has raised a church ofnoble dimensions and adorned a temple sacred to the salutary Cross with rich and lavishmagnificence honoring that everlasting monument and the trophies of the Saviourrsquos victory overthe power of death with a splendor which no language can describe

17 In the same country he discovered three places venerable as the localities of three sacredcaves and these also he adorned with costly structures paying a fitting tribute of reverence to thescene of the first manifestation of the Saviourrsquos presence while at the second cavern he hallowedthe remembrance of his final ascension from the mountain top and celebrated his mighty conflict

3534 Almost word for word from the Life Bk III ch 50

1127

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and the victory which crowned it at the third3535 All these places our emperor thus adorned in thehope of proclaiming the symbol of redemption to all mankind

18 that Cross which has indeed repaid his pious zeal through which his house and throne alikehave prospered his reign has been confirmed for a lengthened series of years and the rewards ofvirtue bestowed on his noble sons his kindred and their descendants

19 And surely it is a mighty evidence of the power of that God whom he serves that he hasheld the balances of justice with an equal hand and has apportioned to each party their due rewardWith regard to the destroyers of the houses of prayer the penalty of their impious conduct followedhard upon them forthwith were they swept away and left neither race nor house nor family behindOn the other hand he whose pious devotion to his Lord is conspicuous in his every act who raisesroyal temples to his honor and proclaims his name to his subjects by sacred offerings throughoutthe world he I say has deservedly experienced him to be the preserver and defender of his imperialhouse and race Thus clearly have the dealings of God been manifested and this through the sacredefficacy of the salutary Sign

Chapter X

1 Much might indeed be said of this salutary Sign by those who are skilled in the mysteriesof our Divine religion For it is in very truth the symbol of salvation wondrous to speak of morewondrous still to conceive the appearance of which on earth has thrown the fictions of all falsereligion from the beginning into the deepest shade has buried superstitious error in darkness andoblivion and has revealed to all that spiritual light which enlightens the souls of men even theknowledge of the only true God

2 Hence the universal change for the better which leads men to spurn their lifeless idols totrample under foot the lawless rites of their demon deities and laugh to scorn the time-honoredfollies of their fathers Hence too the establishment in every place of those schools of sacredlearning wherein men are taught the precepts of saving truth and dread no more those objects ofcreation which are seen by the natural eye nor direct a gaze of wonder at the sun the moon orstars but acknowledge him who is above all these that invisible Being who is the Creator of themall and learn to worship him alone

3 Such are the blessings resulting to mankind from this great and wondrous Sign by virtue ofwhich the evils which once existed are now no more and virtues heretofore unknown shineeverywhere resplendent with the light of true godliness

3535 [In the Life of Constantine (vide [Bk III ch 41] supra) Eusebius mentions two caves only and speaks of the churches

built by Helena at Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives He here alludes to the magnificent church erected by Constantine at

the Lordrsquos sepulchre and ascribes to him those of Helena also as having been raised at the emperorrsquos expense Valesius ad

locmdashBag]

1128

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

595

4 Discourses and precepts and exhortations to a virtuous and holy life are proclaimed in theears of all nations Nay the emperor himself proclaims them and it is indeed a marvel that thismighty prince raising his voice in the hearing of all the world like an interpreter of the AlmightySovereignrsquos will invites his subjects in every country to the knowledge of the true God

5 No more as in former times is the babbling of impious men heard in the imperial palacebut priests and pious worshipers of God together celebrate his majesty with royal hymns of praiseThe name of the one Supreme Ruler of the universe is proclaimed to all the gospel of glad tidingsconnects the human race with its Almighty King declaring the grace and love of the heavenlyFather to his children on the earth

6 His praise is everywhere sung in triumphant strains the voice of mortal man is blended withthe harmony of the angelic choirs in heaven and the reasoning soul employs the body which investsit as an instrument for sounding forth a fitting tribute of praise and adoration to his name Thenations of the East and the West are instructed at the same moment in his precepts the people ofthe Northern and Southern regions unite with one accord under the influence of the same principlesand laws in the pursuit of a godly life in praising the one Supreme God in acknowledging hisonly begotten Son their Saviour as the source of every blessing and our emperor as the one ruleron the earth together with his pious sons

7 He himself as a skillful pilot sits on high at the helm of state and directs the vessel withunerring course conducting his people as it were with favoring breeze to a secure and tranquilhaven Meanwhile God himself the great Sovereign extends the right hand of his power fromabove for his protection giving him victory over every foe and establishing his empire by alengthened period of years and he will bestow on him yet higher blessings and confirm in everydeed the truth of his own promises But on these we may not at present dwell but must await thechange to a better world for it is not given to mortal eyes or ears of flesh fully to apprehend thethings of God3536

Chapter XI

1 And now victorious and mighty Constantine in this discourse whose noble argument is theglory of the Almighty King let me lay before thee some of the mysteries of his sacred truth notas presuming to instruct thee who art thyself taught of God nor to disclose to thee those secretwonders which he himself not through the agency of man but through our common Saviour andthe frequent light of his Divine presence has long since revealed and unfolded to thy view but inthe hope of leading the unlearned to the light and displaying before those who know them not thecauses and motives of thy pious deeds

3536 At this point according to some (compare Special Prolegomena) one oration ends and another begins

1129

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 True it is that thy noble efforts for the daily worship and honor of the Supreme God throughoutthe habitable world are the theme of universal praise But those records of gratitude to thy Saviourand Preserver which thou hast dedicated in our own province of Palestine and in that city fromwhich as from a fountain-head the Saviour Word3537 has issued forth to all mankind and again thehallowed edifices and consecrated temples which thou hast raised as trophies of his victory overdeath and those lofty and noble structures imperial monuments of an imperial spirit which thouhast erected in honor of the everlasting memory of the Saviourrsquos tomb the cause I say of thesethings is not equally obvious to all

3 Those indeed who are enlightened in heavenly knowledge by the power of the Divine Spiritwell understand the cause and justly admire and bless thee for that counsel and resolution whichHeaven itself inspired On the other hand the ignorant and spiritually blind regard these designswith open mockery and scorn and deem it a strange and unworthy thing indeed that so mighty aprince should waste his zeal on the graves and monuments of the dead

4 ldquoWere it not betterrdquo such a one might say ldquoto cherish those rites which are hallowed byancient usage to seek the favor of those gods and heroes whose worship is observed in everyprovince instead of rejecting and disclaiming them because subject to the calamities incident toman Surely they may claim equal honors with him who himself has suffered or if they are to berejected as not exempt from the sorrows of humanity the same award would justly be pronouncedrespecting himrdquo Thus with important and contracted brow might he give utterance in pompouslanguage to his self-imagined wisdom

5 Filled with compassion for this ignorance the gracious Word of our most beneficent Fatherfreely invites not such a one alone but all who are in the path of error to receive instruction inDivine knowledge and has ordained the means of such instruction throughout the world in everycountry and village in cultivated and desert lands alike and in every city and as a gracious Saviourand Physician of the soul calls on the Greek and the Barbarian the wise and the unlearned the

596

rich and the poor the servant and his master the subject and his lord the ungodly the profane theignorant the evil-doer the blasphemer alike to draw near and hasten to receive his heavenly cureAnd thus in time past had he clearly announced to all the pardon of former transgressions sayingldquoCome unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you restrdquo3538 And again ldquoIam not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentancerdquo3539 And he adds the reason saying

3537 Here the author seems to speak doubly of the Word and the word

3538 Matt xi 28

3539 Matt xi 13 RV ldquoFor I came not to call the righteous but sinnersrdquo The text here has the reading εισμετανοιαν omitted

by Tischendorf and the revisers with א B etc but supported by CEGKL sab cop etc It is worth noting that it is not in the

Sinaitic and if this text reading is correct it would nearly overthrow the possibility that this ms was one of those prepared under

the direction of Eusebius

1130

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ldquoFor they that are whole need not a physician but they that are sickrdquo3540 And again ldquoI desire notthe death of a sinner but rather that he should repentrdquo3541

6 Hence it is only for those who are themselves instructed in Divine things and understand themotives of that zeal of which these works are the result to appreciate the more than human impulseby which our emperor was guided to admire his piety toward God and to believe his care for thememorial of our Saviourrsquos resurrection to be a desire imparted from above and truly inspired bythat Sovereign to be whose faithful servant and minister for good is his proudest boast

7 In full persuasion then of thy approval most mighty emperor I desire at this present timeto proclaim to all the reasons and motives of thy pious works I desire to stand as the interpreter ofthy designs to explain the counsels of a soul devoted to the love of God I propose to teach all menwhat all should know who care to understand the principles on which our Saviour God employshis power the reasons for which he who was the pre-existent Controller of all things at lengthdescended to us from heaven the reasons for which he assumed our nature and submitted even tothe power of death I shall declare the causes of that immortal life which followed and of hisresurrection from the dead Once more I shall adduce convincing proofs and arguments for thesake of those who yet need such testimony

8 and now let me commence my appointed taskThose who transfer the worship due to that God who formed and rules the world to the works

of his hand who hold the sun and moon or other parts of this material system nay the elementsthemselves earth water air and fire in equal honor with the Creator of them all who give thename of gods to things which never would have had existence or even name except as obedientto that Word of God who made the world such persons in my judgment resemble those whooverlook the master hand which gives its magnificence to a royal palace and while lost in wonderat its roofs and walls the paintings of varied beauty and coloring which adorn them and its gildedceilings and sculptures ascribe to them the praise of that skill which belongs to the artist whosework they are whereas they should assign the cause of their wonder not to these visible objectsbut to the architect himself and confess that the proofs of skill are indeed manifest but that healone is the possessor of that skill who has made them what they are

9 Again well might we liken those to children who should admire the seven-stringed lyreand disregard him who invented or has power to use it or those who forget the valiant warrior andadorn his spear and shield with the chaplet of victory or lastly those who hold the squares andstreets the public buildings temples and gymnasia of a great and royal city in equal honor withits founder forgetting that their admiration is due not to lifeless stones but to him whose wisdomplanned and executed these mighty works

3540 Matt xi 12

3541 Ezek xviii 23 RV ldquoHave I any pleasure in the death of the wicked saith the Lord God and not rather that he should

return from his way and liverdquo

1131

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

10 Not less absurd is it for those who regard this universe with the natural eye to ascribe itsorigin to the sun or moon or any other heavenly body Rather let them confess that these arethemselves the works of a higher wisdom remember the Maker and Framer of them all and renderto him the praise and honor above all created objects Nay rather inspired by the sight of these veryobjects let them address themselves with full purpose of heart to glorify and worship him who isnow invisible to mortal eye but perceived by the clear and unclouded vision of the soul thesupremely sovereign Word of God To take the instance of the human body no one has yet conferredthe attribute of wisdom on the eyes or head the hands or feet or other members far less on theoutward clothing of a wise and learned man no one terms the philosopherrsquos household furnitureand utensils wise but every rational person admires that invisible and secret power the mind ofthe man himself

11 How much more then is our admiration due not to the visible mechanism of the universematerial as it is and formed of the selfsame elements but to that invisible Word who has mouldedand arranged it all who is the only-begotten Son of God and whom the Maker of all things whofar transcends all being has begotten of himself and appointed Lord and Governor of this universe

12 For since it was impossible that perishable bodies or the rational spirits which he had

597

created should approach the Supreme God by reason of their immeasurable distance from hisperfections for he is unbegotten above and beyond all creation ineffable inaccessibleunapproachable dwelling as his holy word assures us3542 in the light which none can enter butthey were created from nothing and are infinitely far removed from his unbegotten Essence wellhas the all-gracious and Almighty God interposed as it were an intermediate Power3543 betweenhimself and them even the Divine omnipotence of his only-begotten Word And this Power whichis in perfect nearness and intimacy of union with the Father which abides in him and shares hissecret counsels has yet condescended in fullness of grace as it were to conform itself to thosewho are so far removed from the supreme majesty of God How else consistently with his ownholiness could he who is far above and beyond all things unite himself to corruptible and corporealmatter Accordingly the Divine Word thus connecting himself with this universe and receiving

3542 1 Tim vi 16

3543 [This whole passage (which is defended by Valesius) appears if rigidly interpreted to lie under suspicion of a tinge of

ArianismmdashBag] It savors directly of Philo His doctrine was of an ineffable God above and separate from matter and defiled

by any contact with it To bring him into connection with created things he introduced intermediate beings or ldquopowersrdquo the

universal power including all the rest being the Logos Compare brief account in Zellerrsquos Outlines of Greek Philosophy p

320ndash325 Siegfried Philo von Alexandria (Jena 1875) especially p 199 sq 219 sq and p 362ndash364 where he treats very

inadequately of Eusebiusrsquo dependence on Philo also works of Philo and Eusebiusrsquo Praeligp and Demonst Ev There is a chance

of viewing the Word thus as created but if this is guarded against (as it is by him in the use of ldquobegottenrdquo) there is nothing

intrinsically heterodox in making the Word the Creator of the world and only Revealer of the Father The direct Philonian

influence is seen in the phraseology of the following sentences

1132

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

into his hands the reins as it were of the world turns and directs it as a skillful charioteer accordingto his own will and pleasure

13 The proof of these assertions is evident For supposing that those component parts of theworld which we call elements as earth water air and fire the nature of which is manifestly withoutintelligence are self-existent and if they have one common essence which they who are skilledin natural science call the great receptacle mother and nurse of all things and if this itself be utterlydevoid of shape and figure of soul and reason whence shall we say it has obtained its present formand beauty To what shall we ascribe the distinction of the elements or the union of things contraryin their very nature Who has commanded the liquid water to sustain the heavy element of earthWho has turned back the waters from their downward course and carried them aloft in cloudsWho has bound the force of fire and caused it to lie latent in wood and to combine with substancesmost contrary to itself Who has mingled the cold air with heat and thus reconciled the enmity ofopposing principles Who has devised the continuous succession of the human race and given itas it were an endless term of duration Who has moulded the male and female form adapted theirmutual relations with perfect harmony and given one common principle of production to everyliving creature Who changes the character of the fluid and corruptible seed which in itself is voidof reason and gives it its prolific power Who is at this moment working these and ten thousandeffects more wonderful than these nay surpassing all wonder and with invisible influence is dailyand hourly perpetuating the production of them all

14 Surely the wonder-working and truly omnipotent Word of God may well be deemed theefficient cause of all these things that Word who diffusing himself through all creation pervadingheight and depth with incorporeal energy and embracing the length and breadth of the universewithin his mighty grasp has compacted and reduced to order this entire system from whoseunreasoned and formless matter he has framed for himself an instrument of perfect harmony thenicely balanced chords and notes of which he touches with all-wise and unerring skill He it is whogoverns the sun and moon and the other luminaries of heaven by inexplicable laws and directstheir motions for the service of the universal whole

15 It is this Word of God who has stooped to the earth on which we live and created themanifold species of animals and the fair varieties of the vegetable world It is this same Word whohas penetrated the recesses of the deep has given their being to the finny race and produced thecountless forms of life which there exist It is he who fashions the burden of the womb and informsit in naturersquos laboratory with the principle of life By him the fluid and heavy moisture is raised onhigh and then sweetened by a purifying change descends in measured quantities to the earth andat stated seasons in more profuse supply

16 Like a skillful husbandman he fully irrigates the land tempers the moist and dry in justproportion diversifying the whole with brilliant flowers with aspects of varied beauty with pleasantfragrance with alternating varieties of fruits and countless gratifications for the taste of men Butwhy do I dare essay a hopeless task to recount the mighty works of the Word of God and describean energy which surpasses mortal thought By some indeed he has been termed the Nature of the

1133

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

universe by others the World-Soul by others Fate Others again have declared him to be the mostHigh God himself strangely confounding things most widely different bringing down to this earthuniting to a corruptible and material body and assigning to that supreme and unbegotten Power

598

who is Lord of all an intermediate place between irrational animals and rational mortals on the onehand and immortal beings on the other3544

Chapter XII

1 On the other hand the sacred doctrine teaches that he who is the supreme Source of goodand Cause of all things is beyond all comprehension and therefore inexpressible by word orspeech or name surpassing the power not of language only but of thought itself Uncirc*mscribedby place or body neither in heaven nor in ethereal space nor in any other part of the universebut entirely independent of all things else he pervades the depths of unexplored and secret wisdomThe sacred oracles teach us to acknowledge him as the only true God3545 apart from all corporealessence distinct from all subordinate ministration Hence it is said that all things are from him butnot through him3546

2 And he himself dwelling as Sovereign in secret and undiscovered regions of unapproachablelight ordains and disposes all things by the single power of his own will At his will whatever isexists without that will it cannot be And his will is in every case for good since he is essentiallyGoodness itself But he through whom are all things even God the Word proceeding in an ineffable

3544 [Of this somewhat obscure passage a translator can do no more than give as nearly as possible a literal version The

intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that the author here and in the following chapter has trodden on very dangerous

groundmdashBag] Compare above notes on the relations of Eusebius and Philo

3545 [Referring apparently to John xvii 3 ldquoAnd this is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus

Christ whom thou hast sentrdquo a passage which has been called a stronghold of the impugners of the Deity of Christ but which

simply considered with its context cannot fairly be understood to indicate any inferiority of the Son to the Father but rather

appears to speak of the mission of the former as the manifestation of the grace of him who is called ldquothe only true Godrdquo in

contradistinction to the polytheism of the heathen world In other words the knowledge of ldquothe only true Godrdquo in connection

with that of ldquoJesus Christ whom he has sentrdquo constitutes ldquoeternal liferdquo the one being ineffectual and indeed impossible without

the othermdashBag] Compare 1 John v 20ndash21 ldquoThat we know him that is true and we are in him that is true even in his Son Jesus

Christ This is the true God and eternal liferdquo which seems to show that John had no idea of any subordination in essence in this

matter

3546 [But see for a refutation of this statement Rom xi 36 and Heb ii 10mdashBag] Yet the second of these references clearly

refers to the Son Eusebius speaking of God the Father has in mind the truth that all things were made by the Son ldquoand without

him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo John i 3

1134

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

manner from the Father above as from an everlasting and exhaustless fountain flows onward likea river with a full and abundant stream of power for the preservation of the universal whole

3 And now let us select an illustration from our own experience The invisible and undiscoveredmind within us the essential nature of which no one has ever known sits as a monarch in theseclusion of his secret chambers and alone resolves on our course of action From this proceedsthe only-begotten word from its fatherrsquos bosom begotten in a manner and by a power inexplicableto us and is the first messenger of its fatherrsquos thoughts declares his secret counsels and conveyingitself to the ears of others accomplishes his designs

4 And thus the advantage of this faculty is enjoyed by all yet no one has ever yet beheld thatinvisible and hidden mind which is the parent of the word itself3547 In the same manner or ratherin a manner which far surpasses all likeness or comparison the perfect Word of the Supreme Godas the only-begotten Son of the Father (not consisting in the power of utterance nor comprehendedin syllables and parts of speech nor conveyed by a voice which vibrates on the air but being himselfthe living and effectual Word of the most High and subsisting personally as the Power and Wisdomof God)3548 proceeds from his Fatherrsquos Deity and kingdom3549 Thus being the perfect Offspringof a perfect Father and the common Preserver of all things he diffuses himself with living powerthroughout creation and pours from his own fullness abundant supplies of reason3550 wisdom lightand every other blessing not only on objects nearest to himself but on those most remote whetherin earth or sea or any other sphere of being

5 To all these he appoints with perfect equity their limits places laws and inheritance allottingto each their suited portion according to his sovereign will To some he assigns the super-terrestrialregions to others heaven itself as their habitation others he places in ethereal space others in airand others still on earth He it is who transfers mankind from hence to another sphere impartiallyreviews their conduct here and bestows a recompense according to the life and habits of each Byhim provision is made for the life and food not of rational creatures only but also of the brutecreation for the service of men

6 and while to the latter he grants the enjoyment of a perishable and fleeting term of existencethe former he invites to a share in the possession of immortal life Thus universal is the agency ofthe Word of God everywhere present and pervading all things by the power of his intelligence

3547 The author is now speaking especially of the spoken or ldquoexpressedrdquo word

3548 Compare 1 Cor i 24

3549 This conception that the Divine Word stands in something the same relation with the Father that the human word (internal

and external) does to the human spirit has at least an interesting suggestion towards the unraveling of this curious mystery

which for lack of a better word it is the fashion just now to call a human personality and which certainly is made in the image

and likeness of God Unless there lurks in the idea some subtle heresy one may venture to accept as an interesting analogy this

relation of invisible self self expressed to self (internal word) self revealed (external word) and an expression carried to the

point of embodiment (incarnation)

3550 ldquoLogosrdquo againmdashhere the internal word

1135

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he looks upward to his Father and governs this lower creation inferior to and consequent uponhimself in accordance with his will as the common Preserver of all things

599

7 Intermediate as it were and attracting the created to the uncreated Essence this Word ofGod exists as an unbroken bond between the two uniting things most widely different by aninseparable tie He is the Providence which rules the universe the guardian and director of thewhole he is the Power and Wisdom of God the only-begotten God the Word begotten of Godhimself For ldquoIn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was GodAll things were made by him and without him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo as welearn from the words of the sacred writer3551 Through his vivifying power all nature grows andflourishes refreshed by his continual showers and invested with a vigor and beauty ever new

8 Guiding the reigns of the universe he holds its onward course in conformity to the Fatherrsquoswill and moves as it were the helm of this mighty ship This glorious Agent the only-begottenSon of the Supreme God begotten by the Father as his perfect Offspring the Father has given tothis world as the highest of all goods infusing his word as spirit into a lifeless body into unconsciousnature imparting light and energy to that which in itself was a rude inanimate and formless massthrough the Divine power Him therefore it is ours to acknowledge and regard as everywherepresent and giving life to matter and the elements of nature3552 in him we see Light even thespiritual offspring of inexpressible Light one indeed in essence as being the Son of one Fatherbut possessing in himself many and varied powers

9 The world is indeed divided into many parts yet let us not therefore suppose that there aremany independent Agents nor though creationrsquos works be manifold let us thence assume theexistence of many gods How grievous the error of those childish and infatuated advocates ofpolytheistic worship who deify the constituent parts of the universe and divide into many thatsystem which is only one

10 Such conduct resembles theirs who should abstract the eyes of an individual man and termthem the man himself and the ears another man and so the head or again by an effort of thoughtshould separate the neck the breast and shoulders the feet and hands or other members nay thevery powers of sense and thus pronounce an individual to be a multitude of men Such folly mustsurely be rewarded with contempt by men of sense Yet such is he who from the component partsof a single world can devise for himself a multitude of gods or even deem that world which is thework of a Creator and consists of many parts to be itself a god3553 not knowing that the DivineNature can in no sense be divisible into parts since if compounded it must be so through the

3551 John i 1ndash3

3552 One on the scent for heresy might prick up his ears and sound the alarm of ldquoGnosticismrdquo

3553 A curious work just issued (anonymous) under the authority of the Bureau of Education very complacently evolves the

truth of existence out of the authorrsquos pure untrammeled consciousnessmdashfor he has never read any works either on science or

on theologymdashand arrives at the condescending conclusion that there is a God or rather in the words of Eusebius the author

comes to ldquodeem that worldhellipto be itself Godrdquo

1136

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

agency of another power and that which is so compounded can never be Divine How indeed couldit be so if composed of unequal and dissimilar and hence of worse and better elements Simpleindivisible uncompounded the Divine Nature exists at an infinite elevation above the visibleconstitution of this world

11 And hence we are assured by the clear testimony of the sacred Herald3554 that the Word ofGod who is before all things must be the sole Preserver of all intelligent beings while God whois above all and the Author of the generation of the Word being himself the Cause of all thingsis rightly called the Father of the Word as of his only-begotten Son himself acknowledging nosuperior Cause God therefore himself is One and from him proceeds the one only-begotten Wordthe omnipresent Preserver of all things And as the many-stringed lyre is composed of differentchords both sharp and flat some slightly others tensely strained and others intermediate betweenthe two extremes yet all attuned according to the rules of harmonic art even so this material worldcompounded as it is of many elements containing opposite and antagonist principles as moistureand dryness cold and heat yet blended into one harmonious whole may justly be termed a mightyinstrument framed by the hand of God an instrument on which the Divine Word himself notcomposed of parts or opposing principles but indivisible and uncompounded performs with perfectskill and produces a melody at once accordant with the will of his Father the Supreme Lord of alland glorious to himself Again as there are manifold external and internal parts and memberscomprised in a single body yet one invisible soul one undivided and incorporeal mind pervadesthe whole so is it in this creation which consisting of many parts yet is but one and so the Onemighty yea Almighty Word of God pervading all things and diffusing himself with undeviatingenergy throughout this universe is the Cause of all things that exist therein

12 Survey the compass of this visible world Seest thou not how the same heaven contains

600

within itself the countless courses and companies of the stars Again the sun is one and yet eclipsesmany nay all other luminaries by the surpassing glory of his rays Even so as the Father himselfis One his Word is also One the perfect Son of that perfect Father Should any one object becausethey are not more as well might he complain that there are not many suns or moons or worldsand a thousand things beside like the madman who would fain subvert the fair and perfect courseof Nature herself As in the visible so also in the spiritual world in the one the same sun diffuseshis light throughout this material earth in the other the One Almighty Word of God illumines allthings with invisible and secret power

13 Again there is in man one spirit and one faculty of reason which yet is the active causeof numberless effects The same mind instructed in many things will essay to cultivate the earthto build and guide a ship and construct houses nay the one mind and reason of man is capable ofacquiring knowledge in a thousand forms the same mind shall understand geometry and astronomyand discourse on the rules of grammar and rhetoric and the healing art Nor will it excel in science

3554 [Referring (says Valesius) to St John whose words Eusebius had lately cited ldquoIn the beginning was the Wordrdquo ampc

and now explains paraphrastically The reader will decide for himself on the merits of the paraphrasemdashBag]

1137

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

only but in practice too and yet no one has ever supposed the existence of many minds in onehuman form nor expressed his wonder at a plurality of being in man because he is thus capableof varied knowledge

14 Suppose one were to find a shapeless mass of clay to mould it with his hands and give itthe form of a living creature the head in one figure the hands and feet in another the eyes andcheeks in a third and so to fashion the ears the mouth and nose the breast and shoulders accordingto the rules of the plastic art The result indeed is a variety of figure of parts and members in theone body yet must we not suppose it the work of many hands but ascribe it entirely to the skill ofa single artist and yield the tribute of our praise to him who by the energy of a single mind hasframed it all The same is true of the universe itself which is one though consisting of many partsyet surely we need not suppose many creative powers nor invent a plurality of gods Our duty isto adore the all-wise and all-perfect agency of him who is indeed the Power and the Wisdom ofGod whose undivided force and energy pervades and penetrates the universe creating and givinglife to all things and furnishing to all collectively and severally those manifold supplies of whichhe is himself the source

15 Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once gives lightto the eyes warmth to the touch fertility to the earth and growth to plants The same luminaryconstitutes the course of time governs the motions of the stars performs the circuit of the heavensimparts beauty to the earth and displays the power of God to all and all this he performs by thesole and unaided force of his own nature In like manner fire has the property of refining gold andfusing lead of dissolving wax of parching clay and consuming wood producing these variedeffects by one and the same burning power

16 So also the Supreme Word of God pervading all things everywhere existent everywherepresent in heaven and earth governs and directs the visible and invisible creation the sun theheaven and the universe itself with an energy inexplicable in its nature irresistible in its effectsFrom him as from an everlasting fountain the sun the moon and stars receive their light and heforever rules that heaven which he has framed as the fitting emblem of his own greatness Theangelic and spiritual powers the incorporeal and intelligent beings which exist beyond the sphereof heaven and earth are filled by him with light and life with wisdom and virtue with all that isgreat and good from his own peculiar treasures Once more with one and the same creative skillhe ceases not to furnish the elements with substance to regulate the union and combinations theforms and figures and the innumerable qualities of organized bodies preserving the varieddistinctions of animal and vegetable life of the rational and the brute creation and supplying allthings to all with equal power thus proving himself the Author not indeed of the seven-stringed

1138

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lyre3555 but of that system of perfect harmony which is the workmanship of the One world-creatingWord3556

Chapter XIII

1 And now let us proceed to explain the reasons for which this mighty Word of God descendedto dwell with men Our ignorant and foolish race incapable of comprehending him who is the Lordof heaven and earth proceeding from his Fatherrsquos Deity as from the supreme fountain ever presentthroughout the world and evincing by the clearest proofs his providential care for the interests ofman have ascribed the adorable title of Deity to the sun and moon the heaven and the stars ofheaven Nor did they stop here but deified the earth itself its products and the various substances

601

by which animal life is sustained and devised images of Ceres of Proserpine of Bacchus3557 andmany such as these

2 Nay they shrank not from giving the name of gods to the very conceptions of their ownminds and the speech by which those conceptions are expressed calling the mind itself Minervaand language Mercury3558 and affixing the names of Mnemosyne and the Muses to those facultiesby means of which science is acquired Nor was even this enough advancing still more rapidly inthe career of impiety and folly they deified their own evil passions which it behooved them toregard with aversion or restrain by the principles of self-control Their very lust and passion andimpure disease of soul the members of the body which tempt to obscenity and even the veryuncontrol3559 in shameful pleasure they described under the titles of Cupid Priapus Venus3560 andother kindred terms

3 Nor did they stop even here Degrading their thoughts of God to this corporeal and mortallife they deified their fellow-men conferring the names of gods and heroes on those who hadexperienced the common lot of all and vainly imagining that the Divine and imperishable Essencecould frequent the tombs and monuments of the dead Nay more than this they paid divine honorsto animals of various species and to the most noxious reptiles they felled trees and excavatedrocks they provided themselves with brass and iron and other metals of which they fashioned

3555 [In reference singularly enough to the illustration of the lyre in the preceding chaptermdashBag]

3556 It is idle to treat as philosophically or theologically unworthy of consideration a system of thought so definitely unified

and with such Scriptural basis as the above It may not be profound or original but is definite and clear

3557 ldquoOf Demeter of Cora of Dionysiusrdquo

3558 ldquoAthenehellipHermesrdquo

3559 The word used here ἀκρeuroτεια is the opposite of the famous philosophical word for self-controlmdashἐγκρeuroτεια

3560 ldquoEros Priapus Aphroditerdquo

1139

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

resemblances of the male and female human form of beasts and creeping things and these theymade the objects of their worship

4 Nor did this suffice To the evil spirits themselves which lurked within their statues or layconcealed in secret and dark recesses eager to drink their libations and inhale the odor of theirsacrifices they ascribed the same divine honors Once more they endeavored to secure the familiaraid of these spirits and the unseen powers which move through the tracts of air by charms offorbidden magic and the compulsion of unhallowed songs and incantations Again different nationshave adopted different persons as objects of their worship The Greeks have rendered to BacchusHercules AEligsculapius Apollo and others who were mortal men the titles of gods and heroes TheEgyptians have deified Horus and Isis Osiris and other mortals such as these And thus they whoboast of the wondrous skill whereby they have discovered geometry astronomy and the scienceof number know not wise as they are in their own conceit nor understand how to estimate themeasure of the power of God or calculate his exceeding greatness above the nature of irrationaland mortal beings

5 Hence they shrank not from applying the name of gods to the most hideous of the brutecreation to venomous reptiles and savage beasts The Phœnicians deified Melcatharus Usorus3561

and others mere mortals and with little claim to honor the Arabians Dusaris3562 and Obodas theGetaelig Zamolxis the Cicilians Mopsus and the Thebans Amphiaraus3563 in short each nation hasadopted its own peculiar deities differing in no respect from their fellow-mortals being simplyand truly men Again the Egyptians with one consent the Phœnicians the Greeks nay everynation beneath the sun have united in worshiping the very parts and elements of the world andeven the produce of the ground itself And which is most surprising though acknowledging theadulterous unnatural and licentious crimes of their deities they have not only filled every cityand village and district with temples shrines and statues in their honor but have followed theirevil example to the ruin of their own souls

6 We hear of gods and the sons of gods described by them as heroes and good genii titlesentirely opposed to truth honors utterly at variance with the qualifies they are intended to exalt Itis as if one who desired to point out the sun and the luminaries of heaven instead of directing hisgaze thitherward should grope with his hands on the ground and search for the celestial powersin the mud and mire Even so mankind deceived by their own folly and the craft of evil spiritshave believed that the Divine and spiritual Essence which is far above heaven and earth could becompatible with the birth the affections and death of mortal bodies here below To such a pitchof madness did they proceed as to sacrifice the dearest objects of their affection to their gods

3561 It is probably that ldquoMelkathrosrdquo and ldquoUsousrdquo referred to in the Praeligp Evang 1 10 (ed Gaisford Oxon 1843 1 p 77

and 84) The same passage may be found with English translation in Coryrsquos Ancient Fragments Lond 1832 p 6ndash7 13

3562 Dusaris was it is said equivalent to Bacchus

3563 All the above names excepting those specially noted may be found in Smith Dict of Greek and Roman Biog and Mythol

1140

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

regardless of all natural ties and urged by frenzied feeling to slay their only and best belovedchildren

7 For what can be a greater proof of madness than to offer human sacrifice to pollute everycity and even their own houses with kindred blood Do not the Greeks themselves attest this andis not all history filled with records of the same impiety The Phœnicians devoted their best belovedand only children as an annual sacrifice to Saturn The Rhodians on the sixth day of the month

602

Metageitnion3564 offered human victims to the same god At Salamis a man was pursued in thetemple of Minerva Agraulis and Diomede compelled to run thrice round the altar afterwardspierced with a lance by the priest and consumed as a burnt offering on the blazing pile In Egypthuman sacrifice was most abundant At Heliopolis three victims were daily offered to Juno forwhom king Amoses impressed with the atrocity of the practice commanded the substitution of anequal number of waxen figures In Chios and again in Tenedos a man was slain and offered up toOmadian Bacchus At Sparta they immolated human beings to Mars In Crete they did likewiseoffering human sacrifices to Saturn In Laodicea of Syria a virgin was yearly slain in honor ofMinerva for whom a hart is now the substitute The Libyans and Carthaginians appeased their godswith human victims The Dumateni of Arabia buried a boy annually beneath the altar Historyinforms us that the Greeks without exception the Thracians also and Scythians were accustomedto human sacrifice before they marched forth to battle The Athenians record the immolation of thevirgin children of Leus3565 and the daughter of Erechtheus3566 Who knows not that at this day ahuman victim is offered in Rome itself at the festival of Jupiter Latiaris

8 And these facts are confirmed by the testimony of the most approved philosophers Diodorusthe epitomizer of libraries3567 affirms that two hundred of the noblest youths were sacrificed toSaturn by the Libyan people and that three hundred more were voluntarily offered by their ownparents Dionysius the compiler of Roman history3568 expressly says that Jupiter and Apollodemanded human sacrifices of the so-called Aborigines in Italy He relates that on this demandthey offered a proportion of all their produce to the gods but that because of their refusal to slayhuman victims they became involved in manifold calamities from which they could obtain norelease until they had decimated themselves a sacrifice of life which proved the desolation of theircountry Such and so great were the evils which of old afflicted the whole human race

3564 Corresponding nearly to our August Key Calendarium in Smith Dict Gr and R Ant p 223

3565 [Leus is said to have offered his three daughters Phasithea Theope and Eubule the oracle at Delphi having declared

that the relief of the city from famine could only be effected by the shedding of the blood of his daughters by one of the

citizensmdashBag]

3566 [Alluding to the sacrifice of his daughter Chthonia by Erechtheus son of Pandion the Athenians having been promised

victory by the oracle over the Eleusinians and their Thracian allies on the condition of the death of a daughter of

ErechtheusmdashBag]

3567 Diodorus Siculus whose work is mentioned elsewhere (Praeligp Evang 1 6 ed Gaisford p 40) as a ldquohistorical libraryrdquo

3568 Dionysius of Halicarnassus

1141

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

9 Nor was this the full extent of their misery they groaned beneath the pressure of other evilsequally numerous and irremediable All nations whether civilized or barbarous throughout theworld as if actuated by a demoniac frenzy were infected with sedition as with some fierce andterrible disease insomuch that the human family was irreconcilably divided against itself the greatsystem of society was distracted and torn asunder and in every corner of the earth men stoodopposed to each other and strove with fierce contention on questions of law and government

10 Nay more than this with passions aroused to fury they engaged in mutual conflicts sofrequent that their lives were passed as it were in uninterrupted warfare None could undertake ajourney except as prepared to encounter an enemy in the very country and villages the rusticsgirded on the sword provided themselves with armor rather than with the implements of rural laborand deemed it noble exploit to plunder and enslave any who belonged to a neighboring state

11 Nay more than this from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their owndeities they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life and wrought the ruin of body andsoul by licentiousness of every kind Not content with this they even overstepped the bounds whichnature had defined and together committed incredible and nameless crimes ldquomen with men (inthe words of the sacred writer) working un-seemliness and receiving in themselves that recompenseof their error which was duerdquo

12 Nor did they stop even here but perverted their natural thoughts of God and denied thatthe course of this world was directed by his providential care ascribing the existence and constitutionof all things to the blind operation of chance or the necessity of fate

13 Once more believing that soul and body were alike dissolved by death they led a brutishlife unworthy of the name careless of the nature or existence of the soul they dreaded not thetribunal of Divine justice expected no reward of virtue nor thought of chastisem*nt as the penaltyof an evil life

14 Hence it was that whole nations a prey to wickedness in all its forms were wasted by theeffects of their own brutality some living in the practice of most vile and lawless incest withmothers others with sisters and others again corrupting their own daughters Some were foundwho slew their confiding guests others who fed on human flesh some strangled and then feastedon their aged men others threw them alive to dogs The time would fail me were I to attempt todescribe the multifarious symptoms of the inveterate malady which had asserted its dominion overthe whole human race

15 Such and numberless others like these were the prevailing evils on account of which thegracious Word of God full of compassion for his human flock had long since by the ministry of

603

his prophets and earlier still as well as later by that of men distinguished by pious devotion toGod invited those thus desperately afflicted to their own cure and had by means of lawsexhortations and doctrines of every kind proclaimed to man the principles and elements of truegodliness But when for mankind distracted and torn as I have said not indeed by wolves andsavage beasts but by ruthless and soul-destroying spirits of evil human power no longer sufficedbut a help was needed superior to that of man then it was that the Word of God obedient to his

1142

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

all-gracious Fatherrsquos will at length himself appeared and most willingly made his abode amongstus

16 The causes of his advent I have already described induced by which he condescended tothe society of man not in his wonted form and manner for he is incorporeal and present everywherethroughout the world proving by his agency both in heaven and earth the greatness of his almightypower but in a character new and hitherto unknown Assuming a mortal body he deigned toassociate and converse with men desiring through the medium of their own likeness to save ourmortal race

Chapter XIV

1 And now let us explain the cause for which the incorporeal Word of God assumed this mortalbody as a medium of intercourse with man How indeed else than in human form could that Divineand impalpable that immaterial and invisible Essence manifest itself to those who sought for Godin created and earthly objects unable or unwilling otherwise to discern the Author and Maker ofall things

2 As a fitting means therefore of communication with mankind he assumed a mortal bodyas that with which they were themselves familiar for like it is proverbially said loves its like Tothose then whose affections were engaged by visible objects who looked for gods in statues andlifeless images who imagined the Deity to consist in material and corporeal substance nay whoconferred on men the title of divinity the Word of God presented himself in this form

3 Hence he procured for himself this body as a thrice-hallowed temple a sensible habitationof an intellectual power a noble and most holy form of far higher worth than any lifeless statueThe material and senseless image fashioned by base mechanic hands of brass or iron of gold orivory wood or stone may be a fitting abode for evil spirits but that Divine form wrought by thepower of heavenly wisdom was possessed of life and spiritual being a form animated by everyexcellence the dwelling-place of the Word of God a holy temple of the holy God

4 Thus the indwelling Word3569 conversed with and was known to men as kindred withthemselves yet yielded not to passions such as theirs nor owned as the natural soul subjection tothe body He parted not with aught of his intrinsic greatness nor changed his proper Deity For asthe all-pervading radiance of the sun receives no stain from contact with dead and impure bodiesmuch less can the incorporeal power of the Word of God be injured in its essential purity or partwith any of its greatness from spiritual contact with a human body

5 Thus I say did our common Saviour prove himself the benefactor and preserver of alldisplaying his wisdom through the instrumentality of his human nature even as a musician uses

3569 All these various conceptions of the Word are strictly Biblical (1) The Word the only revealer of the Father who otherwise

could not be known (2) The human body the temple of God (3) The indwelling Word

1143

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

the lyre to evince his skill The Grecian myth tells us that Orpheus had power to charm ferociousbeasts and tame their savage spirit by striking the chords of his instrument with a master handand this story is celebrated by the Greeks and generally believed that an unconscious instrumentcould subdue the untamed brute and draw the trees from their places in obedience to its melodiouspower But he who is the author of perfect harmony the all-wise Word of God desiring to applyevery remedy to the manifold diseases of the souls of men employed that human nature which isthe workmanship of his own wisdom as an instrument by the melodious strains of which he soothednot indeed the brute creation but savages endued with reason healing each furious temper eachfierce and angry passion of the soul both in civilized and barbarous nations by the remedial powerof his Divine doctrine Like a physician of perfect skill he met the diseases of their souls whosought for God in nature and in bodies by a fitting and kindred remedy and showed them God inhuman form

6 And then with no less care for the body than the soul he presented before the eyes of menwonders and signs as proofs of his Divine power at the same time instilling into their ears of fleshthe doctrines which he himself uttered with a corporeal tongue In short he performed all his worksthrough the medium of that body which he had assumed for the sake of those who else were incapableof apprehending his Divine nature

7 In all this he was the servant of his Fatherrsquos will himself remaining still the same as whenwith the Father unchanged in essence unimpaired in nature unfettered by the trammels of mortalflesh nor hindered by his abode in a human body from being elsewhere present3570

604

8 Nay at the very time of his intercourse with men he was pervading all things was with andin the Father and even then was caring for all things both in heaven and earth Nor was he precludedas we are from being present everywhere or from the continued exercise of his Divine power Hegave of his own to man but received nothing in return he imparted of his Divine power to mortalitybut derived no accession from mortality itself

9 Hence his human birth to him brought no defilement nor could his impassible Essence sufferat the dissolution of his mortal body For let us suppose a lyre to receive an accidental injury orits chord to be broken it does not follow that the performer on it suffers nor if a wise manrsquos bodyundergo punishment can we fairly assert that his wisdom or the soul within him are maimed orburned

10 Far less can we affirm that the inherent power of the Word sustained any detriment fromhis bodily passion any more than as in the instance we have already used the solar rays whichare shot from heaven to earth contract defilement though in contact with mire and pollution ofevery kind We may indeed assert that these things partake of the radiance of the light but notthat the light is contaminated or the sun defiled by this contact with other bodies

3570 This ought to relieve Eusebius from any charge of Arianism in this relation however ldquodangerousrdquo the ground he has

trodden on may be

1144

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

11 And indeed these things are themselves not contrary to nature but the Saviour the incorporealWord of God being Life and spiritual Light itself whatever he touches with Divine and incorporealpower must of necessity become endued with the intelligence of light and life Thus if he touch abody it becomes enlightened and sanctified is at once delivered from all disease infirmity andsuffering and that which before was lacking is supplied by a portion of his fullness

12 And such was the tenor of his life on earth now proving the sympathies of his human naturewith our own and now revealing himself as the Word of God wondrous and mighty in his worksas God foretelling the events of the far distant future declaring in every act by signs and wondersand supernatural powers that Word whose presence was so little known and finally by his Divineteaching inviting the souls of men to prepare for those mansions which are above the heavens

Chapter XV

1 What now remains but to account for those which are the crowning facts of all I mean hisdeath so far and widely known the manner of his passion and the mighty miracle of his resurrectionafter death and then to establish the truth of these events by the clearest testimonies

2 For the reasons detailed above he used the instrumentality of a mortal body as a figurebecoming his Divine majesty and like a mighty sovereign employed it as his interpreter in hisintercourse with men performing all things consistently with his own Divine power Supposingthen at the end of his sojourn among men he had by any other means suddenly withdrawn himselffrom their sight and secretly removing that interpreter of himself the form which he had assumedhad hastened to flee from death and afterwards by his own act had consigned his mortal body tocorruption and dissolution doubtless in such a case he would have been deemed a mere phantomby all Nor would he have acted in a manner worthy of himself had he who is Life the Word andthe Power of God abandoned this interpreter of himself to corruption and death

3 Nor again would his warfare with the spirits of evil have received its consummation byconflict with the power of death The place of his retirement must have remained unknown norwould his existence have been believed by those who had not seen him for themselves No proofwould have been given that he was superior to death nor would he have delivered mortality fromthe law of its natural infirmity His name had never been heard throughout the world nor could hehave inspired his disciples with contempt of death or encouraged those who embraced his doctrineto hope for the enjoyment of a future life with God Nor would he have fulfilled the assurances ofhis own promise nor have accomplished the predictions of the prophets concerning himself Norwould he have undergone the last conflict of all for this was to be the struggle with the power ofdeath

4 For all these reasons then and inasmuch as it was necessary that the mortal body which hadrendered such service to the Divine Word should meet with an end worthy its sacred occupant themanner of his death was ordained accordingly For since but two alternatives remained either to

1145

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

consign his body entirely to corruption and so to bring the scene of life to a dishonored close orelse to prove himself victorious over death and render mortality immortal by the act of Divinepower the former of these alternatives would have contravened his own promise For as it is notthe property of fire to cool nor of light to darken no more is it compatible with life to deprive oflife or with Divine intelligence to act in a manner contrary to reason For how would it be consistent

605

with reason that he who had promised life to others should permit his own body the form whichhe had chosen to perish beneath the power of corruption That he who had inspired his discipleswith hopes of immortality should yield this exponent of his Divine counsels to be destroyed bydeath

5 The second alternative was therefore needful I mean that he should assert his dominionover the power of death But how should this be a furtive and secret act or openly performed andin the sight of all So mighty an achievement had it remained unknown and unrevealed must havefailed of its effect as regards the interests of men whereas the same event if openly declared andunderstood would from its wondrous character redound to the common benefit of all With reasontherefore since it was needful to prove his body victorious over death and that not secretly butbefore the eyes of men he shrank not from the trial for this indeed would have argued fear and asense of inferiority to the power of death but maintained that conflict with the enemy which hasrendered mortality immortal a conflict undertaken for the life the immortality the salvation ofall

6 Suppose one desired to show us that a vessel could resist the force of fire how could hebetter prove the fact than by casting it into the furnace and thence withdrawing it entire andunconsumed Even thus the Word of God who is the source of life to all desiring to prove thetriumph of that body over death which he had assumed for manrsquos salvation and to make this bodypartake his own life and immortality pursued a course consistent with this object Leaving his bodyfor a little while3571 and delivering it up to death in proof of its mortal nature he soon redeemed itfrom death in vindication of that Divine power whereby he has manifested the immortality whichhe has promised to be utterly beyond the sphere of death

7 The reason of this is clear It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof ofthe certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive forrising superior to the fear of death It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue alife of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth more needful still for thosewho were destined to declare his name in all the world and to communicate to mankind thatknowledge of God which he had before ordained for all nations

8 For such the strongest conviction of a future life was necessary that they might be able withfearless and unshrinking zeal to maintain the conflict with Gentile and polytheistic error a conflictthe dangers of which they would never have been prepared to meet except as habituated to thecontempt of death Accordingly in arming his disciples against the power of this last enemy he

3571 [These words (as Valesius observes) need not be too rigidly interpretedmdashBag]

1146

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

delivered not his doctrines in mere verbal precepts nor attempted to prove the soulrsquos immortalityby persuasive and probable arguments but displayed to them in his own person a real victory overdeath

9 Such was the first and greatest reason of our Saviourrsquos conflict with the power of deathwhereby he proved to his disciples the nothingness of that which is the terror of all mankind andafforded a visible evidence of the reality of that life which he had promised presenting as it werea first-fruit of our common hope of future life and immortality in the presence of God

10 The second cause of his resurrection was that the Divine power might be manifested whichdwelt in his mortal body Mankind had heretofore conferred Divine honors on men who had yieldedto the power of death and had given the titles of gods and heroes to mortals like themselves Forthis reason therefore the Word of God evinced his gracious character and proved to man his ownsuperiority over death recalling his mortal body to a second life displaying an immortal triumphover death in the eyes of all and teaching them to acknowledge the Author of such a victory to bethe only true God even in death itself

11 I may allege yet a third cause of the Saviourrsquos death He was the victim offered to theSupreme Sovereign of the universe for the whole human race a victim consecrated for the need ofthe human race and for the overthrow of the errors of demon worship For as soon as the one holyand mighty sacrifice the sacred body of our Saviour had been slain for man to be as a ransom forall nations heretofore involved in the guilt of impious superstition thenceforward the power ofimpure and unholy spirits was utterly abolished and every earth-born and delusive error was atonce weakened and destroyed

12 Thus then this salutary victim taken from among themselves I mean the mortal body ofthe Word was offered on behalf of the common race of men This was that sacrifice delivered upto death of which the sacred oracles speak ldquoBehold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sinof the worldrdquo3572 And again as follows ldquoHe was led as a sheep to the slaughter and as a lambbefore the shearer is dumbrdquo They declare also the cause saying ldquoHe bears our sins and is painedfor us yet we accounted him to be in trouble and in suffering and in affliction But he was wounded

606

on account of our sins and bruised because of our iniquities the chastisem*nt of our peace wasupon him and by his bruises we were healed All we as sheep have gone astray every one hasgone astray in this way and the Lord gave him up for our sinsrdquo3573

13 Such were the causes which led to the offering of the human body of the Word of God Butforasmuch as he was the great high priest consecrated to the Supreme Lord and King and thereforemore than a victim the Word the Power and the Wisdom of God he soon recalled his body fromthe grasp of death presented it to his Father as the first-fruit of our common salvation and raised

3572 John i 29

3573 [Isaiah liii 4 5 6 7 Septuagint English translation p 728mdashBag] P 889 of the Bagster ed 1879 Though the first

reasons make one feel as if the author had been in danger of slighting the atoning work of the Word he here very clearly comes

up as usual to the Biblical position

1147

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

this trophy a proof at once of his victory over death and Satan and of the abolition of humansacrifices for the blessing of all mankind

Chapter XVI

1 And now the time is come for us to proceed to the demonstration of these things if indeedsuch truths require demonstration and if the aid of testimony be needful to confirm the certaintyof palpable facts Such testimony however shall be here given and let it be received with anattentive and gracious ear

2 Of old the nations of the earth the entire human race were variously distributed intoprovincial national and local governments3574 subject to kingdoms and principalities of manykinds The consequences of this variety were war and strife depopulation and captivity whichraged in country and city with unceasing fury Hence too the countless subjects of history adulteriesand rapes of women hence the woes of Troy and the ancient tragedies so known among all peoples

3 The origin of these may justly be ascribed to the delusion of polytheistic error But when thatinstrument of our redemption the thrice holy body of Christ which proved itself superior to allSatanic fraud and free from evil both in word and deed was raised at once for the abolition ofancient evils and in token of his victory over the powers of darkness the energy of these evil spiritswas at once destroyed The manifold forms of government the tyrannies and republics the siegeof cities and devastation of countries caused thereby were now no more and one God wasproclaimed to all mankind

4 At the same time one universal power the Roman empire arose and flourished while theenduring and implacable hatred of nation against nation was now removed and as the knowledgeof one God and one way of religion and salvation even the doctrine of Christ was made knownto all mankind so at the self-same period the entire dominion of the Roman empire being vestedin a single sovereign profound peace reigned throughout the world And thus by the expressappointment of the same God two roots of blessing the Roman empire and the doctrine of Christianpiety sprang up together for the benefit of men

5 For before this time the various countries of the world as Syria Asia Macedonia Egyptand Arabia had been severally subject to different rulers The Jewish people again had establishedtheir dominion in the land of Palestine And these nations in every village city and district actuatedby some insane spirit were engaged in incessant and murderous war and conflict But two mightypowers starting from the same point the Roman empire which henceforth was swayed by a singlesovereign and the Christian religion subdued and reconciled these contending elements

6 Our Saviourrsquos mighty power destroyed at once the many governments and the many godsof the powers of darkness and proclaimed to all men both rude and civilized to the extremities

3574 Eparchies ethnarchies and toparchies

1148

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

of the earth the sole sovereignty of God himself Meantime the Roman empire the causes ofmultiplied governments being thus removed effected an easy conquest of those which yet remainedits object being to unite all nations in one harmonious whole an object in great measure alreadysecured and destined to be still more perfectly attained even to the final conquest of the ends ofthe habitable world by means of the salutary doctrine and through the aid of that Divine powerwhich facilitates and smooths its way

7 And surely this must appear a wondrous fact to those who will examine the question in thelove of truth and desire not to cavil at these blessings3575 The falsehood of demon superstition wasconvicted the inveterate strife and mutual hatred of the nations was removed at the same time OneGod and the knowledge of that God were proclaimed to all one universal empire prevailed andthe whole human race subdued by the controlling power of peace and concord received one anotheras brethren and responded to the feelings of their common nature Hence as children of one Godand Father and owning true religion as their common mother they saluted and welcomed eachother with words of peace Thus the whole world appeared like one well-ordered and united family

607

each one might journey unhindered as far as and whithersoever he pleased men might securelytravel from West to East and from East to West as to their own native country in short the ancientoracles and predictions of the prophets were fulfilled more numerous than we can at present citeand those especially which speak as follows concerning the saving Word ldquoHe shall have dominionfrom sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earthrdquo And again ldquoIn his days shallrighteousness spring up and abundance of peacerdquo ldquoAnd they shall beat their swords intoplough-shares and their spears into sickles and nation shall not take up sword against nationneither shall they learn to war any morerdquo3576

8 These words predicted ages before in the Hebrew tongue have received in our own day avisible fulfillment by which the testimonies of the ancient oracles are clearly confirmed And nowif thou still desire more ample proof receive it not in words but from the facts themselves Openthe eyes of thine understanding expand the gates of thought pause awhile and consider inquireof thyself as though thou wert another and thus diligently examine the nature of the case Whatking or prince in any age of the world what philosopher legislator or prophet in civilized orbarbarous lands has attained so great a height of excellence I say not after death but while livingstill and full of mighty power as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of hisname Surely none save our only Saviour has done this when after his victory over death he spokethe word to his followers and fulfilled it by the event saying to them ldquoGo ye and make disciplesof all nations in my namerdquo3577 He it was who gave the distinct assurance that his gospel must be

3575 This is a fair appeal applicable to his present hearers It at least was true of Constantinersquos reign that it produced a state

of relative peace and prosperity

3576 [Psalm lxxi 7 8 Isaiah ii 4 SeptuagintmdashBag] Psalm lxxii English version

3577 Matt xxviii 19 There is an interesting various reading here where Eusebius with B as against Aleph adds something

but where B and others have ουν and D and others have νυν Eusebius has γουν

1149

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations and immediately verified his word forwithin a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine

9 How then will those who caviled at the commencement of my speech be able to reply tothis For surely the force of ocular testimony is superior to any verbal argument Who else thanhe with an invisible and yet potent hand has driven from human society like savage beasts thatever noxious and destructive tribe of evil spirits who of old had made all nations their prey and bythe motions of their images had practiced many a delusion among men Who else beside ourSaviour by the invocation of his name and by unfeigned prayer addressed through him to theSupreme God has given power to banish from the world the remnant of those wicked spirits tothose who with genuine and sincere obedience pursue the course of life and conduct which he hashimself prescribed Who else but our Saviour has taught his followers to offer those bloodless andreasonable sacrifices which are performed by prayer and the secret worship of God

10 Hence is it that throughout the habitable world altars are erected and churches dedicatedwherein these spiritual and rational sacrifices are offered as a sacred service by every nation to theOne Supreme God Once more who but he with invisible and secret power has suppressed andutterly abolished those bloody sacrifices which were offered with fire and smoke as well as thecruel and senseless immolation of human victims a fact which is attested by the heathen historiansthemselves For it was not till after the publication of the Saviourrsquos Divine doctrine about the timeof Hadrianrsquos reign that the practice of human sacrifice was universally abandoned

11 Such and so manifest are the proofs of our Saviourrsquos power and energy after death Whothen can be found of spirit so obdurate as to withhold his assent to the truth and refuse toacknowledge his life to be Divine Such deeds as I have described are done by the living not thedead and visible acts are to us as evidence of those which we cannot see It is as it were an eventof yesterday that an impious and godless race disturbed and confounded the peace of human societyand possessed mighty power But these as soon as life departed lay prostrate on the earth worthlessas dung breathless motionless bereft of speech and have left neither fame nor memorial behindFor such is the condition of the dead and he who no longer lives is nothing and how can he whois nothing be capable of any act But how shall his existence be called in question whose activepower and energy are greater than in those who are still alive And though he be invisible to thenatural eye yet the discerning faculty is not in outward sense We do not comprehend the rules ofart or the theories of science by bodily sensation nor has any eye yet discerned the mind of manFar less then the power of God and in such cases our judgment is formed from apparent results

12 Even thus are we bound to judge of our Saviourrsquos invisible power and decide by its manifesteffects whether we shall acknowledge the mighty operations which he is even now carrying on tobe the works of a living agent or whether they shall be ascribed to one who has no existence orlastly whether the inquiry be not absurd and inconsistent in itself For with what reason can we

608

assert the existence of one who is not Since all allow that that which has no existence is devoidof that power and energy and action for these are characteristics of the living but the contrary ischaracteristic of the dead

1150

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter XVII

1 And now the time is come for us to consider the works of our Saviour in our own age andto contemplate the living operations of the living God For how shall we describe these mightyworks save as living proofs of the power of a living agent who truly enjoys the life of God If anyone inquire the nature of these works let him now attend

2 But recently a class of persons impelled by furious zeal and backed by equal power andmilitary force evinced their enmity against God by destroying his churches and overthrowingfrom their foundations the buildings dedicated to his worship In short in every way they directedtheir attacks against the unseen God and assailed him with a thousand shafts of impious wordsBut he who is invisible avenged himself with an invisible hand

3 By the single fiat of his will his enemies were utterly destroyed they who a little while beforehad been flourishing in great prosperity exalted by their fellow men as worthy of divine honorand blessed with a continued period of power and glory3578 so long as they had maintained peaceand amity with him whom they afterwards opposed As soon however as they dared openly toresist his will and to set their gods in array against him whom we adore immediately accordingto the will and power of that God against whom their arms were raised they all received the judgmentdue to their audacious deeds Constrained to yield and flee before his power together theyacknowledged his Divine nature and hastened to reverse the measures which they had beforeessayed

4 Our Saviour therefore without delay erected trophies of this victory everywhere and oncemore adorned the world with holy temples and consecrated houses of prayer in every city andvillage nay throughout all countries and even in barbaric wilds ordaining the erection of churchesand sacred buildings to the honor of the Supreme God and Lord of all Hence it is that these hallowededifices are deemed worthy to bear his name and receive not their appellation from men but fromthe Lord himself from which circ*mstances they are called churches (or houses of the Lord)3579

5 And now let him who will stand forth and tell us who after so complete a desolation hasrestored these sacred buildings from foundation to roof Who when all hope appeared extinct hascaused them to rise on a nobler scale than heretofore And well may it claim our wonder that thisrenovation was not subsequent to the death of those adversaries of God but whilst the destroyersof these edifices were still alive so that the recantation of their evil deeds came in their own wordsand edicts3580 And this they did not in the sunshine of prosperity and ease (for then we mightsuppose that benevolence or clemency might be the cause) but at the very time that they weresuffering under the stroke of Divine vengeance

3578 [Referring to Diocletian and others of the persecuting emperorsmdashBag]

3579 [Κυριακῶν ἠξίωνται τῶν ἐπωνυμιῶν The German ldquoKircherdquo the Scotch ldquoKirkrdquo and the English ldquoChurchrdquo are said

probably enough to derive their origin from this Greek wordmdashBag]

3580 Compare literature on the edicts of toleration

1151

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

6 Who again has been able to retain in obedience to his heavenly precepts after so manysuccessive storms of persecution nay in the very crisis of danger so many persons throughout theworld devoted to philosophy and the service of God and those holy choirs of virgins who haddedicated themselves to a life of perpetual chastity and purity Who taught them cheerfully topersevere in the exercise of protracted fasting and to embrace a life of severe and consistentself-denial Who has persuaded multitudes of either sex to devote themselves to the study of sacredthings and prefer to bodily nutriment that intellectual food which is suited to the wants of a rationalsoul3581 Who has instructed barbarians and peasants yea feeble women slaves and children inshort unnumbered multitudes of all nations to live in the contempt of death persuaded of theimmortality of their souls conscious that human actions are observed by the unerring eye of justiceexpecting Godrsquos award to the righteous and the wicked and therefore true to the practice of a justand virtuous life For they could not otherwise have persevered in the course of godliness Surelythese are the acts which our Saviour and he alone even now performs

7 And now let us pass from these topics and endeavor by inquiries such as these that followto convince the objectorrsquos obdurate understanding Come forward then whoever thou art andspeak the words of reason utter not the thoughts of a senseless heart but those of an intelligentand enlightened mind speak I say after deep solemn converse with thyself Who of the sageswhose names have yet been known to fame has ever been fore-known and proclaimed from theremotest ages as our Saviour was by the prophetic oracles to the once divinely-favored Hebrew

609

nation But his very birth-place the period of his advent the manner of his life his miracles andwords and mighty acts were anticipated and recorded in the sacred volumes of these prophets

8 Again who so present an avenger of crimes against himself so that as the immediateconsequence of their impiety the entire Jewish people were scattered by an unseen power theirroyal seat utterly removed and their very temple with its holy things levelled with the groundWho like our Saviour has uttered predictions at once concerning that impious nation and theestablishment of his church throughout the world and has equally verified both by the eventRespecting the temple of these wicked men our Saviour said ldquoYour house is left unto youdesolaterdquo3582 and ldquoThere shall not be left one stone upon another in this place that shall not bethrown downrdquo3583 And again of his church he says ldquoI will build my church upon a rock and thegates of hell shall not prevail against itrdquo3584

9 How wondrous too must that power be deemed which summoned obscure and unletteredmen from their fisherrsquos trade and made them the legislators and instructors of the human race And

3581 [There is nothing which need surprise us in the praises of virginity monkery and asceticism in a writer of the fourth

century The intelligent Christian will surely shrink from the thought of ascribing with Eusebius these fruitful sources of

corruption to the Lord himselfmdashBag]

3582 Matt xxiii 38

3583 Matt xxiv 2mdashapparently a paraphrase from memory

3584 Matt xvi 18

1152

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

how clear a demonstration of his deity do we find in the promise so well performed that he wouldmake them fishers of men in the power and energy which he bestowed so that they composed andpublished writings of such authority that they were translated into every civilized and barbarouslanguage3585 were read and pondered by all nations and the doctrines contained in them accreditedas the oracles of God

10 How marvelous his predictions of the future and the testimony whereby his disciples wereforewarned that they should be brought before kings and rulers and should endure the severestpunishments not indeed as criminals but simply for their confession of his name Or who shalladequately describe the power with which he prepared them thus to suffer with a willing mind andenabled them strong in the armor of godliness to maintain a constancy of spirit indomitable in themidst of conflict

11 Or how shall we enough admire that steadfast firmness of soul which strengthened notmerely his immediate followers but their successors also even to our present age in the joyfulendurance of every infliction and every form of torture in proof of their devotion to the SupremeGod Again what monarch has prolonged his government through so vast a series of ages Whoelse has power to make war after death to triumph over every enemy to subjugate each barbarousand civilized nation and city and to subdue his adversaries with an invisible and secret hand

12 Lastly and chief of all what slanderous lip shall dare to question that universal peace towhich we have already referred established by his power throughout the world3586 For thus themutual concord and harmony of all nations coincided in point of time with the extension of ourSaviourrsquos doctrine and preaching in all the world a concurrence of events predicted in long agespast by the prophets of God The day itself would fail me gracious emperor should I attempt toexhibit in a single view those cogent proofs of our Saviourrsquos Divine power which even now arevisible in their effects for no human being in civilized or barbarous nations has ever yet exhibitedsuch power of Divine virtue as our Saviour

13 But why do I speak of men since of the beings whom all nations have deemed divine nonehas appeared on earth with power like to his If there has let the fact now be proved Come forwardye philosophers and tell us what god or hero has yet been known to fame who has delivered thedoctrines of eternal life and a heavenly kingdom as he has done who is our Saviour Who likehim has persuaded multitudes throughout the world to pursue the principles of Divine wisdom tofix their hope on heaven itself and look forward to the mansions there reserved for them that loveGod What god or hero in human form has ever held his course from the rising to the setting suna course co-extensive as it were with the solar light and irradiated mankind with the bright andglorious beams of his doctrine causing each nation of the earth to render united worship to the Onetrue God What god or hero yet as he has done has set aside all gods and heroes among civilized

3585 The Syriac Peschito and possibly the Curetonian the old Latin (Itala) probably both the Thebaic and Memphitic Coptic

versions at least had been made at this time

3586 [The peace which Christ at his birth bestowed on the Roman world (Valesius)mdashBag]

1153

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

or barbarous nations has ordained that divine honors should be withheld from all and claimedobedience to that command and then though singly conflicting with the power of all has utterlydestroyed the opposing hosts victorious over the gods and heroes of every age and causing himselfalone in every region of the habitable world to be acknowledged by all people as the only Son ofGod

14 Who else has commanded the nations inhabiting the continents and islands of this mightyglobe to assemble weekly on the Lordrsquos day and to observe it as a festival not indeed for thepampering of the body but for the invigoration of the soul by instruction in Divine truth What

610

god or hero exposed as our Saviour was to so sore a conflict has raised the trophy of victory overevery foe For they indeed from first to last unceasingly assailed his doctrine and his people buthe who is invisible by the exercise of a secret power has raised his servants and the sacred housesof their worship to the height of glory

But why should we still vainly aim at detailing those Divine proofs of our Saviourrsquos powerwhich no language can worthily express which need indeed no words of ours but themselvesappeal in loudest tones to those whose mental ears are open to the truth Surely it is a strange awondrous fact unparalleled in the annals of human life that the blessings we have described shouldbe accorded to our mortal race and that he who is in truth the only the eternal Son of God shouldthus be visible on earth

Chapter XVIII

1 These words of ours however [gracious] Sovereign may well appear superfluous in yourears convinced as you are by frequent and personal experience of our Saviourrsquos Deity yourselfalso in actions still more than words a herald of the truth to all mankind Yourself it may be willvouchsafe at a time of leisure to relate to us the abundant manifestations which your Saviour hasaccorded you of his presence and the oft-repeated visions of himself which have attended you inthe hours of sleep I speak not of those secret suggestions which to us are unrevealed but of thoseprinciples which he has instilled into your own mind and which are fraught with general interestand benefit to the human race You will yourself relate in worthy terms the visible protection whichyour Divine shield and guardian has extended in the hour of battle the ruin of your open and secretfoes and his ready aid in time of peril To him you will ascribe relief in the midst of perplexitydefence in solitude expedients in extremity foreknowledge of events yet future your forethoughtfor the general weal your power to investigate uncertain questions your conduct of most importantenterprises your administration of civil affairs3587 your military arrangements and correction ofabuses in all departments your ordinances respecting public right and lastly your legislation forthe common benefit of all You will it may be also detail to us those particulars of his favor which

3587 Literally ldquoYour political economiesrdquo

1154

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

are secret to us but known to you alone and treasured in your royal memory as in secret storehousesSuch doubtless are the reasons and such the convincing proofs of your Saviourrsquos power whichcaused you to raise that sacred edifice which presents to all believers and unbelievers alike atrophy of his victory over death a holy temple of the holy God to consecrate those noble andsplendid monuments of immortal life and his heavenly kingdom to offer memorials of our AlmightySaviourrsquos conquest which well become the imperial dignity of him by whom they are bestowedWith such memorials have you adorned that edifice which witnesses of eternal life thus as it werein imperial characters ascribing victory and triumph to the heavenly Word of God thus proclaimingto all nations with clear and unmistakable voice in deed and word your own devout and piousconfession of his name

1155

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (5)

lightningrsquos flash the eddying currents of the winds and the airy courses of the clouds all revealhis presence to those to whom his Person is invisible

5 The all-radiant sun who holds his constant career through the lapse of ages owns him Lordalone and obedient to his will dares not depart from his appointed path The inferior splendor ofthe moon alternately diminished and increased at stated periods is subject to his Divine commandThe beauteous mechanism of the heavens glittering with the hosts of stars moving in harmoniousorder and preserving the measure of each several orbit proclaims him the giver of all light yeaall the heavenly luminaries maintaining at his will and word a grand and perfect unity of motionpursue the track of their ethereal career and complete in the lapse of revolving ages their distantcourse The alternate recurrence of day and night the changing seasons the order and proportionof the universe all declare the manifold wisdom of [his boundless power] To him the unseenagencies which hold their course throughout the expanse of space render the due tribute of praiseTo him this terrestrial globe itself to him the heavens above and the choirs beyond the vault ofheaven give honor as to their mighty Sovereign the angelic hosts greet him with ineffable songsof Praise and the spirits which draw their being from incorporeal light adore him as their Creator

583

The everlasting ages which were before this heaven and earth with other periods beside theminfinite and antecedent to all visible creation acknowledge him the sole and supreme Sovereignand Lord

6 Lastly he who is in all before and after all3500 his only begotten pre-existent Word thegreat High Priest of the mighty God elder than all time and every age devoted to his Fatherrsquosglory first and alone makes intercession with him for the salvation of mankind3501 Supreme andpre-eminent Ruler of the universe he shares the glory of his Fatherrsquos kingdom for he is that Lightwhich transcendent above the universe encircles the Fatherrsquos Person interposing and dividingbetween the eternal and uncreated Essence and all derived existence that Light which streamingfrom on high proceeds from that Deity who knows not origin or end and illumines the super-celestialregions and all that heaven itself contains with the radiance of wisdom bright beyond the splendorof the sun This is he who holds a supreme dominion over this whole world3502 who is over and inall things and pervades all things3503 visible and invisible the Word of God From whom and by

3500 [Referring possibly to Rev i 8 ldquoI am Alpha and Omega the beginning and the ending saith the Lord which is and

which was and which is to come the AlmightyrdquomdashBag] Or possibly refers to Eph iv 6 as it seems to be simply some verbal

suggestion

3501 [The Arianism implied in this passage if referred to the Word as God disappears if we regard it as spoken of Christ as

the Word manifested in human nature See the note of Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3502 Universe

3503 This is directly from Eph iv 6 ldquoWho is over all and through all and in allrdquo It is thus directly referred to the Father and

on the basis of the above note of Bag seems to convict of Arianism but in reality the conception of a pre-existing Word is

distinctly orthodox

1108

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

whom our divinely favored emperor receiving as it were a transcript of the Divine sovereigntydirects in imitation of God himself the administration of this worldrsquos affairs

Chapter II

1 This only begotten Word of God reigns from ages which had no beginning to infinite andendless ages the partner of his Fatherrsquos kingdom And [our emperor] ever beloved by him whoderives the source of imperial authority from above and is strong in the power of his sacred title3504

has controlled the empire of the world for a long period of years2 Again that Preserver of the universe orders these heavens and earth and the celestial kingdom

consistently with his Fatherrsquos will Even so our emperor whom he loves by bringing those whomhe rules on earth to the only begotten Word and Saviour renders them fit subjects of his kingdom

3 And as he who is the common Saviour of mankind by his invisible and Divine power as thegood shepherd drives far away from his flock like savage beasts those apostate spirits which onceflew through the airy tracts above this earth and fastened on the souls of men3505 so this his friendgraced by his heavenly favor with victory over all his foes subdues and chastens the open adversariesof the truth in accordance with the usages of war

4 He who is the pre-existent Word the Preserver of all things imparts to his disciples the seedsof true wisdom and salvation and at once enlightens and gives them understanding in the knowledgeof his Fatherrsquos kingdom Our emperor his friend acting as interpreter to the Word of God aimsat recalling the whole human race to the knowledge of God proclaiming clearly in the ears of alland declaring with powerful voice the laws of truth and godliness to all who dwell on the earth

5 Once more the universal Saviour opens the heavenly gates of his Fatherrsquos kingdom to thosewhose course is thitherward from this world Our emperor emulous of his Divine example havingpurged his earthly dominion from every stain of impious error invites each holy and pious worshiperwithin his imperial mansions earnestly desiring to save with all its crew that mighty vessel of whichhe is the appointed pilot And he alone of all who have wielded the imperial power of Rome beinghonored by the Supreme Sovereign with a reign of three decennial periods now celebrates thisfestival not as his ancestors might have done in honor of infernal demons or the apparitions ofseducing spirits or of the fraud and deceitful arts of impious men but as an act of thanksgiving to

3504 [It is difficult to know precisely what is meant here Possibly the name of ChristianmdashBag]

3505 This is an allusion to what was afterwards known as Vampireismmdasha belief of unknown antiquity and especially prevalent

in various forms in the East Rydberg (Magic of the Middle Ages p 207) describes the mediaeligval form thus ldquoThe vampires

according to the belief of the Middle Ages are disembodied souls which clothe themselves again in their buried bodies steal at

night into houses and suck from the nipple of the sleeping all their bloodrdquo (Cf Perty d myst Ersch 1 [1872] 383 91 Goumlrresrsquo

Chr myst Vol 3 etc) Similar in nature was that notion of the spirits who sucked away the breath of sleeping persons which

has left its trace in the modern superstition that cats suck away the breath of sleeping children

1109

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

590

savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

1120

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

1121

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and sentence ofdeath in every form3528 Thus did these valiant soldiers of the Almighty Sovereign maintain theconflict with steadfast fortitude of soul against the hostile forces of polytheism and thus did theseenemies of God and adversaries of manrsquos salvation more cruel far than the ferocious savage delight

591

in libations of human blood thus did their ministers drain as it were the cup of unrighteous slaughterin honor of the demons whom they served and prepare for them this dread and impious banquetto the ruin of the human race

9 In these sad circ*mstances what course should the God and King of these afflicted onespursue Could he be careless of the safety of his dearest friends or abandon his servants in thisgreat extremity Surely none could deem him a wary pilot who without an effort to save hisfellow-mariners should suffer his vessel to sink with all her crew surely no general could be foundso reckless as to yield his own allies without resistance to the mercy of the foe nor can a faithfulshepherd regard with unconcern the straying of a single sheep from his flock but will rather leavethe rest in safety and dare all things for the wandererrsquos sake even if need be to contend withsavage beasts

10 The zeal however of the great Sovereign of all was for no unconscious3529 sheep his carewas exercised for his own faithful host for those who sustained the battle for his sake whoseconflicts in the cause of godliness he himself approved and honored those who had returned to hispresence with the prize of victory which he only can bestow uniting them to the angelic choirsOthers he still preserved on earth to communicate the living seeds of piety to future generationsto be at once eye-witnesses of his vengeance on the ungodly and narrators of the events

11 After this he outstretched his arm in judgment on the adversaries and utterly destroyedthem with the stroke of Divine wrath compelling them how reluctant soever to confess with theirown lips and recant their wickedness but raising from the ground and exalting gloriously thosewho had long been oppressed and disclaimed by all

12 Such were the dealings of the Supreme Sovereign who ordained an invincible championto be the minister of his heaven-sent vengeance (for our emperorrsquos surpassing piety delights in thetitle of Servant of God) and him he has proved victorious over all that opposed him having raisedhim up an individual against many foes For they were indeed numberless being the friends ofmany evil spirits (though in reality they were nothing and hence are now no more) but our emperoris one appointed by and the representative of the one Almighty Sovereign And they in the veryspirit of impiety destroyed the righteous with cruel slaughter but he in imitation of his Saviour

3528 For account of the various details of persecution mentioned compare the Church History

3529 ldquoἀλόγουrdquo

1122

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and knowing only how to save menrsquos lives has spared and instructed in godliness the impiousthemselves

13 And so as truly worthy the name of Victor he has subdued the twofold race of barbarianssoothing the savage tribes of men by prudent embassies compelling them to know and acknowledgetheir superiors and reclaiming them from a lawless and brutal life to the governance of reason andhumanity at the same time that he proved by the facts themselves that the fierce and ruthless raceof unseen spirits had long ago been vanquished by a higher power For he who is the preserver ofthe universe had punished these invisible spirits by an invisible judgment and our emperor as thedelegate of the Supreme Sovereign has followed up the victory bearing away the spoils of thosewho have long since died and mouldered into dust and distributing the plunder with lavish handamong the soldiers of his victorious Lord3530

Chapter VIII

1 For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain andchildish dread of these bugbears of error wrought in gold and silver he judged it right to removethese also like stumbling-stones thrown in the path of men walking in the dark and henceforwardto open a royal road plain and unobstructed to all

2 Having formed this resolution he considered that no soldiers or military force of any sortwas needed for the repression of the evil a few of his own friends sufficed for this service andthese he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province

3 Accordingly sustained by confidence in the emperorrsquos piety and their own personal devotionto God they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations abolishing this ancientsystem of error in every city and country They ordered the priests themselves in the midst ofgeneral laughter and scorn to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day Theythen stripped them of their ornaments and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality whichhad been hidden beneath a painted exterior and lastly whatever part of the material appeared tobe of value they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth after which they secured andset apart whatever they judged needful for their purposes leaving to the superstitious worshiperswhat was altogether useless as a memorial of their shame

4 Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to that we havedescribed For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped as we have said

3530 [That is stripping the images of those whose temples he destroyed and apportioning the spoils among his Christian

followers See the next chapter which is mostly a transcript of the 54th and 55th chapters of the Third Book of the Life of

ConstantinemdashBag]

1123

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

592

of their precious materials he also attacked those composed of brass causing those to be draggedfrom their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive whom the dotage of mythologyhad esteemed as gods The next care of our august emperor was to kindle as it were a brillianttorch by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around to see if any hidden vestiges oferror might yet exist

5 And as the keen-sighted eagle in its heavenward flight is able to descry from its lofty heightthe most distant objects on the earth so did he whilst residing in the imperial palace of his ownfair city discover as from a watch-tower a hidden and fatal snare of souls in the province ofPhœnicia This was a grove and temple not situated in the midst of any city or in any public placeas for splendor of effect is generally the case but apart from the beaten and frequented road onpart of the summit of Mount Lebanon and dedicated to the foul demon known by the name ofVenus

6 It was a school of wickedness for all the abandoned votaries of impurity and such as destroyedtheir bodies with effeminacy Here men undeserving the name forgot the dignity of their sex andpropitiated the demon by their effeminate conduct here too unlawful commerce of women andadulterous intercourse with other horrible and infamous practices were perpetrated in this templeas in a place beyond the scope and restraint of law

Meantime these evils remained unchecked by the presence of any observer since no one of faircharacter ventured to visit such scenes

7 These proceedings however could not escape the vigilance of our august emperor whohaving himself inspected them with characteristic forethought and judging that such a temple wasunfit for the light of heaven gave orders that the building with its offerings should be utterlydestroyed Accordingly in obedience to the imperial edict these engines of an impure superstitionwere immediately abolished and the hand of military force was made instrumental in purging theplace And now those who had heretofore lived without restraint learned through the imperialthreat of punishment to practice self-control

8 Thus did our emperor tear the mask from this system of delusive wickedness and expose itto the public gaze at the same time proclaiming openly his Saviourrsquos name to all No advocateappeared neither god nor demon prophet nor diviner could lend his aid to the detected authors ofthe imposture For the souls of men were no longer enveloped in thick darkness but enlightenedby the rays of true godliness they deplored the ignorance and pitied the blindness of their forefathersrejoicing at the same time in their own deliverance from such fatal error3531

9 Thus speedily according to the counsel of the mighty God and through our emperorrsquos agencywas every enemy whether visible or unseen utterly removed and henceforward peace the happynurse of youth extended her reign throughout the world Wars were no more for the gods werenot no more did warfare in country or town no more did the effusion of human blood distressmankind as heretofore when demon-worship and the madness of idolatry prevailed

3531 ldquoThe Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God I thank thee that I am not as the rest of menrdquo

1124

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter IX

1 And now we may well compare the present with former things and review these happychanges in contrast with the evils that are past and mark the elaborate care with which in ancienttimes porches and sacred precincts groves and temples were prepared in every city for these falsedeities and how their shrines were enriched with abundant offerings

2 The sovereign rulers of those days had indeed a high regard for the worship of the gods Thenations also and people subject to their power honored them with images both in the country andin every city nay even in their houses and secret chambers according to the religious practice oftheir fathers The fruit however of this devotion far different from the peaceful concord whichnow meets our view appeared in war in battles and seditions which harassed them throughouttheir lives and deluged their countries with blood and civil slaughter

3 Again the objects of their worship could hold out to these sovereigns with artful flattery thepromise of prophecies and oracles and the knowledge of futurity yet could they not predict theirown destruction nor forewarn themselves of the coming ruin and surely this was the greatest andmost convincing proof of their imposture

4 Not one of those whose words once were heard with awe and wonder had announced theglorious advent of the Saviour of mankind3532 or that new revelation of divine knowledge whichhe came to give Not Pythius himself nor any of those mighty gods could apprehend the prospectof their approaching desolation nor could their oracles point at him who was to be their conquerorand destroyer

5 What prophet or diviner could foretell that their rites would vanish at the presence of a newDeity in the world and that the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Sovereign should be freely

593

given to all mankind Which of them foreknew the august and pious reign of our victorious emperoror his triumphant conquests everywhere over the false demons or the overthrow of their highplaces

6 Which of the heroes has announced the melting down and conversion of the lifeless statuesfrom their useless forms to the necessary uses of men Which of the gods have yet had power tospeak of their own images thus melted and contemptuously reduced to fragments

7 Where were the protecting powers that they should not interpose to save their sacredmemorials thus destroyed by man Where I ask are those who once maintained the strife of waryet now behold their conquerors abiding securely in the profoundest peace And where are theywho upheld themselves in a blind and foolish confidence and trusted in these vanities as gods butwho in the very height of their superstitious error and while maintaining an implacable war withthe champions of the truth perished by a fate proportioned to their crimes

3532 He seems to disagree with the view of the heathen prophecy which his imperial hearer maintained in his Oration to the

Saints

1125

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Where is the giant race whose arms were turned against heaven itself the hissings of thoseserpents whose tongues were pointed with impious words against the Almighty King Theseadversaries of the Lord of all confident in the aid of a multitude of gods advanced to the attackwith a powerful array of military force preceded by certain images of the dead and lifeless statuesas their defense On the other side our emperor secure in the armor of godliness opposed to thenumbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving Sign as at the same time a terror to the foe anda protection against every harm and returned victorious at once over the enemy and the demonswhom they served3533 And then with thanksgiving and praise the tokens of a grateful spirit to theAuthor of his victory he proclaimed this triumphant Sign by monuments as well as words to allmankind erecting it as a mighty trophy against every enemy in the midst of the imperial city andexpressly enjoining on all to acknowledge this imperishable symbol of salvation as the safeguardof the power of Rome and of the empire of the world

9 Such were the instructions which he gave to his subjects generally but especially to hissoldiers whom he admonished to repose their confidence not in their weapons or armor or bodilystrength but to acknowledge the Supreme God as the giver of every good and of victory itself

10 Thus did the emperor himself strange and incredible as the fact may seem become theinstructor of his army in their religious exercises and teach them to offer pious prayers in accordancewith the divine ordinances uplifting their hands towards heaven and raising their mental visionhigher still to the King of heaven on whom they should call as the Author of victory their preserverguardian and helper He commanded too that one day should be regarded as a special occasionfor religious worship I mean that which is truly the first and chief of all the day of our Lord andSaviour that day the name of which is connected with light and life and immortality and everygood

11 Prescribing the same pious conduct to himself he honored his Saviour in the chambers ofhis palace performing his devotions according to the Divine commands and storing his mind withinstruction through the hearing of the sacred word The entire care of his household was intrustedto ministers devoted to the service of God and distinguished by gravity of life and every othervirtue while his trusty body-guards strong in affection and fidelity to his person found in theiremperor an instructor in the practice of a godly life

12 Again the honor with which he regards the victorious Sign is founded on his actualexperience of its divine efficacy Before this the hosts of his enemies have disappeared by this thepowers of the unseen spirits have been turned to flight through this the proud boastings of Godrsquosadversaries have come to nought and the tongues of the profane and blasphemous been put tosilence By this Sign the Barbarian tribes were vanquished through this the rites of superstitiousfraud received a just rebuke by this our emperor discharging as it were a sacred debt has performedthe crowning good of all by erecting triumphant memorials of its value in all parts of the world

3533 For details respecting the following enumeration compare the Life of Constantine of which this is a reacutesumeacute This sentence

and the preceding are taken almost word for word from ch 16 of Bk II

1126

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

raising temples and churches on a scale of royal costliness and commanding all to unite inconstructing the sacred houses of prayer

13 Accordingly these signal proofs of our emperorrsquos magnificence forthwith appeared in theprovinces and cities of the empire and soon shone conspicuously in every country convincingmemorials of the rebuke and overthrow of those impious tyrants who but a little while before hadmadly dared to fight against God and raging like savage dogs had vented on unconscious buildingsthat fury which they were unable to level against him had thrown to the ground and upturned thevery foundations of the houses of prayer causing them to present the appearance of a city capturedand abandoned to the enemy Such was the exhibition of that wicked spirit whereby they soughtas it were to assail God himself but soon experienced the result of their own madness and folly

594

But a little time elapsed when a single blast of the storm of Heavenrsquos displeasure swept them utterlyaway leaving neither kindred nor offspring nor memorial of their existence among men for allnumerous as they were disappeared as in a moment beneath the stroke of Divine vengeance

14 Such then was the fate which awaited these furious adversaries of God but he who armedwith the salutary Trophy had alone opposed them (nay rather not alone but aided by the presenceand the power of him who is the only Sovereign) has replaced the ruined edifices on a greaterscale and made the second far superior to the first For example besides erecting various churchesto the honor of God in the city which bears his name and adorning the Bithynian capital withanother on the greatest and most splendid scale he has distinguished the principal cities of the otherprovinces by structures of a similar kind

15 Above all he has selected two places in the eastern division of the empire the one inPalestine (since from thence the life-giving stream has flowed as from a fountain for the blessingof all nations) the other in that metropolis of the East which derives its name from that of Antiochusin which as the head of that portion of the empire he has consecrated to the service of God a churchof unparalleled size and beauty The entire building is encompassed by an enclosure of great extentwithin which the church itself rises to a vast elevation of an octagonal form surrounded by manychambers and courts on every side and decorated with ornaments of the richest kind3534

16 Such was his work here Again in the province of Palestine in that city which was oncethe seat of Hebrew sovereignty on the very site of the Lordrsquos sepulchre he has raised a church ofnoble dimensions and adorned a temple sacred to the salutary Cross with rich and lavishmagnificence honoring that everlasting monument and the trophies of the Saviourrsquos victory overthe power of death with a splendor which no language can describe

17 In the same country he discovered three places venerable as the localities of three sacredcaves and these also he adorned with costly structures paying a fitting tribute of reverence to thescene of the first manifestation of the Saviourrsquos presence while at the second cavern he hallowedthe remembrance of his final ascension from the mountain top and celebrated his mighty conflict

3534 Almost word for word from the Life Bk III ch 50

1127

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and the victory which crowned it at the third3535 All these places our emperor thus adorned in thehope of proclaiming the symbol of redemption to all mankind

18 that Cross which has indeed repaid his pious zeal through which his house and throne alikehave prospered his reign has been confirmed for a lengthened series of years and the rewards ofvirtue bestowed on his noble sons his kindred and their descendants

19 And surely it is a mighty evidence of the power of that God whom he serves that he hasheld the balances of justice with an equal hand and has apportioned to each party their due rewardWith regard to the destroyers of the houses of prayer the penalty of their impious conduct followedhard upon them forthwith were they swept away and left neither race nor house nor family behindOn the other hand he whose pious devotion to his Lord is conspicuous in his every act who raisesroyal temples to his honor and proclaims his name to his subjects by sacred offerings throughoutthe world he I say has deservedly experienced him to be the preserver and defender of his imperialhouse and race Thus clearly have the dealings of God been manifested and this through the sacredefficacy of the salutary Sign

Chapter X

1 Much might indeed be said of this salutary Sign by those who are skilled in the mysteriesof our Divine religion For it is in very truth the symbol of salvation wondrous to speak of morewondrous still to conceive the appearance of which on earth has thrown the fictions of all falsereligion from the beginning into the deepest shade has buried superstitious error in darkness andoblivion and has revealed to all that spiritual light which enlightens the souls of men even theknowledge of the only true God

2 Hence the universal change for the better which leads men to spurn their lifeless idols totrample under foot the lawless rites of their demon deities and laugh to scorn the time-honoredfollies of their fathers Hence too the establishment in every place of those schools of sacredlearning wherein men are taught the precepts of saving truth and dread no more those objects ofcreation which are seen by the natural eye nor direct a gaze of wonder at the sun the moon orstars but acknowledge him who is above all these that invisible Being who is the Creator of themall and learn to worship him alone

3 Such are the blessings resulting to mankind from this great and wondrous Sign by virtue ofwhich the evils which once existed are now no more and virtues heretofore unknown shineeverywhere resplendent with the light of true godliness

3535 [In the Life of Constantine (vide [Bk III ch 41] supra) Eusebius mentions two caves only and speaks of the churches

built by Helena at Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives He here alludes to the magnificent church erected by Constantine at

the Lordrsquos sepulchre and ascribes to him those of Helena also as having been raised at the emperorrsquos expense Valesius ad

locmdashBag]

1128

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

595

4 Discourses and precepts and exhortations to a virtuous and holy life are proclaimed in theears of all nations Nay the emperor himself proclaims them and it is indeed a marvel that thismighty prince raising his voice in the hearing of all the world like an interpreter of the AlmightySovereignrsquos will invites his subjects in every country to the knowledge of the true God

5 No more as in former times is the babbling of impious men heard in the imperial palacebut priests and pious worshipers of God together celebrate his majesty with royal hymns of praiseThe name of the one Supreme Ruler of the universe is proclaimed to all the gospel of glad tidingsconnects the human race with its Almighty King declaring the grace and love of the heavenlyFather to his children on the earth

6 His praise is everywhere sung in triumphant strains the voice of mortal man is blended withthe harmony of the angelic choirs in heaven and the reasoning soul employs the body which investsit as an instrument for sounding forth a fitting tribute of praise and adoration to his name Thenations of the East and the West are instructed at the same moment in his precepts the people ofthe Northern and Southern regions unite with one accord under the influence of the same principlesand laws in the pursuit of a godly life in praising the one Supreme God in acknowledging hisonly begotten Son their Saviour as the source of every blessing and our emperor as the one ruleron the earth together with his pious sons

7 He himself as a skillful pilot sits on high at the helm of state and directs the vessel withunerring course conducting his people as it were with favoring breeze to a secure and tranquilhaven Meanwhile God himself the great Sovereign extends the right hand of his power fromabove for his protection giving him victory over every foe and establishing his empire by alengthened period of years and he will bestow on him yet higher blessings and confirm in everydeed the truth of his own promises But on these we may not at present dwell but must await thechange to a better world for it is not given to mortal eyes or ears of flesh fully to apprehend thethings of God3536

Chapter XI

1 And now victorious and mighty Constantine in this discourse whose noble argument is theglory of the Almighty King let me lay before thee some of the mysteries of his sacred truth notas presuming to instruct thee who art thyself taught of God nor to disclose to thee those secretwonders which he himself not through the agency of man but through our common Saviour andthe frequent light of his Divine presence has long since revealed and unfolded to thy view but inthe hope of leading the unlearned to the light and displaying before those who know them not thecauses and motives of thy pious deeds

3536 At this point according to some (compare Special Prolegomena) one oration ends and another begins

1129

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 True it is that thy noble efforts for the daily worship and honor of the Supreme God throughoutthe habitable world are the theme of universal praise But those records of gratitude to thy Saviourand Preserver which thou hast dedicated in our own province of Palestine and in that city fromwhich as from a fountain-head the Saviour Word3537 has issued forth to all mankind and again thehallowed edifices and consecrated temples which thou hast raised as trophies of his victory overdeath and those lofty and noble structures imperial monuments of an imperial spirit which thouhast erected in honor of the everlasting memory of the Saviourrsquos tomb the cause I say of thesethings is not equally obvious to all

3 Those indeed who are enlightened in heavenly knowledge by the power of the Divine Spiritwell understand the cause and justly admire and bless thee for that counsel and resolution whichHeaven itself inspired On the other hand the ignorant and spiritually blind regard these designswith open mockery and scorn and deem it a strange and unworthy thing indeed that so mighty aprince should waste his zeal on the graves and monuments of the dead

4 ldquoWere it not betterrdquo such a one might say ldquoto cherish those rites which are hallowed byancient usage to seek the favor of those gods and heroes whose worship is observed in everyprovince instead of rejecting and disclaiming them because subject to the calamities incident toman Surely they may claim equal honors with him who himself has suffered or if they are to berejected as not exempt from the sorrows of humanity the same award would justly be pronouncedrespecting himrdquo Thus with important and contracted brow might he give utterance in pompouslanguage to his self-imagined wisdom

5 Filled with compassion for this ignorance the gracious Word of our most beneficent Fatherfreely invites not such a one alone but all who are in the path of error to receive instruction inDivine knowledge and has ordained the means of such instruction throughout the world in everycountry and village in cultivated and desert lands alike and in every city and as a gracious Saviourand Physician of the soul calls on the Greek and the Barbarian the wise and the unlearned the

596

rich and the poor the servant and his master the subject and his lord the ungodly the profane theignorant the evil-doer the blasphemer alike to draw near and hasten to receive his heavenly cureAnd thus in time past had he clearly announced to all the pardon of former transgressions sayingldquoCome unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you restrdquo3538 And again ldquoIam not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentancerdquo3539 And he adds the reason saying

3537 Here the author seems to speak doubly of the Word and the word

3538 Matt xi 28

3539 Matt xi 13 RV ldquoFor I came not to call the righteous but sinnersrdquo The text here has the reading εισμετανοιαν omitted

by Tischendorf and the revisers with א B etc but supported by CEGKL sab cop etc It is worth noting that it is not in the

Sinaitic and if this text reading is correct it would nearly overthrow the possibility that this ms was one of those prepared under

the direction of Eusebius

1130

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ldquoFor they that are whole need not a physician but they that are sickrdquo3540 And again ldquoI desire notthe death of a sinner but rather that he should repentrdquo3541

6 Hence it is only for those who are themselves instructed in Divine things and understand themotives of that zeal of which these works are the result to appreciate the more than human impulseby which our emperor was guided to admire his piety toward God and to believe his care for thememorial of our Saviourrsquos resurrection to be a desire imparted from above and truly inspired bythat Sovereign to be whose faithful servant and minister for good is his proudest boast

7 In full persuasion then of thy approval most mighty emperor I desire at this present timeto proclaim to all the reasons and motives of thy pious works I desire to stand as the interpreter ofthy designs to explain the counsels of a soul devoted to the love of God I propose to teach all menwhat all should know who care to understand the principles on which our Saviour God employshis power the reasons for which he who was the pre-existent Controller of all things at lengthdescended to us from heaven the reasons for which he assumed our nature and submitted even tothe power of death I shall declare the causes of that immortal life which followed and of hisresurrection from the dead Once more I shall adduce convincing proofs and arguments for thesake of those who yet need such testimony

8 and now let me commence my appointed taskThose who transfer the worship due to that God who formed and rules the world to the works

of his hand who hold the sun and moon or other parts of this material system nay the elementsthemselves earth water air and fire in equal honor with the Creator of them all who give thename of gods to things which never would have had existence or even name except as obedientto that Word of God who made the world such persons in my judgment resemble those whooverlook the master hand which gives its magnificence to a royal palace and while lost in wonderat its roofs and walls the paintings of varied beauty and coloring which adorn them and its gildedceilings and sculptures ascribe to them the praise of that skill which belongs to the artist whosework they are whereas they should assign the cause of their wonder not to these visible objectsbut to the architect himself and confess that the proofs of skill are indeed manifest but that healone is the possessor of that skill who has made them what they are

9 Again well might we liken those to children who should admire the seven-stringed lyreand disregard him who invented or has power to use it or those who forget the valiant warrior andadorn his spear and shield with the chaplet of victory or lastly those who hold the squares andstreets the public buildings temples and gymnasia of a great and royal city in equal honor withits founder forgetting that their admiration is due not to lifeless stones but to him whose wisdomplanned and executed these mighty works

3540 Matt xi 12

3541 Ezek xviii 23 RV ldquoHave I any pleasure in the death of the wicked saith the Lord God and not rather that he should

return from his way and liverdquo

1131

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

10 Not less absurd is it for those who regard this universe with the natural eye to ascribe itsorigin to the sun or moon or any other heavenly body Rather let them confess that these arethemselves the works of a higher wisdom remember the Maker and Framer of them all and renderto him the praise and honor above all created objects Nay rather inspired by the sight of these veryobjects let them address themselves with full purpose of heart to glorify and worship him who isnow invisible to mortal eye but perceived by the clear and unclouded vision of the soul thesupremely sovereign Word of God To take the instance of the human body no one has yet conferredthe attribute of wisdom on the eyes or head the hands or feet or other members far less on theoutward clothing of a wise and learned man no one terms the philosopherrsquos household furnitureand utensils wise but every rational person admires that invisible and secret power the mind ofthe man himself

11 How much more then is our admiration due not to the visible mechanism of the universematerial as it is and formed of the selfsame elements but to that invisible Word who has mouldedand arranged it all who is the only-begotten Son of God and whom the Maker of all things whofar transcends all being has begotten of himself and appointed Lord and Governor of this universe

12 For since it was impossible that perishable bodies or the rational spirits which he had

597

created should approach the Supreme God by reason of their immeasurable distance from hisperfections for he is unbegotten above and beyond all creation ineffable inaccessibleunapproachable dwelling as his holy word assures us3542 in the light which none can enter butthey were created from nothing and are infinitely far removed from his unbegotten Essence wellhas the all-gracious and Almighty God interposed as it were an intermediate Power3543 betweenhimself and them even the Divine omnipotence of his only-begotten Word And this Power whichis in perfect nearness and intimacy of union with the Father which abides in him and shares hissecret counsels has yet condescended in fullness of grace as it were to conform itself to thosewho are so far removed from the supreme majesty of God How else consistently with his ownholiness could he who is far above and beyond all things unite himself to corruptible and corporealmatter Accordingly the Divine Word thus connecting himself with this universe and receiving

3542 1 Tim vi 16

3543 [This whole passage (which is defended by Valesius) appears if rigidly interpreted to lie under suspicion of a tinge of

ArianismmdashBag] It savors directly of Philo His doctrine was of an ineffable God above and separate from matter and defiled

by any contact with it To bring him into connection with created things he introduced intermediate beings or ldquopowersrdquo the

universal power including all the rest being the Logos Compare brief account in Zellerrsquos Outlines of Greek Philosophy p

320ndash325 Siegfried Philo von Alexandria (Jena 1875) especially p 199 sq 219 sq and p 362ndash364 where he treats very

inadequately of Eusebiusrsquo dependence on Philo also works of Philo and Eusebiusrsquo Praeligp and Demonst Ev There is a chance

of viewing the Word thus as created but if this is guarded against (as it is by him in the use of ldquobegottenrdquo) there is nothing

intrinsically heterodox in making the Word the Creator of the world and only Revealer of the Father The direct Philonian

influence is seen in the phraseology of the following sentences

1132

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

into his hands the reins as it were of the world turns and directs it as a skillful charioteer accordingto his own will and pleasure

13 The proof of these assertions is evident For supposing that those component parts of theworld which we call elements as earth water air and fire the nature of which is manifestly withoutintelligence are self-existent and if they have one common essence which they who are skilledin natural science call the great receptacle mother and nurse of all things and if this itself be utterlydevoid of shape and figure of soul and reason whence shall we say it has obtained its present formand beauty To what shall we ascribe the distinction of the elements or the union of things contraryin their very nature Who has commanded the liquid water to sustain the heavy element of earthWho has turned back the waters from their downward course and carried them aloft in cloudsWho has bound the force of fire and caused it to lie latent in wood and to combine with substancesmost contrary to itself Who has mingled the cold air with heat and thus reconciled the enmity ofopposing principles Who has devised the continuous succession of the human race and given itas it were an endless term of duration Who has moulded the male and female form adapted theirmutual relations with perfect harmony and given one common principle of production to everyliving creature Who changes the character of the fluid and corruptible seed which in itself is voidof reason and gives it its prolific power Who is at this moment working these and ten thousandeffects more wonderful than these nay surpassing all wonder and with invisible influence is dailyand hourly perpetuating the production of them all

14 Surely the wonder-working and truly omnipotent Word of God may well be deemed theefficient cause of all these things that Word who diffusing himself through all creation pervadingheight and depth with incorporeal energy and embracing the length and breadth of the universewithin his mighty grasp has compacted and reduced to order this entire system from whoseunreasoned and formless matter he has framed for himself an instrument of perfect harmony thenicely balanced chords and notes of which he touches with all-wise and unerring skill He it is whogoverns the sun and moon and the other luminaries of heaven by inexplicable laws and directstheir motions for the service of the universal whole

15 It is this Word of God who has stooped to the earth on which we live and created themanifold species of animals and the fair varieties of the vegetable world It is this same Word whohas penetrated the recesses of the deep has given their being to the finny race and produced thecountless forms of life which there exist It is he who fashions the burden of the womb and informsit in naturersquos laboratory with the principle of life By him the fluid and heavy moisture is raised onhigh and then sweetened by a purifying change descends in measured quantities to the earth andat stated seasons in more profuse supply

16 Like a skillful husbandman he fully irrigates the land tempers the moist and dry in justproportion diversifying the whole with brilliant flowers with aspects of varied beauty with pleasantfragrance with alternating varieties of fruits and countless gratifications for the taste of men Butwhy do I dare essay a hopeless task to recount the mighty works of the Word of God and describean energy which surpasses mortal thought By some indeed he has been termed the Nature of the

1133

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

universe by others the World-Soul by others Fate Others again have declared him to be the mostHigh God himself strangely confounding things most widely different bringing down to this earthuniting to a corruptible and material body and assigning to that supreme and unbegotten Power

598

who is Lord of all an intermediate place between irrational animals and rational mortals on the onehand and immortal beings on the other3544

Chapter XII

1 On the other hand the sacred doctrine teaches that he who is the supreme Source of goodand Cause of all things is beyond all comprehension and therefore inexpressible by word orspeech or name surpassing the power not of language only but of thought itself Uncirc*mscribedby place or body neither in heaven nor in ethereal space nor in any other part of the universebut entirely independent of all things else he pervades the depths of unexplored and secret wisdomThe sacred oracles teach us to acknowledge him as the only true God3545 apart from all corporealessence distinct from all subordinate ministration Hence it is said that all things are from him butnot through him3546

2 And he himself dwelling as Sovereign in secret and undiscovered regions of unapproachablelight ordains and disposes all things by the single power of his own will At his will whatever isexists without that will it cannot be And his will is in every case for good since he is essentiallyGoodness itself But he through whom are all things even God the Word proceeding in an ineffable

3544 [Of this somewhat obscure passage a translator can do no more than give as nearly as possible a literal version The

intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that the author here and in the following chapter has trodden on very dangerous

groundmdashBag] Compare above notes on the relations of Eusebius and Philo

3545 [Referring apparently to John xvii 3 ldquoAnd this is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus

Christ whom thou hast sentrdquo a passage which has been called a stronghold of the impugners of the Deity of Christ but which

simply considered with its context cannot fairly be understood to indicate any inferiority of the Son to the Father but rather

appears to speak of the mission of the former as the manifestation of the grace of him who is called ldquothe only true Godrdquo in

contradistinction to the polytheism of the heathen world In other words the knowledge of ldquothe only true Godrdquo in connection

with that of ldquoJesus Christ whom he has sentrdquo constitutes ldquoeternal liferdquo the one being ineffectual and indeed impossible without

the othermdashBag] Compare 1 John v 20ndash21 ldquoThat we know him that is true and we are in him that is true even in his Son Jesus

Christ This is the true God and eternal liferdquo which seems to show that John had no idea of any subordination in essence in this

matter

3546 [But see for a refutation of this statement Rom xi 36 and Heb ii 10mdashBag] Yet the second of these references clearly

refers to the Son Eusebius speaking of God the Father has in mind the truth that all things were made by the Son ldquoand without

him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo John i 3

1134

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

manner from the Father above as from an everlasting and exhaustless fountain flows onward likea river with a full and abundant stream of power for the preservation of the universal whole

3 And now let us select an illustration from our own experience The invisible and undiscoveredmind within us the essential nature of which no one has ever known sits as a monarch in theseclusion of his secret chambers and alone resolves on our course of action From this proceedsthe only-begotten word from its fatherrsquos bosom begotten in a manner and by a power inexplicableto us and is the first messenger of its fatherrsquos thoughts declares his secret counsels and conveyingitself to the ears of others accomplishes his designs

4 And thus the advantage of this faculty is enjoyed by all yet no one has ever yet beheld thatinvisible and hidden mind which is the parent of the word itself3547 In the same manner or ratherin a manner which far surpasses all likeness or comparison the perfect Word of the Supreme Godas the only-begotten Son of the Father (not consisting in the power of utterance nor comprehendedin syllables and parts of speech nor conveyed by a voice which vibrates on the air but being himselfthe living and effectual Word of the most High and subsisting personally as the Power and Wisdomof God)3548 proceeds from his Fatherrsquos Deity and kingdom3549 Thus being the perfect Offspringof a perfect Father and the common Preserver of all things he diffuses himself with living powerthroughout creation and pours from his own fullness abundant supplies of reason3550 wisdom lightand every other blessing not only on objects nearest to himself but on those most remote whetherin earth or sea or any other sphere of being

5 To all these he appoints with perfect equity their limits places laws and inheritance allottingto each their suited portion according to his sovereign will To some he assigns the super-terrestrialregions to others heaven itself as their habitation others he places in ethereal space others in airand others still on earth He it is who transfers mankind from hence to another sphere impartiallyreviews their conduct here and bestows a recompense according to the life and habits of each Byhim provision is made for the life and food not of rational creatures only but also of the brutecreation for the service of men

6 and while to the latter he grants the enjoyment of a perishable and fleeting term of existencethe former he invites to a share in the possession of immortal life Thus universal is the agency ofthe Word of God everywhere present and pervading all things by the power of his intelligence

3547 The author is now speaking especially of the spoken or ldquoexpressedrdquo word

3548 Compare 1 Cor i 24

3549 This conception that the Divine Word stands in something the same relation with the Father that the human word (internal

and external) does to the human spirit has at least an interesting suggestion towards the unraveling of this curious mystery

which for lack of a better word it is the fashion just now to call a human personality and which certainly is made in the image

and likeness of God Unless there lurks in the idea some subtle heresy one may venture to accept as an interesting analogy this

relation of invisible self self expressed to self (internal word) self revealed (external word) and an expression carried to the

point of embodiment (incarnation)

3550 ldquoLogosrdquo againmdashhere the internal word

1135

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he looks upward to his Father and governs this lower creation inferior to and consequent uponhimself in accordance with his will as the common Preserver of all things

599

7 Intermediate as it were and attracting the created to the uncreated Essence this Word ofGod exists as an unbroken bond between the two uniting things most widely different by aninseparable tie He is the Providence which rules the universe the guardian and director of thewhole he is the Power and Wisdom of God the only-begotten God the Word begotten of Godhimself For ldquoIn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was GodAll things were made by him and without him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo as welearn from the words of the sacred writer3551 Through his vivifying power all nature grows andflourishes refreshed by his continual showers and invested with a vigor and beauty ever new

8 Guiding the reigns of the universe he holds its onward course in conformity to the Fatherrsquoswill and moves as it were the helm of this mighty ship This glorious Agent the only-begottenSon of the Supreme God begotten by the Father as his perfect Offspring the Father has given tothis world as the highest of all goods infusing his word as spirit into a lifeless body into unconsciousnature imparting light and energy to that which in itself was a rude inanimate and formless massthrough the Divine power Him therefore it is ours to acknowledge and regard as everywherepresent and giving life to matter and the elements of nature3552 in him we see Light even thespiritual offspring of inexpressible Light one indeed in essence as being the Son of one Fatherbut possessing in himself many and varied powers

9 The world is indeed divided into many parts yet let us not therefore suppose that there aremany independent Agents nor though creationrsquos works be manifold let us thence assume theexistence of many gods How grievous the error of those childish and infatuated advocates ofpolytheistic worship who deify the constituent parts of the universe and divide into many thatsystem which is only one

10 Such conduct resembles theirs who should abstract the eyes of an individual man and termthem the man himself and the ears another man and so the head or again by an effort of thoughtshould separate the neck the breast and shoulders the feet and hands or other members nay thevery powers of sense and thus pronounce an individual to be a multitude of men Such folly mustsurely be rewarded with contempt by men of sense Yet such is he who from the component partsof a single world can devise for himself a multitude of gods or even deem that world which is thework of a Creator and consists of many parts to be itself a god3553 not knowing that the DivineNature can in no sense be divisible into parts since if compounded it must be so through the

3551 John i 1ndash3

3552 One on the scent for heresy might prick up his ears and sound the alarm of ldquoGnosticismrdquo

3553 A curious work just issued (anonymous) under the authority of the Bureau of Education very complacently evolves the

truth of existence out of the authorrsquos pure untrammeled consciousnessmdashfor he has never read any works either on science or

on theologymdashand arrives at the condescending conclusion that there is a God or rather in the words of Eusebius the author

comes to ldquodeem that worldhellipto be itself Godrdquo

1136

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

agency of another power and that which is so compounded can never be Divine How indeed couldit be so if composed of unequal and dissimilar and hence of worse and better elements Simpleindivisible uncompounded the Divine Nature exists at an infinite elevation above the visibleconstitution of this world

11 And hence we are assured by the clear testimony of the sacred Herald3554 that the Word ofGod who is before all things must be the sole Preserver of all intelligent beings while God whois above all and the Author of the generation of the Word being himself the Cause of all thingsis rightly called the Father of the Word as of his only-begotten Son himself acknowledging nosuperior Cause God therefore himself is One and from him proceeds the one only-begotten Wordthe omnipresent Preserver of all things And as the many-stringed lyre is composed of differentchords both sharp and flat some slightly others tensely strained and others intermediate betweenthe two extremes yet all attuned according to the rules of harmonic art even so this material worldcompounded as it is of many elements containing opposite and antagonist principles as moistureand dryness cold and heat yet blended into one harmonious whole may justly be termed a mightyinstrument framed by the hand of God an instrument on which the Divine Word himself notcomposed of parts or opposing principles but indivisible and uncompounded performs with perfectskill and produces a melody at once accordant with the will of his Father the Supreme Lord of alland glorious to himself Again as there are manifold external and internal parts and memberscomprised in a single body yet one invisible soul one undivided and incorporeal mind pervadesthe whole so is it in this creation which consisting of many parts yet is but one and so the Onemighty yea Almighty Word of God pervading all things and diffusing himself with undeviatingenergy throughout this universe is the Cause of all things that exist therein

12 Survey the compass of this visible world Seest thou not how the same heaven contains

600

within itself the countless courses and companies of the stars Again the sun is one and yet eclipsesmany nay all other luminaries by the surpassing glory of his rays Even so as the Father himselfis One his Word is also One the perfect Son of that perfect Father Should any one object becausethey are not more as well might he complain that there are not many suns or moons or worldsand a thousand things beside like the madman who would fain subvert the fair and perfect courseof Nature herself As in the visible so also in the spiritual world in the one the same sun diffuseshis light throughout this material earth in the other the One Almighty Word of God illumines allthings with invisible and secret power

13 Again there is in man one spirit and one faculty of reason which yet is the active causeof numberless effects The same mind instructed in many things will essay to cultivate the earthto build and guide a ship and construct houses nay the one mind and reason of man is capable ofacquiring knowledge in a thousand forms the same mind shall understand geometry and astronomyand discourse on the rules of grammar and rhetoric and the healing art Nor will it excel in science

3554 [Referring (says Valesius) to St John whose words Eusebius had lately cited ldquoIn the beginning was the Wordrdquo ampc

and now explains paraphrastically The reader will decide for himself on the merits of the paraphrasemdashBag]

1137

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

only but in practice too and yet no one has ever supposed the existence of many minds in onehuman form nor expressed his wonder at a plurality of being in man because he is thus capableof varied knowledge

14 Suppose one were to find a shapeless mass of clay to mould it with his hands and give itthe form of a living creature the head in one figure the hands and feet in another the eyes andcheeks in a third and so to fashion the ears the mouth and nose the breast and shoulders accordingto the rules of the plastic art The result indeed is a variety of figure of parts and members in theone body yet must we not suppose it the work of many hands but ascribe it entirely to the skill ofa single artist and yield the tribute of our praise to him who by the energy of a single mind hasframed it all The same is true of the universe itself which is one though consisting of many partsyet surely we need not suppose many creative powers nor invent a plurality of gods Our duty isto adore the all-wise and all-perfect agency of him who is indeed the Power and the Wisdom ofGod whose undivided force and energy pervades and penetrates the universe creating and givinglife to all things and furnishing to all collectively and severally those manifold supplies of whichhe is himself the source

15 Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once gives lightto the eyes warmth to the touch fertility to the earth and growth to plants The same luminaryconstitutes the course of time governs the motions of the stars performs the circuit of the heavensimparts beauty to the earth and displays the power of God to all and all this he performs by thesole and unaided force of his own nature In like manner fire has the property of refining gold andfusing lead of dissolving wax of parching clay and consuming wood producing these variedeffects by one and the same burning power

16 So also the Supreme Word of God pervading all things everywhere existent everywherepresent in heaven and earth governs and directs the visible and invisible creation the sun theheaven and the universe itself with an energy inexplicable in its nature irresistible in its effectsFrom him as from an everlasting fountain the sun the moon and stars receive their light and heforever rules that heaven which he has framed as the fitting emblem of his own greatness Theangelic and spiritual powers the incorporeal and intelligent beings which exist beyond the sphereof heaven and earth are filled by him with light and life with wisdom and virtue with all that isgreat and good from his own peculiar treasures Once more with one and the same creative skillhe ceases not to furnish the elements with substance to regulate the union and combinations theforms and figures and the innumerable qualities of organized bodies preserving the varieddistinctions of animal and vegetable life of the rational and the brute creation and supplying allthings to all with equal power thus proving himself the Author not indeed of the seven-stringed

1138

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lyre3555 but of that system of perfect harmony which is the workmanship of the One world-creatingWord3556

Chapter XIII

1 And now let us proceed to explain the reasons for which this mighty Word of God descendedto dwell with men Our ignorant and foolish race incapable of comprehending him who is the Lordof heaven and earth proceeding from his Fatherrsquos Deity as from the supreme fountain ever presentthroughout the world and evincing by the clearest proofs his providential care for the interests ofman have ascribed the adorable title of Deity to the sun and moon the heaven and the stars ofheaven Nor did they stop here but deified the earth itself its products and the various substances

601

by which animal life is sustained and devised images of Ceres of Proserpine of Bacchus3557 andmany such as these

2 Nay they shrank not from giving the name of gods to the very conceptions of their ownminds and the speech by which those conceptions are expressed calling the mind itself Minervaand language Mercury3558 and affixing the names of Mnemosyne and the Muses to those facultiesby means of which science is acquired Nor was even this enough advancing still more rapidly inthe career of impiety and folly they deified their own evil passions which it behooved them toregard with aversion or restrain by the principles of self-control Their very lust and passion andimpure disease of soul the members of the body which tempt to obscenity and even the veryuncontrol3559 in shameful pleasure they described under the titles of Cupid Priapus Venus3560 andother kindred terms

3 Nor did they stop even here Degrading their thoughts of God to this corporeal and mortallife they deified their fellow-men conferring the names of gods and heroes on those who hadexperienced the common lot of all and vainly imagining that the Divine and imperishable Essencecould frequent the tombs and monuments of the dead Nay more than this they paid divine honorsto animals of various species and to the most noxious reptiles they felled trees and excavatedrocks they provided themselves with brass and iron and other metals of which they fashioned

3555 [In reference singularly enough to the illustration of the lyre in the preceding chaptermdashBag]

3556 It is idle to treat as philosophically or theologically unworthy of consideration a system of thought so definitely unified

and with such Scriptural basis as the above It may not be profound or original but is definite and clear

3557 ldquoOf Demeter of Cora of Dionysiusrdquo

3558 ldquoAthenehellipHermesrdquo

3559 The word used here ἀκρeuroτεια is the opposite of the famous philosophical word for self-controlmdashἐγκρeuroτεια

3560 ldquoEros Priapus Aphroditerdquo

1139

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

resemblances of the male and female human form of beasts and creeping things and these theymade the objects of their worship

4 Nor did this suffice To the evil spirits themselves which lurked within their statues or layconcealed in secret and dark recesses eager to drink their libations and inhale the odor of theirsacrifices they ascribed the same divine honors Once more they endeavored to secure the familiaraid of these spirits and the unseen powers which move through the tracts of air by charms offorbidden magic and the compulsion of unhallowed songs and incantations Again different nationshave adopted different persons as objects of their worship The Greeks have rendered to BacchusHercules AEligsculapius Apollo and others who were mortal men the titles of gods and heroes TheEgyptians have deified Horus and Isis Osiris and other mortals such as these And thus they whoboast of the wondrous skill whereby they have discovered geometry astronomy and the scienceof number know not wise as they are in their own conceit nor understand how to estimate themeasure of the power of God or calculate his exceeding greatness above the nature of irrationaland mortal beings

5 Hence they shrank not from applying the name of gods to the most hideous of the brutecreation to venomous reptiles and savage beasts The Phœnicians deified Melcatharus Usorus3561

and others mere mortals and with little claim to honor the Arabians Dusaris3562 and Obodas theGetaelig Zamolxis the Cicilians Mopsus and the Thebans Amphiaraus3563 in short each nation hasadopted its own peculiar deities differing in no respect from their fellow-mortals being simplyand truly men Again the Egyptians with one consent the Phœnicians the Greeks nay everynation beneath the sun have united in worshiping the very parts and elements of the world andeven the produce of the ground itself And which is most surprising though acknowledging theadulterous unnatural and licentious crimes of their deities they have not only filled every cityand village and district with temples shrines and statues in their honor but have followed theirevil example to the ruin of their own souls

6 We hear of gods and the sons of gods described by them as heroes and good genii titlesentirely opposed to truth honors utterly at variance with the qualifies they are intended to exalt Itis as if one who desired to point out the sun and the luminaries of heaven instead of directing hisgaze thitherward should grope with his hands on the ground and search for the celestial powersin the mud and mire Even so mankind deceived by their own folly and the craft of evil spiritshave believed that the Divine and spiritual Essence which is far above heaven and earth could becompatible with the birth the affections and death of mortal bodies here below To such a pitchof madness did they proceed as to sacrifice the dearest objects of their affection to their gods

3561 It is probably that ldquoMelkathrosrdquo and ldquoUsousrdquo referred to in the Praeligp Evang 1 10 (ed Gaisford Oxon 1843 1 p 77

and 84) The same passage may be found with English translation in Coryrsquos Ancient Fragments Lond 1832 p 6ndash7 13

3562 Dusaris was it is said equivalent to Bacchus

3563 All the above names excepting those specially noted may be found in Smith Dict of Greek and Roman Biog and Mythol

1140

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

regardless of all natural ties and urged by frenzied feeling to slay their only and best belovedchildren

7 For what can be a greater proof of madness than to offer human sacrifice to pollute everycity and even their own houses with kindred blood Do not the Greeks themselves attest this andis not all history filled with records of the same impiety The Phœnicians devoted their best belovedand only children as an annual sacrifice to Saturn The Rhodians on the sixth day of the month

602

Metageitnion3564 offered human victims to the same god At Salamis a man was pursued in thetemple of Minerva Agraulis and Diomede compelled to run thrice round the altar afterwardspierced with a lance by the priest and consumed as a burnt offering on the blazing pile In Egypthuman sacrifice was most abundant At Heliopolis three victims were daily offered to Juno forwhom king Amoses impressed with the atrocity of the practice commanded the substitution of anequal number of waxen figures In Chios and again in Tenedos a man was slain and offered up toOmadian Bacchus At Sparta they immolated human beings to Mars In Crete they did likewiseoffering human sacrifices to Saturn In Laodicea of Syria a virgin was yearly slain in honor ofMinerva for whom a hart is now the substitute The Libyans and Carthaginians appeased their godswith human victims The Dumateni of Arabia buried a boy annually beneath the altar Historyinforms us that the Greeks without exception the Thracians also and Scythians were accustomedto human sacrifice before they marched forth to battle The Athenians record the immolation of thevirgin children of Leus3565 and the daughter of Erechtheus3566 Who knows not that at this day ahuman victim is offered in Rome itself at the festival of Jupiter Latiaris

8 And these facts are confirmed by the testimony of the most approved philosophers Diodorusthe epitomizer of libraries3567 affirms that two hundred of the noblest youths were sacrificed toSaturn by the Libyan people and that three hundred more were voluntarily offered by their ownparents Dionysius the compiler of Roman history3568 expressly says that Jupiter and Apollodemanded human sacrifices of the so-called Aborigines in Italy He relates that on this demandthey offered a proportion of all their produce to the gods but that because of their refusal to slayhuman victims they became involved in manifold calamities from which they could obtain norelease until they had decimated themselves a sacrifice of life which proved the desolation of theircountry Such and so great were the evils which of old afflicted the whole human race

3564 Corresponding nearly to our August Key Calendarium in Smith Dict Gr and R Ant p 223

3565 [Leus is said to have offered his three daughters Phasithea Theope and Eubule the oracle at Delphi having declared

that the relief of the city from famine could only be effected by the shedding of the blood of his daughters by one of the

citizensmdashBag]

3566 [Alluding to the sacrifice of his daughter Chthonia by Erechtheus son of Pandion the Athenians having been promised

victory by the oracle over the Eleusinians and their Thracian allies on the condition of the death of a daughter of

ErechtheusmdashBag]

3567 Diodorus Siculus whose work is mentioned elsewhere (Praeligp Evang 1 6 ed Gaisford p 40) as a ldquohistorical libraryrdquo

3568 Dionysius of Halicarnassus

1141

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

9 Nor was this the full extent of their misery they groaned beneath the pressure of other evilsequally numerous and irremediable All nations whether civilized or barbarous throughout theworld as if actuated by a demoniac frenzy were infected with sedition as with some fierce andterrible disease insomuch that the human family was irreconcilably divided against itself the greatsystem of society was distracted and torn asunder and in every corner of the earth men stoodopposed to each other and strove with fierce contention on questions of law and government

10 Nay more than this with passions aroused to fury they engaged in mutual conflicts sofrequent that their lives were passed as it were in uninterrupted warfare None could undertake ajourney except as prepared to encounter an enemy in the very country and villages the rusticsgirded on the sword provided themselves with armor rather than with the implements of rural laborand deemed it noble exploit to plunder and enslave any who belonged to a neighboring state

11 Nay more than this from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their owndeities they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life and wrought the ruin of body andsoul by licentiousness of every kind Not content with this they even overstepped the bounds whichnature had defined and together committed incredible and nameless crimes ldquomen with men (inthe words of the sacred writer) working un-seemliness and receiving in themselves that recompenseof their error which was duerdquo

12 Nor did they stop even here but perverted their natural thoughts of God and denied thatthe course of this world was directed by his providential care ascribing the existence and constitutionof all things to the blind operation of chance or the necessity of fate

13 Once more believing that soul and body were alike dissolved by death they led a brutishlife unworthy of the name careless of the nature or existence of the soul they dreaded not thetribunal of Divine justice expected no reward of virtue nor thought of chastisem*nt as the penaltyof an evil life

14 Hence it was that whole nations a prey to wickedness in all its forms were wasted by theeffects of their own brutality some living in the practice of most vile and lawless incest withmothers others with sisters and others again corrupting their own daughters Some were foundwho slew their confiding guests others who fed on human flesh some strangled and then feastedon their aged men others threw them alive to dogs The time would fail me were I to attempt todescribe the multifarious symptoms of the inveterate malady which had asserted its dominion overthe whole human race

15 Such and numberless others like these were the prevailing evils on account of which thegracious Word of God full of compassion for his human flock had long since by the ministry of

603

his prophets and earlier still as well as later by that of men distinguished by pious devotion toGod invited those thus desperately afflicted to their own cure and had by means of lawsexhortations and doctrines of every kind proclaimed to man the principles and elements of truegodliness But when for mankind distracted and torn as I have said not indeed by wolves andsavage beasts but by ruthless and soul-destroying spirits of evil human power no longer sufficedbut a help was needed superior to that of man then it was that the Word of God obedient to his

1142

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

all-gracious Fatherrsquos will at length himself appeared and most willingly made his abode amongstus

16 The causes of his advent I have already described induced by which he condescended tothe society of man not in his wonted form and manner for he is incorporeal and present everywherethroughout the world proving by his agency both in heaven and earth the greatness of his almightypower but in a character new and hitherto unknown Assuming a mortal body he deigned toassociate and converse with men desiring through the medium of their own likeness to save ourmortal race

Chapter XIV

1 And now let us explain the cause for which the incorporeal Word of God assumed this mortalbody as a medium of intercourse with man How indeed else than in human form could that Divineand impalpable that immaterial and invisible Essence manifest itself to those who sought for Godin created and earthly objects unable or unwilling otherwise to discern the Author and Maker ofall things

2 As a fitting means therefore of communication with mankind he assumed a mortal bodyas that with which they were themselves familiar for like it is proverbially said loves its like Tothose then whose affections were engaged by visible objects who looked for gods in statues andlifeless images who imagined the Deity to consist in material and corporeal substance nay whoconferred on men the title of divinity the Word of God presented himself in this form

3 Hence he procured for himself this body as a thrice-hallowed temple a sensible habitationof an intellectual power a noble and most holy form of far higher worth than any lifeless statueThe material and senseless image fashioned by base mechanic hands of brass or iron of gold orivory wood or stone may be a fitting abode for evil spirits but that Divine form wrought by thepower of heavenly wisdom was possessed of life and spiritual being a form animated by everyexcellence the dwelling-place of the Word of God a holy temple of the holy God

4 Thus the indwelling Word3569 conversed with and was known to men as kindred withthemselves yet yielded not to passions such as theirs nor owned as the natural soul subjection tothe body He parted not with aught of his intrinsic greatness nor changed his proper Deity For asthe all-pervading radiance of the sun receives no stain from contact with dead and impure bodiesmuch less can the incorporeal power of the Word of God be injured in its essential purity or partwith any of its greatness from spiritual contact with a human body

5 Thus I say did our common Saviour prove himself the benefactor and preserver of alldisplaying his wisdom through the instrumentality of his human nature even as a musician uses

3569 All these various conceptions of the Word are strictly Biblical (1) The Word the only revealer of the Father who otherwise

could not be known (2) The human body the temple of God (3) The indwelling Word

1143

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

the lyre to evince his skill The Grecian myth tells us that Orpheus had power to charm ferociousbeasts and tame their savage spirit by striking the chords of his instrument with a master handand this story is celebrated by the Greeks and generally believed that an unconscious instrumentcould subdue the untamed brute and draw the trees from their places in obedience to its melodiouspower But he who is the author of perfect harmony the all-wise Word of God desiring to applyevery remedy to the manifold diseases of the souls of men employed that human nature which isthe workmanship of his own wisdom as an instrument by the melodious strains of which he soothednot indeed the brute creation but savages endued with reason healing each furious temper eachfierce and angry passion of the soul both in civilized and barbarous nations by the remedial powerof his Divine doctrine Like a physician of perfect skill he met the diseases of their souls whosought for God in nature and in bodies by a fitting and kindred remedy and showed them God inhuman form

6 And then with no less care for the body than the soul he presented before the eyes of menwonders and signs as proofs of his Divine power at the same time instilling into their ears of fleshthe doctrines which he himself uttered with a corporeal tongue In short he performed all his worksthrough the medium of that body which he had assumed for the sake of those who else were incapableof apprehending his Divine nature

7 In all this he was the servant of his Fatherrsquos will himself remaining still the same as whenwith the Father unchanged in essence unimpaired in nature unfettered by the trammels of mortalflesh nor hindered by his abode in a human body from being elsewhere present3570

604

8 Nay at the very time of his intercourse with men he was pervading all things was with andin the Father and even then was caring for all things both in heaven and earth Nor was he precludedas we are from being present everywhere or from the continued exercise of his Divine power Hegave of his own to man but received nothing in return he imparted of his Divine power to mortalitybut derived no accession from mortality itself

9 Hence his human birth to him brought no defilement nor could his impassible Essence sufferat the dissolution of his mortal body For let us suppose a lyre to receive an accidental injury orits chord to be broken it does not follow that the performer on it suffers nor if a wise manrsquos bodyundergo punishment can we fairly assert that his wisdom or the soul within him are maimed orburned

10 Far less can we affirm that the inherent power of the Word sustained any detriment fromhis bodily passion any more than as in the instance we have already used the solar rays whichare shot from heaven to earth contract defilement though in contact with mire and pollution ofevery kind We may indeed assert that these things partake of the radiance of the light but notthat the light is contaminated or the sun defiled by this contact with other bodies

3570 This ought to relieve Eusebius from any charge of Arianism in this relation however ldquodangerousrdquo the ground he has

trodden on may be

1144

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

11 And indeed these things are themselves not contrary to nature but the Saviour the incorporealWord of God being Life and spiritual Light itself whatever he touches with Divine and incorporealpower must of necessity become endued with the intelligence of light and life Thus if he touch abody it becomes enlightened and sanctified is at once delivered from all disease infirmity andsuffering and that which before was lacking is supplied by a portion of his fullness

12 And such was the tenor of his life on earth now proving the sympathies of his human naturewith our own and now revealing himself as the Word of God wondrous and mighty in his worksas God foretelling the events of the far distant future declaring in every act by signs and wondersand supernatural powers that Word whose presence was so little known and finally by his Divineteaching inviting the souls of men to prepare for those mansions which are above the heavens

Chapter XV

1 What now remains but to account for those which are the crowning facts of all I mean hisdeath so far and widely known the manner of his passion and the mighty miracle of his resurrectionafter death and then to establish the truth of these events by the clearest testimonies

2 For the reasons detailed above he used the instrumentality of a mortal body as a figurebecoming his Divine majesty and like a mighty sovereign employed it as his interpreter in hisintercourse with men performing all things consistently with his own Divine power Supposingthen at the end of his sojourn among men he had by any other means suddenly withdrawn himselffrom their sight and secretly removing that interpreter of himself the form which he had assumedhad hastened to flee from death and afterwards by his own act had consigned his mortal body tocorruption and dissolution doubtless in such a case he would have been deemed a mere phantomby all Nor would he have acted in a manner worthy of himself had he who is Life the Word andthe Power of God abandoned this interpreter of himself to corruption and death

3 Nor again would his warfare with the spirits of evil have received its consummation byconflict with the power of death The place of his retirement must have remained unknown norwould his existence have been believed by those who had not seen him for themselves No proofwould have been given that he was superior to death nor would he have delivered mortality fromthe law of its natural infirmity His name had never been heard throughout the world nor could hehave inspired his disciples with contempt of death or encouraged those who embraced his doctrineto hope for the enjoyment of a future life with God Nor would he have fulfilled the assurances ofhis own promise nor have accomplished the predictions of the prophets concerning himself Norwould he have undergone the last conflict of all for this was to be the struggle with the power ofdeath

4 For all these reasons then and inasmuch as it was necessary that the mortal body which hadrendered such service to the Divine Word should meet with an end worthy its sacred occupant themanner of his death was ordained accordingly For since but two alternatives remained either to

1145

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

consign his body entirely to corruption and so to bring the scene of life to a dishonored close orelse to prove himself victorious over death and render mortality immortal by the act of Divinepower the former of these alternatives would have contravened his own promise For as it is notthe property of fire to cool nor of light to darken no more is it compatible with life to deprive oflife or with Divine intelligence to act in a manner contrary to reason For how would it be consistent

605

with reason that he who had promised life to others should permit his own body the form whichhe had chosen to perish beneath the power of corruption That he who had inspired his discipleswith hopes of immortality should yield this exponent of his Divine counsels to be destroyed bydeath

5 The second alternative was therefore needful I mean that he should assert his dominionover the power of death But how should this be a furtive and secret act or openly performed andin the sight of all So mighty an achievement had it remained unknown and unrevealed must havefailed of its effect as regards the interests of men whereas the same event if openly declared andunderstood would from its wondrous character redound to the common benefit of all With reasontherefore since it was needful to prove his body victorious over death and that not secretly butbefore the eyes of men he shrank not from the trial for this indeed would have argued fear and asense of inferiority to the power of death but maintained that conflict with the enemy which hasrendered mortality immortal a conflict undertaken for the life the immortality the salvation ofall

6 Suppose one desired to show us that a vessel could resist the force of fire how could hebetter prove the fact than by casting it into the furnace and thence withdrawing it entire andunconsumed Even thus the Word of God who is the source of life to all desiring to prove thetriumph of that body over death which he had assumed for manrsquos salvation and to make this bodypartake his own life and immortality pursued a course consistent with this object Leaving his bodyfor a little while3571 and delivering it up to death in proof of its mortal nature he soon redeemed itfrom death in vindication of that Divine power whereby he has manifested the immortality whichhe has promised to be utterly beyond the sphere of death

7 The reason of this is clear It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof ofthe certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive forrising superior to the fear of death It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue alife of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth more needful still for thosewho were destined to declare his name in all the world and to communicate to mankind thatknowledge of God which he had before ordained for all nations

8 For such the strongest conviction of a future life was necessary that they might be able withfearless and unshrinking zeal to maintain the conflict with Gentile and polytheistic error a conflictthe dangers of which they would never have been prepared to meet except as habituated to thecontempt of death Accordingly in arming his disciples against the power of this last enemy he

3571 [These words (as Valesius observes) need not be too rigidly interpretedmdashBag]

1146

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

delivered not his doctrines in mere verbal precepts nor attempted to prove the soulrsquos immortalityby persuasive and probable arguments but displayed to them in his own person a real victory overdeath

9 Such was the first and greatest reason of our Saviourrsquos conflict with the power of deathwhereby he proved to his disciples the nothingness of that which is the terror of all mankind andafforded a visible evidence of the reality of that life which he had promised presenting as it werea first-fruit of our common hope of future life and immortality in the presence of God

10 The second cause of his resurrection was that the Divine power might be manifested whichdwelt in his mortal body Mankind had heretofore conferred Divine honors on men who had yieldedto the power of death and had given the titles of gods and heroes to mortals like themselves Forthis reason therefore the Word of God evinced his gracious character and proved to man his ownsuperiority over death recalling his mortal body to a second life displaying an immortal triumphover death in the eyes of all and teaching them to acknowledge the Author of such a victory to bethe only true God even in death itself

11 I may allege yet a third cause of the Saviourrsquos death He was the victim offered to theSupreme Sovereign of the universe for the whole human race a victim consecrated for the need ofthe human race and for the overthrow of the errors of demon worship For as soon as the one holyand mighty sacrifice the sacred body of our Saviour had been slain for man to be as a ransom forall nations heretofore involved in the guilt of impious superstition thenceforward the power ofimpure and unholy spirits was utterly abolished and every earth-born and delusive error was atonce weakened and destroyed

12 Thus then this salutary victim taken from among themselves I mean the mortal body ofthe Word was offered on behalf of the common race of men This was that sacrifice delivered upto death of which the sacred oracles speak ldquoBehold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sinof the worldrdquo3572 And again as follows ldquoHe was led as a sheep to the slaughter and as a lambbefore the shearer is dumbrdquo They declare also the cause saying ldquoHe bears our sins and is painedfor us yet we accounted him to be in trouble and in suffering and in affliction But he was wounded

606

on account of our sins and bruised because of our iniquities the chastisem*nt of our peace wasupon him and by his bruises we were healed All we as sheep have gone astray every one hasgone astray in this way and the Lord gave him up for our sinsrdquo3573

13 Such were the causes which led to the offering of the human body of the Word of God Butforasmuch as he was the great high priest consecrated to the Supreme Lord and King and thereforemore than a victim the Word the Power and the Wisdom of God he soon recalled his body fromthe grasp of death presented it to his Father as the first-fruit of our common salvation and raised

3572 John i 29

3573 [Isaiah liii 4 5 6 7 Septuagint English translation p 728mdashBag] P 889 of the Bagster ed 1879 Though the first

reasons make one feel as if the author had been in danger of slighting the atoning work of the Word he here very clearly comes

up as usual to the Biblical position

1147

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

this trophy a proof at once of his victory over death and Satan and of the abolition of humansacrifices for the blessing of all mankind

Chapter XVI

1 And now the time is come for us to proceed to the demonstration of these things if indeedsuch truths require demonstration and if the aid of testimony be needful to confirm the certaintyof palpable facts Such testimony however shall be here given and let it be received with anattentive and gracious ear

2 Of old the nations of the earth the entire human race were variously distributed intoprovincial national and local governments3574 subject to kingdoms and principalities of manykinds The consequences of this variety were war and strife depopulation and captivity whichraged in country and city with unceasing fury Hence too the countless subjects of history adulteriesand rapes of women hence the woes of Troy and the ancient tragedies so known among all peoples

3 The origin of these may justly be ascribed to the delusion of polytheistic error But when thatinstrument of our redemption the thrice holy body of Christ which proved itself superior to allSatanic fraud and free from evil both in word and deed was raised at once for the abolition ofancient evils and in token of his victory over the powers of darkness the energy of these evil spiritswas at once destroyed The manifold forms of government the tyrannies and republics the siegeof cities and devastation of countries caused thereby were now no more and one God wasproclaimed to all mankind

4 At the same time one universal power the Roman empire arose and flourished while theenduring and implacable hatred of nation against nation was now removed and as the knowledgeof one God and one way of religion and salvation even the doctrine of Christ was made knownto all mankind so at the self-same period the entire dominion of the Roman empire being vestedin a single sovereign profound peace reigned throughout the world And thus by the expressappointment of the same God two roots of blessing the Roman empire and the doctrine of Christianpiety sprang up together for the benefit of men

5 For before this time the various countries of the world as Syria Asia Macedonia Egyptand Arabia had been severally subject to different rulers The Jewish people again had establishedtheir dominion in the land of Palestine And these nations in every village city and district actuatedby some insane spirit were engaged in incessant and murderous war and conflict But two mightypowers starting from the same point the Roman empire which henceforth was swayed by a singlesovereign and the Christian religion subdued and reconciled these contending elements

6 Our Saviourrsquos mighty power destroyed at once the many governments and the many godsof the powers of darkness and proclaimed to all men both rude and civilized to the extremities

3574 Eparchies ethnarchies and toparchies

1148

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

of the earth the sole sovereignty of God himself Meantime the Roman empire the causes ofmultiplied governments being thus removed effected an easy conquest of those which yet remainedits object being to unite all nations in one harmonious whole an object in great measure alreadysecured and destined to be still more perfectly attained even to the final conquest of the ends ofthe habitable world by means of the salutary doctrine and through the aid of that Divine powerwhich facilitates and smooths its way

7 And surely this must appear a wondrous fact to those who will examine the question in thelove of truth and desire not to cavil at these blessings3575 The falsehood of demon superstition wasconvicted the inveterate strife and mutual hatred of the nations was removed at the same time OneGod and the knowledge of that God were proclaimed to all one universal empire prevailed andthe whole human race subdued by the controlling power of peace and concord received one anotheras brethren and responded to the feelings of their common nature Hence as children of one Godand Father and owning true religion as their common mother they saluted and welcomed eachother with words of peace Thus the whole world appeared like one well-ordered and united family

607

each one might journey unhindered as far as and whithersoever he pleased men might securelytravel from West to East and from East to West as to their own native country in short the ancientoracles and predictions of the prophets were fulfilled more numerous than we can at present citeand those especially which speak as follows concerning the saving Word ldquoHe shall have dominionfrom sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earthrdquo And again ldquoIn his days shallrighteousness spring up and abundance of peacerdquo ldquoAnd they shall beat their swords intoplough-shares and their spears into sickles and nation shall not take up sword against nationneither shall they learn to war any morerdquo3576

8 These words predicted ages before in the Hebrew tongue have received in our own day avisible fulfillment by which the testimonies of the ancient oracles are clearly confirmed And nowif thou still desire more ample proof receive it not in words but from the facts themselves Openthe eyes of thine understanding expand the gates of thought pause awhile and consider inquireof thyself as though thou wert another and thus diligently examine the nature of the case Whatking or prince in any age of the world what philosopher legislator or prophet in civilized orbarbarous lands has attained so great a height of excellence I say not after death but while livingstill and full of mighty power as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of hisname Surely none save our only Saviour has done this when after his victory over death he spokethe word to his followers and fulfilled it by the event saying to them ldquoGo ye and make disciplesof all nations in my namerdquo3577 He it was who gave the distinct assurance that his gospel must be

3575 This is a fair appeal applicable to his present hearers It at least was true of Constantinersquos reign that it produced a state

of relative peace and prosperity

3576 [Psalm lxxi 7 8 Isaiah ii 4 SeptuagintmdashBag] Psalm lxxii English version

3577 Matt xxviii 19 There is an interesting various reading here where Eusebius with B as against Aleph adds something

but where B and others have ουν and D and others have νυν Eusebius has γουν

1149

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations and immediately verified his word forwithin a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine

9 How then will those who caviled at the commencement of my speech be able to reply tothis For surely the force of ocular testimony is superior to any verbal argument Who else thanhe with an invisible and yet potent hand has driven from human society like savage beasts thatever noxious and destructive tribe of evil spirits who of old had made all nations their prey and bythe motions of their images had practiced many a delusion among men Who else beside ourSaviour by the invocation of his name and by unfeigned prayer addressed through him to theSupreme God has given power to banish from the world the remnant of those wicked spirits tothose who with genuine and sincere obedience pursue the course of life and conduct which he hashimself prescribed Who else but our Saviour has taught his followers to offer those bloodless andreasonable sacrifices which are performed by prayer and the secret worship of God

10 Hence is it that throughout the habitable world altars are erected and churches dedicatedwherein these spiritual and rational sacrifices are offered as a sacred service by every nation to theOne Supreme God Once more who but he with invisible and secret power has suppressed andutterly abolished those bloody sacrifices which were offered with fire and smoke as well as thecruel and senseless immolation of human victims a fact which is attested by the heathen historiansthemselves For it was not till after the publication of the Saviourrsquos Divine doctrine about the timeof Hadrianrsquos reign that the practice of human sacrifice was universally abandoned

11 Such and so manifest are the proofs of our Saviourrsquos power and energy after death Whothen can be found of spirit so obdurate as to withhold his assent to the truth and refuse toacknowledge his life to be Divine Such deeds as I have described are done by the living not thedead and visible acts are to us as evidence of those which we cannot see It is as it were an eventof yesterday that an impious and godless race disturbed and confounded the peace of human societyand possessed mighty power But these as soon as life departed lay prostrate on the earth worthlessas dung breathless motionless bereft of speech and have left neither fame nor memorial behindFor such is the condition of the dead and he who no longer lives is nothing and how can he whois nothing be capable of any act But how shall his existence be called in question whose activepower and energy are greater than in those who are still alive And though he be invisible to thenatural eye yet the discerning faculty is not in outward sense We do not comprehend the rules ofart or the theories of science by bodily sensation nor has any eye yet discerned the mind of manFar less then the power of God and in such cases our judgment is formed from apparent results

12 Even thus are we bound to judge of our Saviourrsquos invisible power and decide by its manifesteffects whether we shall acknowledge the mighty operations which he is even now carrying on tobe the works of a living agent or whether they shall be ascribed to one who has no existence orlastly whether the inquiry be not absurd and inconsistent in itself For with what reason can we

608

assert the existence of one who is not Since all allow that that which has no existence is devoidof that power and energy and action for these are characteristics of the living but the contrary ischaracteristic of the dead

1150

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter XVII

1 And now the time is come for us to consider the works of our Saviour in our own age andto contemplate the living operations of the living God For how shall we describe these mightyworks save as living proofs of the power of a living agent who truly enjoys the life of God If anyone inquire the nature of these works let him now attend

2 But recently a class of persons impelled by furious zeal and backed by equal power andmilitary force evinced their enmity against God by destroying his churches and overthrowingfrom their foundations the buildings dedicated to his worship In short in every way they directedtheir attacks against the unseen God and assailed him with a thousand shafts of impious wordsBut he who is invisible avenged himself with an invisible hand

3 By the single fiat of his will his enemies were utterly destroyed they who a little while beforehad been flourishing in great prosperity exalted by their fellow men as worthy of divine honorand blessed with a continued period of power and glory3578 so long as they had maintained peaceand amity with him whom they afterwards opposed As soon however as they dared openly toresist his will and to set their gods in array against him whom we adore immediately accordingto the will and power of that God against whom their arms were raised they all received the judgmentdue to their audacious deeds Constrained to yield and flee before his power together theyacknowledged his Divine nature and hastened to reverse the measures which they had beforeessayed

4 Our Saviour therefore without delay erected trophies of this victory everywhere and oncemore adorned the world with holy temples and consecrated houses of prayer in every city andvillage nay throughout all countries and even in barbaric wilds ordaining the erection of churchesand sacred buildings to the honor of the Supreme God and Lord of all Hence it is that these hallowededifices are deemed worthy to bear his name and receive not their appellation from men but fromthe Lord himself from which circ*mstances they are called churches (or houses of the Lord)3579

5 And now let him who will stand forth and tell us who after so complete a desolation hasrestored these sacred buildings from foundation to roof Who when all hope appeared extinct hascaused them to rise on a nobler scale than heretofore And well may it claim our wonder that thisrenovation was not subsequent to the death of those adversaries of God but whilst the destroyersof these edifices were still alive so that the recantation of their evil deeds came in their own wordsand edicts3580 And this they did not in the sunshine of prosperity and ease (for then we mightsuppose that benevolence or clemency might be the cause) but at the very time that they weresuffering under the stroke of Divine vengeance

3578 [Referring to Diocletian and others of the persecuting emperorsmdashBag]

3579 [Κυριακῶν ἠξίωνται τῶν ἐπωνυμιῶν The German ldquoKircherdquo the Scotch ldquoKirkrdquo and the English ldquoChurchrdquo are said

probably enough to derive their origin from this Greek wordmdashBag]

3580 Compare literature on the edicts of toleration

1151

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

6 Who again has been able to retain in obedience to his heavenly precepts after so manysuccessive storms of persecution nay in the very crisis of danger so many persons throughout theworld devoted to philosophy and the service of God and those holy choirs of virgins who haddedicated themselves to a life of perpetual chastity and purity Who taught them cheerfully topersevere in the exercise of protracted fasting and to embrace a life of severe and consistentself-denial Who has persuaded multitudes of either sex to devote themselves to the study of sacredthings and prefer to bodily nutriment that intellectual food which is suited to the wants of a rationalsoul3581 Who has instructed barbarians and peasants yea feeble women slaves and children inshort unnumbered multitudes of all nations to live in the contempt of death persuaded of theimmortality of their souls conscious that human actions are observed by the unerring eye of justiceexpecting Godrsquos award to the righteous and the wicked and therefore true to the practice of a justand virtuous life For they could not otherwise have persevered in the course of godliness Surelythese are the acts which our Saviour and he alone even now performs

7 And now let us pass from these topics and endeavor by inquiries such as these that followto convince the objectorrsquos obdurate understanding Come forward then whoever thou art andspeak the words of reason utter not the thoughts of a senseless heart but those of an intelligentand enlightened mind speak I say after deep solemn converse with thyself Who of the sageswhose names have yet been known to fame has ever been fore-known and proclaimed from theremotest ages as our Saviour was by the prophetic oracles to the once divinely-favored Hebrew

609

nation But his very birth-place the period of his advent the manner of his life his miracles andwords and mighty acts were anticipated and recorded in the sacred volumes of these prophets

8 Again who so present an avenger of crimes against himself so that as the immediateconsequence of their impiety the entire Jewish people were scattered by an unseen power theirroyal seat utterly removed and their very temple with its holy things levelled with the groundWho like our Saviour has uttered predictions at once concerning that impious nation and theestablishment of his church throughout the world and has equally verified both by the eventRespecting the temple of these wicked men our Saviour said ldquoYour house is left unto youdesolaterdquo3582 and ldquoThere shall not be left one stone upon another in this place that shall not bethrown downrdquo3583 And again of his church he says ldquoI will build my church upon a rock and thegates of hell shall not prevail against itrdquo3584

9 How wondrous too must that power be deemed which summoned obscure and unletteredmen from their fisherrsquos trade and made them the legislators and instructors of the human race And

3581 [There is nothing which need surprise us in the praises of virginity monkery and asceticism in a writer of the fourth

century The intelligent Christian will surely shrink from the thought of ascribing with Eusebius these fruitful sources of

corruption to the Lord himselfmdashBag]

3582 Matt xxiii 38

3583 Matt xxiv 2mdashapparently a paraphrase from memory

3584 Matt xvi 18

1152

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

how clear a demonstration of his deity do we find in the promise so well performed that he wouldmake them fishers of men in the power and energy which he bestowed so that they composed andpublished writings of such authority that they were translated into every civilized and barbarouslanguage3585 were read and pondered by all nations and the doctrines contained in them accreditedas the oracles of God

10 How marvelous his predictions of the future and the testimony whereby his disciples wereforewarned that they should be brought before kings and rulers and should endure the severestpunishments not indeed as criminals but simply for their confession of his name Or who shalladequately describe the power with which he prepared them thus to suffer with a willing mind andenabled them strong in the armor of godliness to maintain a constancy of spirit indomitable in themidst of conflict

11 Or how shall we enough admire that steadfast firmness of soul which strengthened notmerely his immediate followers but their successors also even to our present age in the joyfulendurance of every infliction and every form of torture in proof of their devotion to the SupremeGod Again what monarch has prolonged his government through so vast a series of ages Whoelse has power to make war after death to triumph over every enemy to subjugate each barbarousand civilized nation and city and to subdue his adversaries with an invisible and secret hand

12 Lastly and chief of all what slanderous lip shall dare to question that universal peace towhich we have already referred established by his power throughout the world3586 For thus themutual concord and harmony of all nations coincided in point of time with the extension of ourSaviourrsquos doctrine and preaching in all the world a concurrence of events predicted in long agespast by the prophets of God The day itself would fail me gracious emperor should I attempt toexhibit in a single view those cogent proofs of our Saviourrsquos Divine power which even now arevisible in their effects for no human being in civilized or barbarous nations has ever yet exhibitedsuch power of Divine virtue as our Saviour

13 But why do I speak of men since of the beings whom all nations have deemed divine nonehas appeared on earth with power like to his If there has let the fact now be proved Come forwardye philosophers and tell us what god or hero has yet been known to fame who has delivered thedoctrines of eternal life and a heavenly kingdom as he has done who is our Saviour Who likehim has persuaded multitudes throughout the world to pursue the principles of Divine wisdom tofix their hope on heaven itself and look forward to the mansions there reserved for them that loveGod What god or hero in human form has ever held his course from the rising to the setting suna course co-extensive as it were with the solar light and irradiated mankind with the bright andglorious beams of his doctrine causing each nation of the earth to render united worship to the Onetrue God What god or hero yet as he has done has set aside all gods and heroes among civilized

3585 The Syriac Peschito and possibly the Curetonian the old Latin (Itala) probably both the Thebaic and Memphitic Coptic

versions at least had been made at this time

3586 [The peace which Christ at his birth bestowed on the Roman world (Valesius)mdashBag]

1153

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

or barbarous nations has ordained that divine honors should be withheld from all and claimedobedience to that command and then though singly conflicting with the power of all has utterlydestroyed the opposing hosts victorious over the gods and heroes of every age and causing himselfalone in every region of the habitable world to be acknowledged by all people as the only Son ofGod

14 Who else has commanded the nations inhabiting the continents and islands of this mightyglobe to assemble weekly on the Lordrsquos day and to observe it as a festival not indeed for thepampering of the body but for the invigoration of the soul by instruction in Divine truth What

610

god or hero exposed as our Saviour was to so sore a conflict has raised the trophy of victory overevery foe For they indeed from first to last unceasingly assailed his doctrine and his people buthe who is invisible by the exercise of a secret power has raised his servants and the sacred housesof their worship to the height of glory

But why should we still vainly aim at detailing those Divine proofs of our Saviourrsquos powerwhich no language can worthily express which need indeed no words of ours but themselvesappeal in loudest tones to those whose mental ears are open to the truth Surely it is a strange awondrous fact unparalleled in the annals of human life that the blessings we have described shouldbe accorded to our mortal race and that he who is in truth the only the eternal Son of God shouldthus be visible on earth

Chapter XVIII

1 These words of ours however [gracious] Sovereign may well appear superfluous in yourears convinced as you are by frequent and personal experience of our Saviourrsquos Deity yourselfalso in actions still more than words a herald of the truth to all mankind Yourself it may be willvouchsafe at a time of leisure to relate to us the abundant manifestations which your Saviour hasaccorded you of his presence and the oft-repeated visions of himself which have attended you inthe hours of sleep I speak not of those secret suggestions which to us are unrevealed but of thoseprinciples which he has instilled into your own mind and which are fraught with general interestand benefit to the human race You will yourself relate in worthy terms the visible protection whichyour Divine shield and guardian has extended in the hour of battle the ruin of your open and secretfoes and his ready aid in time of peril To him you will ascribe relief in the midst of perplexitydefence in solitude expedients in extremity foreknowledge of events yet future your forethoughtfor the general weal your power to investigate uncertain questions your conduct of most importantenterprises your administration of civil affairs3587 your military arrangements and correction ofabuses in all departments your ordinances respecting public right and lastly your legislation forthe common benefit of all You will it may be also detail to us those particulars of his favor which

3587 Literally ldquoYour political economiesrdquo

1154

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

are secret to us but known to you alone and treasured in your royal memory as in secret storehousesSuch doubtless are the reasons and such the convincing proofs of your Saviourrsquos power whichcaused you to raise that sacred edifice which presents to all believers and unbelievers alike atrophy of his victory over death a holy temple of the holy God to consecrate those noble andsplendid monuments of immortal life and his heavenly kingdom to offer memorials of our AlmightySaviourrsquos conquest which well become the imperial dignity of him by whom they are bestowedWith such memorials have you adorned that edifice which witnesses of eternal life thus as it werein imperial characters ascribing victory and triumph to the heavenly Word of God thus proclaimingto all nations with clear and unmistakable voice in deed and word your own devout and piousconfession of his name

1155

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (6)

whom our divinely favored emperor receiving as it were a transcript of the Divine sovereigntydirects in imitation of God himself the administration of this worldrsquos affairs

Chapter II

1 This only begotten Word of God reigns from ages which had no beginning to infinite andendless ages the partner of his Fatherrsquos kingdom And [our emperor] ever beloved by him whoderives the source of imperial authority from above and is strong in the power of his sacred title3504

has controlled the empire of the world for a long period of years2 Again that Preserver of the universe orders these heavens and earth and the celestial kingdom

consistently with his Fatherrsquos will Even so our emperor whom he loves by bringing those whomhe rules on earth to the only begotten Word and Saviour renders them fit subjects of his kingdom

3 And as he who is the common Saviour of mankind by his invisible and Divine power as thegood shepherd drives far away from his flock like savage beasts those apostate spirits which onceflew through the airy tracts above this earth and fastened on the souls of men3505 so this his friendgraced by his heavenly favor with victory over all his foes subdues and chastens the open adversariesof the truth in accordance with the usages of war

4 He who is the pre-existent Word the Preserver of all things imparts to his disciples the seedsof true wisdom and salvation and at once enlightens and gives them understanding in the knowledgeof his Fatherrsquos kingdom Our emperor his friend acting as interpreter to the Word of God aimsat recalling the whole human race to the knowledge of God proclaiming clearly in the ears of alland declaring with powerful voice the laws of truth and godliness to all who dwell on the earth

5 Once more the universal Saviour opens the heavenly gates of his Fatherrsquos kingdom to thosewhose course is thitherward from this world Our emperor emulous of his Divine example havingpurged his earthly dominion from every stain of impious error invites each holy and pious worshiperwithin his imperial mansions earnestly desiring to save with all its crew that mighty vessel of whichhe is the appointed pilot And he alone of all who have wielded the imperial power of Rome beinghonored by the Supreme Sovereign with a reign of three decennial periods now celebrates thisfestival not as his ancestors might have done in honor of infernal demons or the apparitions ofseducing spirits or of the fraud and deceitful arts of impious men but as an act of thanksgiving to

3504 [It is difficult to know precisely what is meant here Possibly the name of ChristianmdashBag]

3505 This is an allusion to what was afterwards known as Vampireismmdasha belief of unknown antiquity and especially prevalent

in various forms in the East Rydberg (Magic of the Middle Ages p 207) describes the mediaeligval form thus ldquoThe vampires

according to the belief of the Middle Ages are disembodied souls which clothe themselves again in their buried bodies steal at

night into houses and suck from the nipple of the sleeping all their bloodrdquo (Cf Perty d myst Ersch 1 [1872] 383 91 Goumlrresrsquo

Chr myst Vol 3 etc) Similar in nature was that notion of the spirits who sucked away the breath of sleeping persons which

has left its trace in the modern superstition that cats suck away the breath of sleeping children

1109

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

590

savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

1120

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

1121

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and sentence ofdeath in every form3528 Thus did these valiant soldiers of the Almighty Sovereign maintain theconflict with steadfast fortitude of soul against the hostile forces of polytheism and thus did theseenemies of God and adversaries of manrsquos salvation more cruel far than the ferocious savage delight

591

in libations of human blood thus did their ministers drain as it were the cup of unrighteous slaughterin honor of the demons whom they served and prepare for them this dread and impious banquetto the ruin of the human race

9 In these sad circ*mstances what course should the God and King of these afflicted onespursue Could he be careless of the safety of his dearest friends or abandon his servants in thisgreat extremity Surely none could deem him a wary pilot who without an effort to save hisfellow-mariners should suffer his vessel to sink with all her crew surely no general could be foundso reckless as to yield his own allies without resistance to the mercy of the foe nor can a faithfulshepherd regard with unconcern the straying of a single sheep from his flock but will rather leavethe rest in safety and dare all things for the wandererrsquos sake even if need be to contend withsavage beasts

10 The zeal however of the great Sovereign of all was for no unconscious3529 sheep his carewas exercised for his own faithful host for those who sustained the battle for his sake whoseconflicts in the cause of godliness he himself approved and honored those who had returned to hispresence with the prize of victory which he only can bestow uniting them to the angelic choirsOthers he still preserved on earth to communicate the living seeds of piety to future generationsto be at once eye-witnesses of his vengeance on the ungodly and narrators of the events

11 After this he outstretched his arm in judgment on the adversaries and utterly destroyedthem with the stroke of Divine wrath compelling them how reluctant soever to confess with theirown lips and recant their wickedness but raising from the ground and exalting gloriously thosewho had long been oppressed and disclaimed by all

12 Such were the dealings of the Supreme Sovereign who ordained an invincible championto be the minister of his heaven-sent vengeance (for our emperorrsquos surpassing piety delights in thetitle of Servant of God) and him he has proved victorious over all that opposed him having raisedhim up an individual against many foes For they were indeed numberless being the friends ofmany evil spirits (though in reality they were nothing and hence are now no more) but our emperoris one appointed by and the representative of the one Almighty Sovereign And they in the veryspirit of impiety destroyed the righteous with cruel slaughter but he in imitation of his Saviour

3528 For account of the various details of persecution mentioned compare the Church History

3529 ldquoἀλόγουrdquo

1122

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and knowing only how to save menrsquos lives has spared and instructed in godliness the impiousthemselves

13 And so as truly worthy the name of Victor he has subdued the twofold race of barbarianssoothing the savage tribes of men by prudent embassies compelling them to know and acknowledgetheir superiors and reclaiming them from a lawless and brutal life to the governance of reason andhumanity at the same time that he proved by the facts themselves that the fierce and ruthless raceof unseen spirits had long ago been vanquished by a higher power For he who is the preserver ofthe universe had punished these invisible spirits by an invisible judgment and our emperor as thedelegate of the Supreme Sovereign has followed up the victory bearing away the spoils of thosewho have long since died and mouldered into dust and distributing the plunder with lavish handamong the soldiers of his victorious Lord3530

Chapter VIII

1 For as soon as he understood that the ignorant multitudes were inspired with a vain andchildish dread of these bugbears of error wrought in gold and silver he judged it right to removethese also like stumbling-stones thrown in the path of men walking in the dark and henceforwardto open a royal road plain and unobstructed to all

2 Having formed this resolution he considered that no soldiers or military force of any sortwas needed for the repression of the evil a few of his own friends sufficed for this service andthese he sent by a simple expression of his will to visit each several province

3 Accordingly sustained by confidence in the emperorrsquos piety and their own personal devotionto God they passed through the midst of numberless tribes and nations abolishing this ancientsystem of error in every city and country They ordered the priests themselves in the midst ofgeneral laughter and scorn to bring their gods from their dark recesses to the light of day Theythen stripped them of their ornaments and exhibited to the gaze of all the unsightly reality whichhad been hidden beneath a painted exterior and lastly whatever part of the material appeared tobe of value they scraped off and melted in the fire to prove its worth after which they secured andset apart whatever they judged needful for their purposes leaving to the superstitious worshiperswhat was altogether useless as a memorial of their shame

4 Meanwhile our admirable prince was himself engaged in a work similar to that we havedescribed For at the same time that these costly images of the dead were stripped as we have said

3530 [That is stripping the images of those whose temples he destroyed and apportioning the spoils among his Christian

followers See the next chapter which is mostly a transcript of the 54th and 55th chapters of the Third Book of the Life of

ConstantinemdashBag]

1123

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

592

of their precious materials he also attacked those composed of brass causing those to be draggedfrom their places with ropes and as it were carried away captive whom the dotage of mythologyhad esteemed as gods The next care of our august emperor was to kindle as it were a brillianttorch by the light of which he directed his imperial gaze around to see if any hidden vestiges oferror might yet exist

5 And as the keen-sighted eagle in its heavenward flight is able to descry from its lofty heightthe most distant objects on the earth so did he whilst residing in the imperial palace of his ownfair city discover as from a watch-tower a hidden and fatal snare of souls in the province ofPhœnicia This was a grove and temple not situated in the midst of any city or in any public placeas for splendor of effect is generally the case but apart from the beaten and frequented road onpart of the summit of Mount Lebanon and dedicated to the foul demon known by the name ofVenus

6 It was a school of wickedness for all the abandoned votaries of impurity and such as destroyedtheir bodies with effeminacy Here men undeserving the name forgot the dignity of their sex andpropitiated the demon by their effeminate conduct here too unlawful commerce of women andadulterous intercourse with other horrible and infamous practices were perpetrated in this templeas in a place beyond the scope and restraint of law

Meantime these evils remained unchecked by the presence of any observer since no one of faircharacter ventured to visit such scenes

7 These proceedings however could not escape the vigilance of our august emperor whohaving himself inspected them with characteristic forethought and judging that such a temple wasunfit for the light of heaven gave orders that the building with its offerings should be utterlydestroyed Accordingly in obedience to the imperial edict these engines of an impure superstitionwere immediately abolished and the hand of military force was made instrumental in purging theplace And now those who had heretofore lived without restraint learned through the imperialthreat of punishment to practice self-control

8 Thus did our emperor tear the mask from this system of delusive wickedness and expose itto the public gaze at the same time proclaiming openly his Saviourrsquos name to all No advocateappeared neither god nor demon prophet nor diviner could lend his aid to the detected authors ofthe imposture For the souls of men were no longer enveloped in thick darkness but enlightenedby the rays of true godliness they deplored the ignorance and pitied the blindness of their forefathersrejoicing at the same time in their own deliverance from such fatal error3531

9 Thus speedily according to the counsel of the mighty God and through our emperorrsquos agencywas every enemy whether visible or unseen utterly removed and henceforward peace the happynurse of youth extended her reign throughout the world Wars were no more for the gods werenot no more did warfare in country or town no more did the effusion of human blood distressmankind as heretofore when demon-worship and the madness of idolatry prevailed

3531 ldquoThe Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself God I thank thee that I am not as the rest of menrdquo

1124

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter IX

1 And now we may well compare the present with former things and review these happychanges in contrast with the evils that are past and mark the elaborate care with which in ancienttimes porches and sacred precincts groves and temples were prepared in every city for these falsedeities and how their shrines were enriched with abundant offerings

2 The sovereign rulers of those days had indeed a high regard for the worship of the gods Thenations also and people subject to their power honored them with images both in the country andin every city nay even in their houses and secret chambers according to the religious practice oftheir fathers The fruit however of this devotion far different from the peaceful concord whichnow meets our view appeared in war in battles and seditions which harassed them throughouttheir lives and deluged their countries with blood and civil slaughter

3 Again the objects of their worship could hold out to these sovereigns with artful flattery thepromise of prophecies and oracles and the knowledge of futurity yet could they not predict theirown destruction nor forewarn themselves of the coming ruin and surely this was the greatest andmost convincing proof of their imposture

4 Not one of those whose words once were heard with awe and wonder had announced theglorious advent of the Saviour of mankind3532 or that new revelation of divine knowledge whichhe came to give Not Pythius himself nor any of those mighty gods could apprehend the prospectof their approaching desolation nor could their oracles point at him who was to be their conquerorand destroyer

5 What prophet or diviner could foretell that their rites would vanish at the presence of a newDeity in the world and that the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Sovereign should be freely

593

given to all mankind Which of them foreknew the august and pious reign of our victorious emperoror his triumphant conquests everywhere over the false demons or the overthrow of their highplaces

6 Which of the heroes has announced the melting down and conversion of the lifeless statuesfrom their useless forms to the necessary uses of men Which of the gods have yet had power tospeak of their own images thus melted and contemptuously reduced to fragments

7 Where were the protecting powers that they should not interpose to save their sacredmemorials thus destroyed by man Where I ask are those who once maintained the strife of waryet now behold their conquerors abiding securely in the profoundest peace And where are theywho upheld themselves in a blind and foolish confidence and trusted in these vanities as gods butwho in the very height of their superstitious error and while maintaining an implacable war withthe champions of the truth perished by a fate proportioned to their crimes

3532 He seems to disagree with the view of the heathen prophecy which his imperial hearer maintained in his Oration to the

Saints

1125

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 Where is the giant race whose arms were turned against heaven itself the hissings of thoseserpents whose tongues were pointed with impious words against the Almighty King Theseadversaries of the Lord of all confident in the aid of a multitude of gods advanced to the attackwith a powerful array of military force preceded by certain images of the dead and lifeless statuesas their defense On the other side our emperor secure in the armor of godliness opposed to thenumbers of the enemy the salutary and life-giving Sign as at the same time a terror to the foe anda protection against every harm and returned victorious at once over the enemy and the demonswhom they served3533 And then with thanksgiving and praise the tokens of a grateful spirit to theAuthor of his victory he proclaimed this triumphant Sign by monuments as well as words to allmankind erecting it as a mighty trophy against every enemy in the midst of the imperial city andexpressly enjoining on all to acknowledge this imperishable symbol of salvation as the safeguardof the power of Rome and of the empire of the world

9 Such were the instructions which he gave to his subjects generally but especially to hissoldiers whom he admonished to repose their confidence not in their weapons or armor or bodilystrength but to acknowledge the Supreme God as the giver of every good and of victory itself

10 Thus did the emperor himself strange and incredible as the fact may seem become theinstructor of his army in their religious exercises and teach them to offer pious prayers in accordancewith the divine ordinances uplifting their hands towards heaven and raising their mental visionhigher still to the King of heaven on whom they should call as the Author of victory their preserverguardian and helper He commanded too that one day should be regarded as a special occasionfor religious worship I mean that which is truly the first and chief of all the day of our Lord andSaviour that day the name of which is connected with light and life and immortality and everygood

11 Prescribing the same pious conduct to himself he honored his Saviour in the chambers ofhis palace performing his devotions according to the Divine commands and storing his mind withinstruction through the hearing of the sacred word The entire care of his household was intrustedto ministers devoted to the service of God and distinguished by gravity of life and every othervirtue while his trusty body-guards strong in affection and fidelity to his person found in theiremperor an instructor in the practice of a godly life

12 Again the honor with which he regards the victorious Sign is founded on his actualexperience of its divine efficacy Before this the hosts of his enemies have disappeared by this thepowers of the unseen spirits have been turned to flight through this the proud boastings of Godrsquosadversaries have come to nought and the tongues of the profane and blasphemous been put tosilence By this Sign the Barbarian tribes were vanquished through this the rites of superstitiousfraud received a just rebuke by this our emperor discharging as it were a sacred debt has performedthe crowning good of all by erecting triumphant memorials of its value in all parts of the world

3533 For details respecting the following enumeration compare the Life of Constantine of which this is a reacutesumeacute This sentence

and the preceding are taken almost word for word from ch 16 of Bk II

1126

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

raising temples and churches on a scale of royal costliness and commanding all to unite inconstructing the sacred houses of prayer

13 Accordingly these signal proofs of our emperorrsquos magnificence forthwith appeared in theprovinces and cities of the empire and soon shone conspicuously in every country convincingmemorials of the rebuke and overthrow of those impious tyrants who but a little while before hadmadly dared to fight against God and raging like savage dogs had vented on unconscious buildingsthat fury which they were unable to level against him had thrown to the ground and upturned thevery foundations of the houses of prayer causing them to present the appearance of a city capturedand abandoned to the enemy Such was the exhibition of that wicked spirit whereby they soughtas it were to assail God himself but soon experienced the result of their own madness and folly

594

But a little time elapsed when a single blast of the storm of Heavenrsquos displeasure swept them utterlyaway leaving neither kindred nor offspring nor memorial of their existence among men for allnumerous as they were disappeared as in a moment beneath the stroke of Divine vengeance

14 Such then was the fate which awaited these furious adversaries of God but he who armedwith the salutary Trophy had alone opposed them (nay rather not alone but aided by the presenceand the power of him who is the only Sovereign) has replaced the ruined edifices on a greaterscale and made the second far superior to the first For example besides erecting various churchesto the honor of God in the city which bears his name and adorning the Bithynian capital withanother on the greatest and most splendid scale he has distinguished the principal cities of the otherprovinces by structures of a similar kind

15 Above all he has selected two places in the eastern division of the empire the one inPalestine (since from thence the life-giving stream has flowed as from a fountain for the blessingof all nations) the other in that metropolis of the East which derives its name from that of Antiochusin which as the head of that portion of the empire he has consecrated to the service of God a churchof unparalleled size and beauty The entire building is encompassed by an enclosure of great extentwithin which the church itself rises to a vast elevation of an octagonal form surrounded by manychambers and courts on every side and decorated with ornaments of the richest kind3534

16 Such was his work here Again in the province of Palestine in that city which was oncethe seat of Hebrew sovereignty on the very site of the Lordrsquos sepulchre he has raised a church ofnoble dimensions and adorned a temple sacred to the salutary Cross with rich and lavishmagnificence honoring that everlasting monument and the trophies of the Saviourrsquos victory overthe power of death with a splendor which no language can describe

17 In the same country he discovered three places venerable as the localities of three sacredcaves and these also he adorned with costly structures paying a fitting tribute of reverence to thescene of the first manifestation of the Saviourrsquos presence while at the second cavern he hallowedthe remembrance of his final ascension from the mountain top and celebrated his mighty conflict

3534 Almost word for word from the Life Bk III ch 50

1127

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and the victory which crowned it at the third3535 All these places our emperor thus adorned in thehope of proclaiming the symbol of redemption to all mankind

18 that Cross which has indeed repaid his pious zeal through which his house and throne alikehave prospered his reign has been confirmed for a lengthened series of years and the rewards ofvirtue bestowed on his noble sons his kindred and their descendants

19 And surely it is a mighty evidence of the power of that God whom he serves that he hasheld the balances of justice with an equal hand and has apportioned to each party their due rewardWith regard to the destroyers of the houses of prayer the penalty of their impious conduct followedhard upon them forthwith were they swept away and left neither race nor house nor family behindOn the other hand he whose pious devotion to his Lord is conspicuous in his every act who raisesroyal temples to his honor and proclaims his name to his subjects by sacred offerings throughoutthe world he I say has deservedly experienced him to be the preserver and defender of his imperialhouse and race Thus clearly have the dealings of God been manifested and this through the sacredefficacy of the salutary Sign

Chapter X

1 Much might indeed be said of this salutary Sign by those who are skilled in the mysteriesof our Divine religion For it is in very truth the symbol of salvation wondrous to speak of morewondrous still to conceive the appearance of which on earth has thrown the fictions of all falsereligion from the beginning into the deepest shade has buried superstitious error in darkness andoblivion and has revealed to all that spiritual light which enlightens the souls of men even theknowledge of the only true God

2 Hence the universal change for the better which leads men to spurn their lifeless idols totrample under foot the lawless rites of their demon deities and laugh to scorn the time-honoredfollies of their fathers Hence too the establishment in every place of those schools of sacredlearning wherein men are taught the precepts of saving truth and dread no more those objects ofcreation which are seen by the natural eye nor direct a gaze of wonder at the sun the moon orstars but acknowledge him who is above all these that invisible Being who is the Creator of themall and learn to worship him alone

3 Such are the blessings resulting to mankind from this great and wondrous Sign by virtue ofwhich the evils which once existed are now no more and virtues heretofore unknown shineeverywhere resplendent with the light of true godliness

3535 [In the Life of Constantine (vide [Bk III ch 41] supra) Eusebius mentions two caves only and speaks of the churches

built by Helena at Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives He here alludes to the magnificent church erected by Constantine at

the Lordrsquos sepulchre and ascribes to him those of Helena also as having been raised at the emperorrsquos expense Valesius ad

locmdashBag]

1128

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

595

4 Discourses and precepts and exhortations to a virtuous and holy life are proclaimed in theears of all nations Nay the emperor himself proclaims them and it is indeed a marvel that thismighty prince raising his voice in the hearing of all the world like an interpreter of the AlmightySovereignrsquos will invites his subjects in every country to the knowledge of the true God

5 No more as in former times is the babbling of impious men heard in the imperial palacebut priests and pious worshipers of God together celebrate his majesty with royal hymns of praiseThe name of the one Supreme Ruler of the universe is proclaimed to all the gospel of glad tidingsconnects the human race with its Almighty King declaring the grace and love of the heavenlyFather to his children on the earth

6 His praise is everywhere sung in triumphant strains the voice of mortal man is blended withthe harmony of the angelic choirs in heaven and the reasoning soul employs the body which investsit as an instrument for sounding forth a fitting tribute of praise and adoration to his name Thenations of the East and the West are instructed at the same moment in his precepts the people ofthe Northern and Southern regions unite with one accord under the influence of the same principlesand laws in the pursuit of a godly life in praising the one Supreme God in acknowledging hisonly begotten Son their Saviour as the source of every blessing and our emperor as the one ruleron the earth together with his pious sons

7 He himself as a skillful pilot sits on high at the helm of state and directs the vessel withunerring course conducting his people as it were with favoring breeze to a secure and tranquilhaven Meanwhile God himself the great Sovereign extends the right hand of his power fromabove for his protection giving him victory over every foe and establishing his empire by alengthened period of years and he will bestow on him yet higher blessings and confirm in everydeed the truth of his own promises But on these we may not at present dwell but must await thechange to a better world for it is not given to mortal eyes or ears of flesh fully to apprehend thethings of God3536

Chapter XI

1 And now victorious and mighty Constantine in this discourse whose noble argument is theglory of the Almighty King let me lay before thee some of the mysteries of his sacred truth notas presuming to instruct thee who art thyself taught of God nor to disclose to thee those secretwonders which he himself not through the agency of man but through our common Saviour andthe frequent light of his Divine presence has long since revealed and unfolded to thy view but inthe hope of leading the unlearned to the light and displaying before those who know them not thecauses and motives of thy pious deeds

3536 At this point according to some (compare Special Prolegomena) one oration ends and another begins

1129

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

2 True it is that thy noble efforts for the daily worship and honor of the Supreme God throughoutthe habitable world are the theme of universal praise But those records of gratitude to thy Saviourand Preserver which thou hast dedicated in our own province of Palestine and in that city fromwhich as from a fountain-head the Saviour Word3537 has issued forth to all mankind and again thehallowed edifices and consecrated temples which thou hast raised as trophies of his victory overdeath and those lofty and noble structures imperial monuments of an imperial spirit which thouhast erected in honor of the everlasting memory of the Saviourrsquos tomb the cause I say of thesethings is not equally obvious to all

3 Those indeed who are enlightened in heavenly knowledge by the power of the Divine Spiritwell understand the cause and justly admire and bless thee for that counsel and resolution whichHeaven itself inspired On the other hand the ignorant and spiritually blind regard these designswith open mockery and scorn and deem it a strange and unworthy thing indeed that so mighty aprince should waste his zeal on the graves and monuments of the dead

4 ldquoWere it not betterrdquo such a one might say ldquoto cherish those rites which are hallowed byancient usage to seek the favor of those gods and heroes whose worship is observed in everyprovince instead of rejecting and disclaiming them because subject to the calamities incident toman Surely they may claim equal honors with him who himself has suffered or if they are to berejected as not exempt from the sorrows of humanity the same award would justly be pronouncedrespecting himrdquo Thus with important and contracted brow might he give utterance in pompouslanguage to his self-imagined wisdom

5 Filled with compassion for this ignorance the gracious Word of our most beneficent Fatherfreely invites not such a one alone but all who are in the path of error to receive instruction inDivine knowledge and has ordained the means of such instruction throughout the world in everycountry and village in cultivated and desert lands alike and in every city and as a gracious Saviourand Physician of the soul calls on the Greek and the Barbarian the wise and the unlearned the

596

rich and the poor the servant and his master the subject and his lord the ungodly the profane theignorant the evil-doer the blasphemer alike to draw near and hasten to receive his heavenly cureAnd thus in time past had he clearly announced to all the pardon of former transgressions sayingldquoCome unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you restrdquo3538 And again ldquoIam not come to call the righteous but sinners to repentancerdquo3539 And he adds the reason saying

3537 Here the author seems to speak doubly of the Word and the word

3538 Matt xi 28

3539 Matt xi 13 RV ldquoFor I came not to call the righteous but sinnersrdquo The text here has the reading εισμετανοιαν omitted

by Tischendorf and the revisers with א B etc but supported by CEGKL sab cop etc It is worth noting that it is not in the

Sinaitic and if this text reading is correct it would nearly overthrow the possibility that this ms was one of those prepared under

the direction of Eusebius

1130

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

ldquoFor they that are whole need not a physician but they that are sickrdquo3540 And again ldquoI desire notthe death of a sinner but rather that he should repentrdquo3541

6 Hence it is only for those who are themselves instructed in Divine things and understand themotives of that zeal of which these works are the result to appreciate the more than human impulseby which our emperor was guided to admire his piety toward God and to believe his care for thememorial of our Saviourrsquos resurrection to be a desire imparted from above and truly inspired bythat Sovereign to be whose faithful servant and minister for good is his proudest boast

7 In full persuasion then of thy approval most mighty emperor I desire at this present timeto proclaim to all the reasons and motives of thy pious works I desire to stand as the interpreter ofthy designs to explain the counsels of a soul devoted to the love of God I propose to teach all menwhat all should know who care to understand the principles on which our Saviour God employshis power the reasons for which he who was the pre-existent Controller of all things at lengthdescended to us from heaven the reasons for which he assumed our nature and submitted even tothe power of death I shall declare the causes of that immortal life which followed and of hisresurrection from the dead Once more I shall adduce convincing proofs and arguments for thesake of those who yet need such testimony

8 and now let me commence my appointed taskThose who transfer the worship due to that God who formed and rules the world to the works

of his hand who hold the sun and moon or other parts of this material system nay the elementsthemselves earth water air and fire in equal honor with the Creator of them all who give thename of gods to things which never would have had existence or even name except as obedientto that Word of God who made the world such persons in my judgment resemble those whooverlook the master hand which gives its magnificence to a royal palace and while lost in wonderat its roofs and walls the paintings of varied beauty and coloring which adorn them and its gildedceilings and sculptures ascribe to them the praise of that skill which belongs to the artist whosework they are whereas they should assign the cause of their wonder not to these visible objectsbut to the architect himself and confess that the proofs of skill are indeed manifest but that healone is the possessor of that skill who has made them what they are

9 Again well might we liken those to children who should admire the seven-stringed lyreand disregard him who invented or has power to use it or those who forget the valiant warrior andadorn his spear and shield with the chaplet of victory or lastly those who hold the squares andstreets the public buildings temples and gymnasia of a great and royal city in equal honor withits founder forgetting that their admiration is due not to lifeless stones but to him whose wisdomplanned and executed these mighty works

3540 Matt xi 12

3541 Ezek xviii 23 RV ldquoHave I any pleasure in the death of the wicked saith the Lord God and not rather that he should

return from his way and liverdquo

1131

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

10 Not less absurd is it for those who regard this universe with the natural eye to ascribe itsorigin to the sun or moon or any other heavenly body Rather let them confess that these arethemselves the works of a higher wisdom remember the Maker and Framer of them all and renderto him the praise and honor above all created objects Nay rather inspired by the sight of these veryobjects let them address themselves with full purpose of heart to glorify and worship him who isnow invisible to mortal eye but perceived by the clear and unclouded vision of the soul thesupremely sovereign Word of God To take the instance of the human body no one has yet conferredthe attribute of wisdom on the eyes or head the hands or feet or other members far less on theoutward clothing of a wise and learned man no one terms the philosopherrsquos household furnitureand utensils wise but every rational person admires that invisible and secret power the mind ofthe man himself

11 How much more then is our admiration due not to the visible mechanism of the universematerial as it is and formed of the selfsame elements but to that invisible Word who has mouldedand arranged it all who is the only-begotten Son of God and whom the Maker of all things whofar transcends all being has begotten of himself and appointed Lord and Governor of this universe

12 For since it was impossible that perishable bodies or the rational spirits which he had

597

created should approach the Supreme God by reason of their immeasurable distance from hisperfections for he is unbegotten above and beyond all creation ineffable inaccessibleunapproachable dwelling as his holy word assures us3542 in the light which none can enter butthey were created from nothing and are infinitely far removed from his unbegotten Essence wellhas the all-gracious and Almighty God interposed as it were an intermediate Power3543 betweenhimself and them even the Divine omnipotence of his only-begotten Word And this Power whichis in perfect nearness and intimacy of union with the Father which abides in him and shares hissecret counsels has yet condescended in fullness of grace as it were to conform itself to thosewho are so far removed from the supreme majesty of God How else consistently with his ownholiness could he who is far above and beyond all things unite himself to corruptible and corporealmatter Accordingly the Divine Word thus connecting himself with this universe and receiving

3542 1 Tim vi 16

3543 [This whole passage (which is defended by Valesius) appears if rigidly interpreted to lie under suspicion of a tinge of

ArianismmdashBag] It savors directly of Philo His doctrine was of an ineffable God above and separate from matter and defiled

by any contact with it To bring him into connection with created things he introduced intermediate beings or ldquopowersrdquo the

universal power including all the rest being the Logos Compare brief account in Zellerrsquos Outlines of Greek Philosophy p

320ndash325 Siegfried Philo von Alexandria (Jena 1875) especially p 199 sq 219 sq and p 362ndash364 where he treats very

inadequately of Eusebiusrsquo dependence on Philo also works of Philo and Eusebiusrsquo Praeligp and Demonst Ev There is a chance

of viewing the Word thus as created but if this is guarded against (as it is by him in the use of ldquobegottenrdquo) there is nothing

intrinsically heterodox in making the Word the Creator of the world and only Revealer of the Father The direct Philonian

influence is seen in the phraseology of the following sentences

1132

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

into his hands the reins as it were of the world turns and directs it as a skillful charioteer accordingto his own will and pleasure

13 The proof of these assertions is evident For supposing that those component parts of theworld which we call elements as earth water air and fire the nature of which is manifestly withoutintelligence are self-existent and if they have one common essence which they who are skilledin natural science call the great receptacle mother and nurse of all things and if this itself be utterlydevoid of shape and figure of soul and reason whence shall we say it has obtained its present formand beauty To what shall we ascribe the distinction of the elements or the union of things contraryin their very nature Who has commanded the liquid water to sustain the heavy element of earthWho has turned back the waters from their downward course and carried them aloft in cloudsWho has bound the force of fire and caused it to lie latent in wood and to combine with substancesmost contrary to itself Who has mingled the cold air with heat and thus reconciled the enmity ofopposing principles Who has devised the continuous succession of the human race and given itas it were an endless term of duration Who has moulded the male and female form adapted theirmutual relations with perfect harmony and given one common principle of production to everyliving creature Who changes the character of the fluid and corruptible seed which in itself is voidof reason and gives it its prolific power Who is at this moment working these and ten thousandeffects more wonderful than these nay surpassing all wonder and with invisible influence is dailyand hourly perpetuating the production of them all

14 Surely the wonder-working and truly omnipotent Word of God may well be deemed theefficient cause of all these things that Word who diffusing himself through all creation pervadingheight and depth with incorporeal energy and embracing the length and breadth of the universewithin his mighty grasp has compacted and reduced to order this entire system from whoseunreasoned and formless matter he has framed for himself an instrument of perfect harmony thenicely balanced chords and notes of which he touches with all-wise and unerring skill He it is whogoverns the sun and moon and the other luminaries of heaven by inexplicable laws and directstheir motions for the service of the universal whole

15 It is this Word of God who has stooped to the earth on which we live and created themanifold species of animals and the fair varieties of the vegetable world It is this same Word whohas penetrated the recesses of the deep has given their being to the finny race and produced thecountless forms of life which there exist It is he who fashions the burden of the womb and informsit in naturersquos laboratory with the principle of life By him the fluid and heavy moisture is raised onhigh and then sweetened by a purifying change descends in measured quantities to the earth andat stated seasons in more profuse supply

16 Like a skillful husbandman he fully irrigates the land tempers the moist and dry in justproportion diversifying the whole with brilliant flowers with aspects of varied beauty with pleasantfragrance with alternating varieties of fruits and countless gratifications for the taste of men Butwhy do I dare essay a hopeless task to recount the mighty works of the Word of God and describean energy which surpasses mortal thought By some indeed he has been termed the Nature of the

1133

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

universe by others the World-Soul by others Fate Others again have declared him to be the mostHigh God himself strangely confounding things most widely different bringing down to this earthuniting to a corruptible and material body and assigning to that supreme and unbegotten Power

598

who is Lord of all an intermediate place between irrational animals and rational mortals on the onehand and immortal beings on the other3544

Chapter XII

1 On the other hand the sacred doctrine teaches that he who is the supreme Source of goodand Cause of all things is beyond all comprehension and therefore inexpressible by word orspeech or name surpassing the power not of language only but of thought itself Uncirc*mscribedby place or body neither in heaven nor in ethereal space nor in any other part of the universebut entirely independent of all things else he pervades the depths of unexplored and secret wisdomThe sacred oracles teach us to acknowledge him as the only true God3545 apart from all corporealessence distinct from all subordinate ministration Hence it is said that all things are from him butnot through him3546

2 And he himself dwelling as Sovereign in secret and undiscovered regions of unapproachablelight ordains and disposes all things by the single power of his own will At his will whatever isexists without that will it cannot be And his will is in every case for good since he is essentiallyGoodness itself But he through whom are all things even God the Word proceeding in an ineffable

3544 [Of this somewhat obscure passage a translator can do no more than give as nearly as possible a literal version The

intelligent reader will not fail to perceive that the author here and in the following chapter has trodden on very dangerous

groundmdashBag] Compare above notes on the relations of Eusebius and Philo

3545 [Referring apparently to John xvii 3 ldquoAnd this is life eternal that they might know thee the only true God and Jesus

Christ whom thou hast sentrdquo a passage which has been called a stronghold of the impugners of the Deity of Christ but which

simply considered with its context cannot fairly be understood to indicate any inferiority of the Son to the Father but rather

appears to speak of the mission of the former as the manifestation of the grace of him who is called ldquothe only true Godrdquo in

contradistinction to the polytheism of the heathen world In other words the knowledge of ldquothe only true Godrdquo in connection

with that of ldquoJesus Christ whom he has sentrdquo constitutes ldquoeternal liferdquo the one being ineffectual and indeed impossible without

the othermdashBag] Compare 1 John v 20ndash21 ldquoThat we know him that is true and we are in him that is true even in his Son Jesus

Christ This is the true God and eternal liferdquo which seems to show that John had no idea of any subordination in essence in this

matter

3546 [But see for a refutation of this statement Rom xi 36 and Heb ii 10mdashBag] Yet the second of these references clearly

refers to the Son Eusebius speaking of God the Father has in mind the truth that all things were made by the Son ldquoand without

him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo John i 3

1134

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

manner from the Father above as from an everlasting and exhaustless fountain flows onward likea river with a full and abundant stream of power for the preservation of the universal whole

3 And now let us select an illustration from our own experience The invisible and undiscoveredmind within us the essential nature of which no one has ever known sits as a monarch in theseclusion of his secret chambers and alone resolves on our course of action From this proceedsthe only-begotten word from its fatherrsquos bosom begotten in a manner and by a power inexplicableto us and is the first messenger of its fatherrsquos thoughts declares his secret counsels and conveyingitself to the ears of others accomplishes his designs

4 And thus the advantage of this faculty is enjoyed by all yet no one has ever yet beheld thatinvisible and hidden mind which is the parent of the word itself3547 In the same manner or ratherin a manner which far surpasses all likeness or comparison the perfect Word of the Supreme Godas the only-begotten Son of the Father (not consisting in the power of utterance nor comprehendedin syllables and parts of speech nor conveyed by a voice which vibrates on the air but being himselfthe living and effectual Word of the most High and subsisting personally as the Power and Wisdomof God)3548 proceeds from his Fatherrsquos Deity and kingdom3549 Thus being the perfect Offspringof a perfect Father and the common Preserver of all things he diffuses himself with living powerthroughout creation and pours from his own fullness abundant supplies of reason3550 wisdom lightand every other blessing not only on objects nearest to himself but on those most remote whetherin earth or sea or any other sphere of being

5 To all these he appoints with perfect equity their limits places laws and inheritance allottingto each their suited portion according to his sovereign will To some he assigns the super-terrestrialregions to others heaven itself as their habitation others he places in ethereal space others in airand others still on earth He it is who transfers mankind from hence to another sphere impartiallyreviews their conduct here and bestows a recompense according to the life and habits of each Byhim provision is made for the life and food not of rational creatures only but also of the brutecreation for the service of men

6 and while to the latter he grants the enjoyment of a perishable and fleeting term of existencethe former he invites to a share in the possession of immortal life Thus universal is the agency ofthe Word of God everywhere present and pervading all things by the power of his intelligence

3547 The author is now speaking especially of the spoken or ldquoexpressedrdquo word

3548 Compare 1 Cor i 24

3549 This conception that the Divine Word stands in something the same relation with the Father that the human word (internal

and external) does to the human spirit has at least an interesting suggestion towards the unraveling of this curious mystery

which for lack of a better word it is the fashion just now to call a human personality and which certainly is made in the image

and likeness of God Unless there lurks in the idea some subtle heresy one may venture to accept as an interesting analogy this

relation of invisible self self expressed to self (internal word) self revealed (external word) and an expression carried to the

point of embodiment (incarnation)

3550 ldquoLogosrdquo againmdashhere the internal word

1135

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

he looks upward to his Father and governs this lower creation inferior to and consequent uponhimself in accordance with his will as the common Preserver of all things

599

7 Intermediate as it were and attracting the created to the uncreated Essence this Word ofGod exists as an unbroken bond between the two uniting things most widely different by aninseparable tie He is the Providence which rules the universe the guardian and director of thewhole he is the Power and Wisdom of God the only-begotten God the Word begotten of Godhimself For ldquoIn the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God and the Word was GodAll things were made by him and without him was not anything made that hath been maderdquo as welearn from the words of the sacred writer3551 Through his vivifying power all nature grows andflourishes refreshed by his continual showers and invested with a vigor and beauty ever new

8 Guiding the reigns of the universe he holds its onward course in conformity to the Fatherrsquoswill and moves as it were the helm of this mighty ship This glorious Agent the only-begottenSon of the Supreme God begotten by the Father as his perfect Offspring the Father has given tothis world as the highest of all goods infusing his word as spirit into a lifeless body into unconsciousnature imparting light and energy to that which in itself was a rude inanimate and formless massthrough the Divine power Him therefore it is ours to acknowledge and regard as everywherepresent and giving life to matter and the elements of nature3552 in him we see Light even thespiritual offspring of inexpressible Light one indeed in essence as being the Son of one Fatherbut possessing in himself many and varied powers

9 The world is indeed divided into many parts yet let us not therefore suppose that there aremany independent Agents nor though creationrsquos works be manifold let us thence assume theexistence of many gods How grievous the error of those childish and infatuated advocates ofpolytheistic worship who deify the constituent parts of the universe and divide into many thatsystem which is only one

10 Such conduct resembles theirs who should abstract the eyes of an individual man and termthem the man himself and the ears another man and so the head or again by an effort of thoughtshould separate the neck the breast and shoulders the feet and hands or other members nay thevery powers of sense and thus pronounce an individual to be a multitude of men Such folly mustsurely be rewarded with contempt by men of sense Yet such is he who from the component partsof a single world can devise for himself a multitude of gods or even deem that world which is thework of a Creator and consists of many parts to be itself a god3553 not knowing that the DivineNature can in no sense be divisible into parts since if compounded it must be so through the

3551 John i 1ndash3

3552 One on the scent for heresy might prick up his ears and sound the alarm of ldquoGnosticismrdquo

3553 A curious work just issued (anonymous) under the authority of the Bureau of Education very complacently evolves the

truth of existence out of the authorrsquos pure untrammeled consciousnessmdashfor he has never read any works either on science or

on theologymdashand arrives at the condescending conclusion that there is a God or rather in the words of Eusebius the author

comes to ldquodeem that worldhellipto be itself Godrdquo

1136

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

agency of another power and that which is so compounded can never be Divine How indeed couldit be so if composed of unequal and dissimilar and hence of worse and better elements Simpleindivisible uncompounded the Divine Nature exists at an infinite elevation above the visibleconstitution of this world

11 And hence we are assured by the clear testimony of the sacred Herald3554 that the Word ofGod who is before all things must be the sole Preserver of all intelligent beings while God whois above all and the Author of the generation of the Word being himself the Cause of all thingsis rightly called the Father of the Word as of his only-begotten Son himself acknowledging nosuperior Cause God therefore himself is One and from him proceeds the one only-begotten Wordthe omnipresent Preserver of all things And as the many-stringed lyre is composed of differentchords both sharp and flat some slightly others tensely strained and others intermediate betweenthe two extremes yet all attuned according to the rules of harmonic art even so this material worldcompounded as it is of many elements containing opposite and antagonist principles as moistureand dryness cold and heat yet blended into one harmonious whole may justly be termed a mightyinstrument framed by the hand of God an instrument on which the Divine Word himself notcomposed of parts or opposing principles but indivisible and uncompounded performs with perfectskill and produces a melody at once accordant with the will of his Father the Supreme Lord of alland glorious to himself Again as there are manifold external and internal parts and memberscomprised in a single body yet one invisible soul one undivided and incorporeal mind pervadesthe whole so is it in this creation which consisting of many parts yet is but one and so the Onemighty yea Almighty Word of God pervading all things and diffusing himself with undeviatingenergy throughout this universe is the Cause of all things that exist therein

12 Survey the compass of this visible world Seest thou not how the same heaven contains

600

within itself the countless courses and companies of the stars Again the sun is one and yet eclipsesmany nay all other luminaries by the surpassing glory of his rays Even so as the Father himselfis One his Word is also One the perfect Son of that perfect Father Should any one object becausethey are not more as well might he complain that there are not many suns or moons or worldsand a thousand things beside like the madman who would fain subvert the fair and perfect courseof Nature herself As in the visible so also in the spiritual world in the one the same sun diffuseshis light throughout this material earth in the other the One Almighty Word of God illumines allthings with invisible and secret power

13 Again there is in man one spirit and one faculty of reason which yet is the active causeof numberless effects The same mind instructed in many things will essay to cultivate the earthto build and guide a ship and construct houses nay the one mind and reason of man is capable ofacquiring knowledge in a thousand forms the same mind shall understand geometry and astronomyand discourse on the rules of grammar and rhetoric and the healing art Nor will it excel in science

3554 [Referring (says Valesius) to St John whose words Eusebius had lately cited ldquoIn the beginning was the Wordrdquo ampc

and now explains paraphrastically The reader will decide for himself on the merits of the paraphrasemdashBag]

1137

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

only but in practice too and yet no one has ever supposed the existence of many minds in onehuman form nor expressed his wonder at a plurality of being in man because he is thus capableof varied knowledge

14 Suppose one were to find a shapeless mass of clay to mould it with his hands and give itthe form of a living creature the head in one figure the hands and feet in another the eyes andcheeks in a third and so to fashion the ears the mouth and nose the breast and shoulders accordingto the rules of the plastic art The result indeed is a variety of figure of parts and members in theone body yet must we not suppose it the work of many hands but ascribe it entirely to the skill ofa single artist and yield the tribute of our praise to him who by the energy of a single mind hasframed it all The same is true of the universe itself which is one though consisting of many partsyet surely we need not suppose many creative powers nor invent a plurality of gods Our duty isto adore the all-wise and all-perfect agency of him who is indeed the Power and the Wisdom ofGod whose undivided force and energy pervades and penetrates the universe creating and givinglife to all things and furnishing to all collectively and severally those manifold supplies of whichhe is himself the source

15 Even so one and the same impression of the solar rays illumines the air at once gives lightto the eyes warmth to the touch fertility to the earth and growth to plants The same luminaryconstitutes the course of time governs the motions of the stars performs the circuit of the heavensimparts beauty to the earth and displays the power of God to all and all this he performs by thesole and unaided force of his own nature In like manner fire has the property of refining gold andfusing lead of dissolving wax of parching clay and consuming wood producing these variedeffects by one and the same burning power

16 So also the Supreme Word of God pervading all things everywhere existent everywherepresent in heaven and earth governs and directs the visible and invisible creation the sun theheaven and the universe itself with an energy inexplicable in its nature irresistible in its effectsFrom him as from an everlasting fountain the sun the moon and stars receive their light and heforever rules that heaven which he has framed as the fitting emblem of his own greatness Theangelic and spiritual powers the incorporeal and intelligent beings which exist beyond the sphereof heaven and earth are filled by him with light and life with wisdom and virtue with all that isgreat and good from his own peculiar treasures Once more with one and the same creative skillhe ceases not to furnish the elements with substance to regulate the union and combinations theforms and figures and the innumerable qualities of organized bodies preserving the varieddistinctions of animal and vegetable life of the rational and the brute creation and supplying allthings to all with equal power thus proving himself the Author not indeed of the seven-stringed

1138

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

lyre3555 but of that system of perfect harmony which is the workmanship of the One world-creatingWord3556

Chapter XIII

1 And now let us proceed to explain the reasons for which this mighty Word of God descendedto dwell with men Our ignorant and foolish race incapable of comprehending him who is the Lordof heaven and earth proceeding from his Fatherrsquos Deity as from the supreme fountain ever presentthroughout the world and evincing by the clearest proofs his providential care for the interests ofman have ascribed the adorable title of Deity to the sun and moon the heaven and the stars ofheaven Nor did they stop here but deified the earth itself its products and the various substances

601

by which animal life is sustained and devised images of Ceres of Proserpine of Bacchus3557 andmany such as these

2 Nay they shrank not from giving the name of gods to the very conceptions of their ownminds and the speech by which those conceptions are expressed calling the mind itself Minervaand language Mercury3558 and affixing the names of Mnemosyne and the Muses to those facultiesby means of which science is acquired Nor was even this enough advancing still more rapidly inthe career of impiety and folly they deified their own evil passions which it behooved them toregard with aversion or restrain by the principles of self-control Their very lust and passion andimpure disease of soul the members of the body which tempt to obscenity and even the veryuncontrol3559 in shameful pleasure they described under the titles of Cupid Priapus Venus3560 andother kindred terms

3 Nor did they stop even here Degrading their thoughts of God to this corporeal and mortallife they deified their fellow-men conferring the names of gods and heroes on those who hadexperienced the common lot of all and vainly imagining that the Divine and imperishable Essencecould frequent the tombs and monuments of the dead Nay more than this they paid divine honorsto animals of various species and to the most noxious reptiles they felled trees and excavatedrocks they provided themselves with brass and iron and other metals of which they fashioned

3555 [In reference singularly enough to the illustration of the lyre in the preceding chaptermdashBag]

3556 It is idle to treat as philosophically or theologically unworthy of consideration a system of thought so definitely unified

and with such Scriptural basis as the above It may not be profound or original but is definite and clear

3557 ldquoOf Demeter of Cora of Dionysiusrdquo

3558 ldquoAthenehellipHermesrdquo

3559 The word used here ἀκρeuroτεια is the opposite of the famous philosophical word for self-controlmdashἐγκρeuroτεια

3560 ldquoEros Priapus Aphroditerdquo

1139

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

resemblances of the male and female human form of beasts and creeping things and these theymade the objects of their worship

4 Nor did this suffice To the evil spirits themselves which lurked within their statues or layconcealed in secret and dark recesses eager to drink their libations and inhale the odor of theirsacrifices they ascribed the same divine honors Once more they endeavored to secure the familiaraid of these spirits and the unseen powers which move through the tracts of air by charms offorbidden magic and the compulsion of unhallowed songs and incantations Again different nationshave adopted different persons as objects of their worship The Greeks have rendered to BacchusHercules AEligsculapius Apollo and others who were mortal men the titles of gods and heroes TheEgyptians have deified Horus and Isis Osiris and other mortals such as these And thus they whoboast of the wondrous skill whereby they have discovered geometry astronomy and the scienceof number know not wise as they are in their own conceit nor understand how to estimate themeasure of the power of God or calculate his exceeding greatness above the nature of irrationaland mortal beings

5 Hence they shrank not from applying the name of gods to the most hideous of the brutecreation to venomous reptiles and savage beasts The Phœnicians deified Melcatharus Usorus3561

and others mere mortals and with little claim to honor the Arabians Dusaris3562 and Obodas theGetaelig Zamolxis the Cicilians Mopsus and the Thebans Amphiaraus3563 in short each nation hasadopted its own peculiar deities differing in no respect from their fellow-mortals being simplyand truly men Again the Egyptians with one consent the Phœnicians the Greeks nay everynation beneath the sun have united in worshiping the very parts and elements of the world andeven the produce of the ground itself And which is most surprising though acknowledging theadulterous unnatural and licentious crimes of their deities they have not only filled every cityand village and district with temples shrines and statues in their honor but have followed theirevil example to the ruin of their own souls

6 We hear of gods and the sons of gods described by them as heroes and good genii titlesentirely opposed to truth honors utterly at variance with the qualifies they are intended to exalt Itis as if one who desired to point out the sun and the luminaries of heaven instead of directing hisgaze thitherward should grope with his hands on the ground and search for the celestial powersin the mud and mire Even so mankind deceived by their own folly and the craft of evil spiritshave believed that the Divine and spiritual Essence which is far above heaven and earth could becompatible with the birth the affections and death of mortal bodies here below To such a pitchof madness did they proceed as to sacrifice the dearest objects of their affection to their gods

3561 It is probably that ldquoMelkathrosrdquo and ldquoUsousrdquo referred to in the Praeligp Evang 1 10 (ed Gaisford Oxon 1843 1 p 77

and 84) The same passage may be found with English translation in Coryrsquos Ancient Fragments Lond 1832 p 6ndash7 13

3562 Dusaris was it is said equivalent to Bacchus

3563 All the above names excepting those specially noted may be found in Smith Dict of Greek and Roman Biog and Mythol

1140

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

regardless of all natural ties and urged by frenzied feeling to slay their only and best belovedchildren

7 For what can be a greater proof of madness than to offer human sacrifice to pollute everycity and even their own houses with kindred blood Do not the Greeks themselves attest this andis not all history filled with records of the same impiety The Phœnicians devoted their best belovedand only children as an annual sacrifice to Saturn The Rhodians on the sixth day of the month

602

Metageitnion3564 offered human victims to the same god At Salamis a man was pursued in thetemple of Minerva Agraulis and Diomede compelled to run thrice round the altar afterwardspierced with a lance by the priest and consumed as a burnt offering on the blazing pile In Egypthuman sacrifice was most abundant At Heliopolis three victims were daily offered to Juno forwhom king Amoses impressed with the atrocity of the practice commanded the substitution of anequal number of waxen figures In Chios and again in Tenedos a man was slain and offered up toOmadian Bacchus At Sparta they immolated human beings to Mars In Crete they did likewiseoffering human sacrifices to Saturn In Laodicea of Syria a virgin was yearly slain in honor ofMinerva for whom a hart is now the substitute The Libyans and Carthaginians appeased their godswith human victims The Dumateni of Arabia buried a boy annually beneath the altar Historyinforms us that the Greeks without exception the Thracians also and Scythians were accustomedto human sacrifice before they marched forth to battle The Athenians record the immolation of thevirgin children of Leus3565 and the daughter of Erechtheus3566 Who knows not that at this day ahuman victim is offered in Rome itself at the festival of Jupiter Latiaris

8 And these facts are confirmed by the testimony of the most approved philosophers Diodorusthe epitomizer of libraries3567 affirms that two hundred of the noblest youths were sacrificed toSaturn by the Libyan people and that three hundred more were voluntarily offered by their ownparents Dionysius the compiler of Roman history3568 expressly says that Jupiter and Apollodemanded human sacrifices of the so-called Aborigines in Italy He relates that on this demandthey offered a proportion of all their produce to the gods but that because of their refusal to slayhuman victims they became involved in manifold calamities from which they could obtain norelease until they had decimated themselves a sacrifice of life which proved the desolation of theircountry Such and so great were the evils which of old afflicted the whole human race

3564 Corresponding nearly to our August Key Calendarium in Smith Dict Gr and R Ant p 223

3565 [Leus is said to have offered his three daughters Phasithea Theope and Eubule the oracle at Delphi having declared

that the relief of the city from famine could only be effected by the shedding of the blood of his daughters by one of the

citizensmdashBag]

3566 [Alluding to the sacrifice of his daughter Chthonia by Erechtheus son of Pandion the Athenians having been promised

victory by the oracle over the Eleusinians and their Thracian allies on the condition of the death of a daughter of

ErechtheusmdashBag]

3567 Diodorus Siculus whose work is mentioned elsewhere (Praeligp Evang 1 6 ed Gaisford p 40) as a ldquohistorical libraryrdquo

3568 Dionysius of Halicarnassus

1141

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

9 Nor was this the full extent of their misery they groaned beneath the pressure of other evilsequally numerous and irremediable All nations whether civilized or barbarous throughout theworld as if actuated by a demoniac frenzy were infected with sedition as with some fierce andterrible disease insomuch that the human family was irreconcilably divided against itself the greatsystem of society was distracted and torn asunder and in every corner of the earth men stoodopposed to each other and strove with fierce contention on questions of law and government

10 Nay more than this with passions aroused to fury they engaged in mutual conflicts sofrequent that their lives were passed as it were in uninterrupted warfare None could undertake ajourney except as prepared to encounter an enemy in the very country and villages the rusticsgirded on the sword provided themselves with armor rather than with the implements of rural laborand deemed it noble exploit to plunder and enslave any who belonged to a neighboring state

11 Nay more than this from the fables they had themselves devised respecting their owndeities they deduced occasions for a vile and abandoned life and wrought the ruin of body andsoul by licentiousness of every kind Not content with this they even overstepped the bounds whichnature had defined and together committed incredible and nameless crimes ldquomen with men (inthe words of the sacred writer) working un-seemliness and receiving in themselves that recompenseof their error which was duerdquo

12 Nor did they stop even here but perverted their natural thoughts of God and denied thatthe course of this world was directed by his providential care ascribing the existence and constitutionof all things to the blind operation of chance or the necessity of fate

13 Once more believing that soul and body were alike dissolved by death they led a brutishlife unworthy of the name careless of the nature or existence of the soul they dreaded not thetribunal of Divine justice expected no reward of virtue nor thought of chastisem*nt as the penaltyof an evil life

14 Hence it was that whole nations a prey to wickedness in all its forms were wasted by theeffects of their own brutality some living in the practice of most vile and lawless incest withmothers others with sisters and others again corrupting their own daughters Some were foundwho slew their confiding guests others who fed on human flesh some strangled and then feastedon their aged men others threw them alive to dogs The time would fail me were I to attempt todescribe the multifarious symptoms of the inveterate malady which had asserted its dominion overthe whole human race

15 Such and numberless others like these were the prevailing evils on account of which thegracious Word of God full of compassion for his human flock had long since by the ministry of

603

his prophets and earlier still as well as later by that of men distinguished by pious devotion toGod invited those thus desperately afflicted to their own cure and had by means of lawsexhortations and doctrines of every kind proclaimed to man the principles and elements of truegodliness But when for mankind distracted and torn as I have said not indeed by wolves andsavage beasts but by ruthless and soul-destroying spirits of evil human power no longer sufficedbut a help was needed superior to that of man then it was that the Word of God obedient to his

1142

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

all-gracious Fatherrsquos will at length himself appeared and most willingly made his abode amongstus

16 The causes of his advent I have already described induced by which he condescended tothe society of man not in his wonted form and manner for he is incorporeal and present everywherethroughout the world proving by his agency both in heaven and earth the greatness of his almightypower but in a character new and hitherto unknown Assuming a mortal body he deigned toassociate and converse with men desiring through the medium of their own likeness to save ourmortal race

Chapter XIV

1 And now let us explain the cause for which the incorporeal Word of God assumed this mortalbody as a medium of intercourse with man How indeed else than in human form could that Divineand impalpable that immaterial and invisible Essence manifest itself to those who sought for Godin created and earthly objects unable or unwilling otherwise to discern the Author and Maker ofall things

2 As a fitting means therefore of communication with mankind he assumed a mortal bodyas that with which they were themselves familiar for like it is proverbially said loves its like Tothose then whose affections were engaged by visible objects who looked for gods in statues andlifeless images who imagined the Deity to consist in material and corporeal substance nay whoconferred on men the title of divinity the Word of God presented himself in this form

3 Hence he procured for himself this body as a thrice-hallowed temple a sensible habitationof an intellectual power a noble and most holy form of far higher worth than any lifeless statueThe material and senseless image fashioned by base mechanic hands of brass or iron of gold orivory wood or stone may be a fitting abode for evil spirits but that Divine form wrought by thepower of heavenly wisdom was possessed of life and spiritual being a form animated by everyexcellence the dwelling-place of the Word of God a holy temple of the holy God

4 Thus the indwelling Word3569 conversed with and was known to men as kindred withthemselves yet yielded not to passions such as theirs nor owned as the natural soul subjection tothe body He parted not with aught of his intrinsic greatness nor changed his proper Deity For asthe all-pervading radiance of the sun receives no stain from contact with dead and impure bodiesmuch less can the incorporeal power of the Word of God be injured in its essential purity or partwith any of its greatness from spiritual contact with a human body

5 Thus I say did our common Saviour prove himself the benefactor and preserver of alldisplaying his wisdom through the instrumentality of his human nature even as a musician uses

3569 All these various conceptions of the Word are strictly Biblical (1) The Word the only revealer of the Father who otherwise

could not be known (2) The human body the temple of God (3) The indwelling Word

1143

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

the lyre to evince his skill The Grecian myth tells us that Orpheus had power to charm ferociousbeasts and tame their savage spirit by striking the chords of his instrument with a master handand this story is celebrated by the Greeks and generally believed that an unconscious instrumentcould subdue the untamed brute and draw the trees from their places in obedience to its melodiouspower But he who is the author of perfect harmony the all-wise Word of God desiring to applyevery remedy to the manifold diseases of the souls of men employed that human nature which isthe workmanship of his own wisdom as an instrument by the melodious strains of which he soothednot indeed the brute creation but savages endued with reason healing each furious temper eachfierce and angry passion of the soul both in civilized and barbarous nations by the remedial powerof his Divine doctrine Like a physician of perfect skill he met the diseases of their souls whosought for God in nature and in bodies by a fitting and kindred remedy and showed them God inhuman form

6 And then with no less care for the body than the soul he presented before the eyes of menwonders and signs as proofs of his Divine power at the same time instilling into their ears of fleshthe doctrines which he himself uttered with a corporeal tongue In short he performed all his worksthrough the medium of that body which he had assumed for the sake of those who else were incapableof apprehending his Divine nature

7 In all this he was the servant of his Fatherrsquos will himself remaining still the same as whenwith the Father unchanged in essence unimpaired in nature unfettered by the trammels of mortalflesh nor hindered by his abode in a human body from being elsewhere present3570

604

8 Nay at the very time of his intercourse with men he was pervading all things was with andin the Father and even then was caring for all things both in heaven and earth Nor was he precludedas we are from being present everywhere or from the continued exercise of his Divine power Hegave of his own to man but received nothing in return he imparted of his Divine power to mortalitybut derived no accession from mortality itself

9 Hence his human birth to him brought no defilement nor could his impassible Essence sufferat the dissolution of his mortal body For let us suppose a lyre to receive an accidental injury orits chord to be broken it does not follow that the performer on it suffers nor if a wise manrsquos bodyundergo punishment can we fairly assert that his wisdom or the soul within him are maimed orburned

10 Far less can we affirm that the inherent power of the Word sustained any detriment fromhis bodily passion any more than as in the instance we have already used the solar rays whichare shot from heaven to earth contract defilement though in contact with mire and pollution ofevery kind We may indeed assert that these things partake of the radiance of the light but notthat the light is contaminated or the sun defiled by this contact with other bodies

3570 This ought to relieve Eusebius from any charge of Arianism in this relation however ldquodangerousrdquo the ground he has

trodden on may be

1144

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

11 And indeed these things are themselves not contrary to nature but the Saviour the incorporealWord of God being Life and spiritual Light itself whatever he touches with Divine and incorporealpower must of necessity become endued with the intelligence of light and life Thus if he touch abody it becomes enlightened and sanctified is at once delivered from all disease infirmity andsuffering and that which before was lacking is supplied by a portion of his fullness

12 And such was the tenor of his life on earth now proving the sympathies of his human naturewith our own and now revealing himself as the Word of God wondrous and mighty in his worksas God foretelling the events of the far distant future declaring in every act by signs and wondersand supernatural powers that Word whose presence was so little known and finally by his Divineteaching inviting the souls of men to prepare for those mansions which are above the heavens

Chapter XV

1 What now remains but to account for those which are the crowning facts of all I mean hisdeath so far and widely known the manner of his passion and the mighty miracle of his resurrectionafter death and then to establish the truth of these events by the clearest testimonies

2 For the reasons detailed above he used the instrumentality of a mortal body as a figurebecoming his Divine majesty and like a mighty sovereign employed it as his interpreter in hisintercourse with men performing all things consistently with his own Divine power Supposingthen at the end of his sojourn among men he had by any other means suddenly withdrawn himselffrom their sight and secretly removing that interpreter of himself the form which he had assumedhad hastened to flee from death and afterwards by his own act had consigned his mortal body tocorruption and dissolution doubtless in such a case he would have been deemed a mere phantomby all Nor would he have acted in a manner worthy of himself had he who is Life the Word andthe Power of God abandoned this interpreter of himself to corruption and death

3 Nor again would his warfare with the spirits of evil have received its consummation byconflict with the power of death The place of his retirement must have remained unknown norwould his existence have been believed by those who had not seen him for themselves No proofwould have been given that he was superior to death nor would he have delivered mortality fromthe law of its natural infirmity His name had never been heard throughout the world nor could hehave inspired his disciples with contempt of death or encouraged those who embraced his doctrineto hope for the enjoyment of a future life with God Nor would he have fulfilled the assurances ofhis own promise nor have accomplished the predictions of the prophets concerning himself Norwould he have undergone the last conflict of all for this was to be the struggle with the power ofdeath

4 For all these reasons then and inasmuch as it was necessary that the mortal body which hadrendered such service to the Divine Word should meet with an end worthy its sacred occupant themanner of his death was ordained accordingly For since but two alternatives remained either to

1145

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

consign his body entirely to corruption and so to bring the scene of life to a dishonored close orelse to prove himself victorious over death and render mortality immortal by the act of Divinepower the former of these alternatives would have contravened his own promise For as it is notthe property of fire to cool nor of light to darken no more is it compatible with life to deprive oflife or with Divine intelligence to act in a manner contrary to reason For how would it be consistent

605

with reason that he who had promised life to others should permit his own body the form whichhe had chosen to perish beneath the power of corruption That he who had inspired his discipleswith hopes of immortality should yield this exponent of his Divine counsels to be destroyed bydeath

5 The second alternative was therefore needful I mean that he should assert his dominionover the power of death But how should this be a furtive and secret act or openly performed andin the sight of all So mighty an achievement had it remained unknown and unrevealed must havefailed of its effect as regards the interests of men whereas the same event if openly declared andunderstood would from its wondrous character redound to the common benefit of all With reasontherefore since it was needful to prove his body victorious over death and that not secretly butbefore the eyes of men he shrank not from the trial for this indeed would have argued fear and asense of inferiority to the power of death but maintained that conflict with the enemy which hasrendered mortality immortal a conflict undertaken for the life the immortality the salvation ofall

6 Suppose one desired to show us that a vessel could resist the force of fire how could hebetter prove the fact than by casting it into the furnace and thence withdrawing it entire andunconsumed Even thus the Word of God who is the source of life to all desiring to prove thetriumph of that body over death which he had assumed for manrsquos salvation and to make this bodypartake his own life and immortality pursued a course consistent with this object Leaving his bodyfor a little while3571 and delivering it up to death in proof of its mortal nature he soon redeemed itfrom death in vindication of that Divine power whereby he has manifested the immortality whichhe has promised to be utterly beyond the sphere of death

7 The reason of this is clear It was needful that his disciples should receive ocular proof ofthe certainty of that resurrection on which he had taught them to rest their hopes as a motive forrising superior to the fear of death It was indeed most needful that they who purposed to pursue alife of godliness should receive a clear impression of this essential truth more needful still for thosewho were destined to declare his name in all the world and to communicate to mankind thatknowledge of God which he had before ordained for all nations

8 For such the strongest conviction of a future life was necessary that they might be able withfearless and unshrinking zeal to maintain the conflict with Gentile and polytheistic error a conflictthe dangers of which they would never have been prepared to meet except as habituated to thecontempt of death Accordingly in arming his disciples against the power of this last enemy he

3571 [These words (as Valesius observes) need not be too rigidly interpretedmdashBag]

1146

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

delivered not his doctrines in mere verbal precepts nor attempted to prove the soulrsquos immortalityby persuasive and probable arguments but displayed to them in his own person a real victory overdeath

9 Such was the first and greatest reason of our Saviourrsquos conflict with the power of deathwhereby he proved to his disciples the nothingness of that which is the terror of all mankind andafforded a visible evidence of the reality of that life which he had promised presenting as it werea first-fruit of our common hope of future life and immortality in the presence of God

10 The second cause of his resurrection was that the Divine power might be manifested whichdwelt in his mortal body Mankind had heretofore conferred Divine honors on men who had yieldedto the power of death and had given the titles of gods and heroes to mortals like themselves Forthis reason therefore the Word of God evinced his gracious character and proved to man his ownsuperiority over death recalling his mortal body to a second life displaying an immortal triumphover death in the eyes of all and teaching them to acknowledge the Author of such a victory to bethe only true God even in death itself

11 I may allege yet a third cause of the Saviourrsquos death He was the victim offered to theSupreme Sovereign of the universe for the whole human race a victim consecrated for the need ofthe human race and for the overthrow of the errors of demon worship For as soon as the one holyand mighty sacrifice the sacred body of our Saviour had been slain for man to be as a ransom forall nations heretofore involved in the guilt of impious superstition thenceforward the power ofimpure and unholy spirits was utterly abolished and every earth-born and delusive error was atonce weakened and destroyed

12 Thus then this salutary victim taken from among themselves I mean the mortal body ofthe Word was offered on behalf of the common race of men This was that sacrifice delivered upto death of which the sacred oracles speak ldquoBehold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sinof the worldrdquo3572 And again as follows ldquoHe was led as a sheep to the slaughter and as a lambbefore the shearer is dumbrdquo They declare also the cause saying ldquoHe bears our sins and is painedfor us yet we accounted him to be in trouble and in suffering and in affliction But he was wounded

606

on account of our sins and bruised because of our iniquities the chastisem*nt of our peace wasupon him and by his bruises we were healed All we as sheep have gone astray every one hasgone astray in this way and the Lord gave him up for our sinsrdquo3573

13 Such were the causes which led to the offering of the human body of the Word of God Butforasmuch as he was the great high priest consecrated to the Supreme Lord and King and thereforemore than a victim the Word the Power and the Wisdom of God he soon recalled his body fromthe grasp of death presented it to his Father as the first-fruit of our common salvation and raised

3572 John i 29

3573 [Isaiah liii 4 5 6 7 Septuagint English translation p 728mdashBag] P 889 of the Bagster ed 1879 Though the first

reasons make one feel as if the author had been in danger of slighting the atoning work of the Word he here very clearly comes

up as usual to the Biblical position

1147

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

this trophy a proof at once of his victory over death and Satan and of the abolition of humansacrifices for the blessing of all mankind

Chapter XVI

1 And now the time is come for us to proceed to the demonstration of these things if indeedsuch truths require demonstration and if the aid of testimony be needful to confirm the certaintyof palpable facts Such testimony however shall be here given and let it be received with anattentive and gracious ear

2 Of old the nations of the earth the entire human race were variously distributed intoprovincial national and local governments3574 subject to kingdoms and principalities of manykinds The consequences of this variety were war and strife depopulation and captivity whichraged in country and city with unceasing fury Hence too the countless subjects of history adulteriesand rapes of women hence the woes of Troy and the ancient tragedies so known among all peoples

3 The origin of these may justly be ascribed to the delusion of polytheistic error But when thatinstrument of our redemption the thrice holy body of Christ which proved itself superior to allSatanic fraud and free from evil both in word and deed was raised at once for the abolition ofancient evils and in token of his victory over the powers of darkness the energy of these evil spiritswas at once destroyed The manifold forms of government the tyrannies and republics the siegeof cities and devastation of countries caused thereby were now no more and one God wasproclaimed to all mankind

4 At the same time one universal power the Roman empire arose and flourished while theenduring and implacable hatred of nation against nation was now removed and as the knowledgeof one God and one way of religion and salvation even the doctrine of Christ was made knownto all mankind so at the self-same period the entire dominion of the Roman empire being vestedin a single sovereign profound peace reigned throughout the world And thus by the expressappointment of the same God two roots of blessing the Roman empire and the doctrine of Christianpiety sprang up together for the benefit of men

5 For before this time the various countries of the world as Syria Asia Macedonia Egyptand Arabia had been severally subject to different rulers The Jewish people again had establishedtheir dominion in the land of Palestine And these nations in every village city and district actuatedby some insane spirit were engaged in incessant and murderous war and conflict But two mightypowers starting from the same point the Roman empire which henceforth was swayed by a singlesovereign and the Christian religion subdued and reconciled these contending elements

6 Our Saviourrsquos mighty power destroyed at once the many governments and the many godsof the powers of darkness and proclaimed to all men both rude and civilized to the extremities

3574 Eparchies ethnarchies and toparchies

1148

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

of the earth the sole sovereignty of God himself Meantime the Roman empire the causes ofmultiplied governments being thus removed effected an easy conquest of those which yet remainedits object being to unite all nations in one harmonious whole an object in great measure alreadysecured and destined to be still more perfectly attained even to the final conquest of the ends ofthe habitable world by means of the salutary doctrine and through the aid of that Divine powerwhich facilitates and smooths its way

7 And surely this must appear a wondrous fact to those who will examine the question in thelove of truth and desire not to cavil at these blessings3575 The falsehood of demon superstition wasconvicted the inveterate strife and mutual hatred of the nations was removed at the same time OneGod and the knowledge of that God were proclaimed to all one universal empire prevailed andthe whole human race subdued by the controlling power of peace and concord received one anotheras brethren and responded to the feelings of their common nature Hence as children of one Godand Father and owning true religion as their common mother they saluted and welcomed eachother with words of peace Thus the whole world appeared like one well-ordered and united family

607

each one might journey unhindered as far as and whithersoever he pleased men might securelytravel from West to East and from East to West as to their own native country in short the ancientoracles and predictions of the prophets were fulfilled more numerous than we can at present citeand those especially which speak as follows concerning the saving Word ldquoHe shall have dominionfrom sea to sea and from the river to the ends of the earthrdquo And again ldquoIn his days shallrighteousness spring up and abundance of peacerdquo ldquoAnd they shall beat their swords intoplough-shares and their spears into sickles and nation shall not take up sword against nationneither shall they learn to war any morerdquo3576

8 These words predicted ages before in the Hebrew tongue have received in our own day avisible fulfillment by which the testimonies of the ancient oracles are clearly confirmed And nowif thou still desire more ample proof receive it not in words but from the facts themselves Openthe eyes of thine understanding expand the gates of thought pause awhile and consider inquireof thyself as though thou wert another and thus diligently examine the nature of the case Whatking or prince in any age of the world what philosopher legislator or prophet in civilized orbarbarous lands has attained so great a height of excellence I say not after death but while livingstill and full of mighty power as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of hisname Surely none save our only Saviour has done this when after his victory over death he spokethe word to his followers and fulfilled it by the event saying to them ldquoGo ye and make disciplesof all nations in my namerdquo3577 He it was who gave the distinct assurance that his gospel must be

3575 This is a fair appeal applicable to his present hearers It at least was true of Constantinersquos reign that it produced a state

of relative peace and prosperity

3576 [Psalm lxxi 7 8 Isaiah ii 4 SeptuagintmdashBag] Psalm lxxii English version

3577 Matt xxviii 19 There is an interesting various reading here where Eusebius with B as against Aleph adds something

but where B and others have ουν and D and others have νυν Eusebius has γουν

1149

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

preached in all the world for a testimony to all nations and immediately verified his word forwithin a little time the world itself was filled with his doctrine

9 How then will those who caviled at the commencement of my speech be able to reply tothis For surely the force of ocular testimony is superior to any verbal argument Who else thanhe with an invisible and yet potent hand has driven from human society like savage beasts thatever noxious and destructive tribe of evil spirits who of old had made all nations their prey and bythe motions of their images had practiced many a delusion among men Who else beside ourSaviour by the invocation of his name and by unfeigned prayer addressed through him to theSupreme God has given power to banish from the world the remnant of those wicked spirits tothose who with genuine and sincere obedience pursue the course of life and conduct which he hashimself prescribed Who else but our Saviour has taught his followers to offer those bloodless andreasonable sacrifices which are performed by prayer and the secret worship of God

10 Hence is it that throughout the habitable world altars are erected and churches dedicatedwherein these spiritual and rational sacrifices are offered as a sacred service by every nation to theOne Supreme God Once more who but he with invisible and secret power has suppressed andutterly abolished those bloody sacrifices which were offered with fire and smoke as well as thecruel and senseless immolation of human victims a fact which is attested by the heathen historiansthemselves For it was not till after the publication of the Saviourrsquos Divine doctrine about the timeof Hadrianrsquos reign that the practice of human sacrifice was universally abandoned

11 Such and so manifest are the proofs of our Saviourrsquos power and energy after death Whothen can be found of spirit so obdurate as to withhold his assent to the truth and refuse toacknowledge his life to be Divine Such deeds as I have described are done by the living not thedead and visible acts are to us as evidence of those which we cannot see It is as it were an eventof yesterday that an impious and godless race disturbed and confounded the peace of human societyand possessed mighty power But these as soon as life departed lay prostrate on the earth worthlessas dung breathless motionless bereft of speech and have left neither fame nor memorial behindFor such is the condition of the dead and he who no longer lives is nothing and how can he whois nothing be capable of any act But how shall his existence be called in question whose activepower and energy are greater than in those who are still alive And though he be invisible to thenatural eye yet the discerning faculty is not in outward sense We do not comprehend the rules ofart or the theories of science by bodily sensation nor has any eye yet discerned the mind of manFar less then the power of God and in such cases our judgment is formed from apparent results

12 Even thus are we bound to judge of our Saviourrsquos invisible power and decide by its manifesteffects whether we shall acknowledge the mighty operations which he is even now carrying on tobe the works of a living agent or whether they shall be ascribed to one who has no existence orlastly whether the inquiry be not absurd and inconsistent in itself For with what reason can we

608

assert the existence of one who is not Since all allow that that which has no existence is devoidof that power and energy and action for these are characteristics of the living but the contrary ischaracteristic of the dead

1150

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

Chapter XVII

1 And now the time is come for us to consider the works of our Saviour in our own age andto contemplate the living operations of the living God For how shall we describe these mightyworks save as living proofs of the power of a living agent who truly enjoys the life of God If anyone inquire the nature of these works let him now attend

2 But recently a class of persons impelled by furious zeal and backed by equal power andmilitary force evinced their enmity against God by destroying his churches and overthrowingfrom their foundations the buildings dedicated to his worship In short in every way they directedtheir attacks against the unseen God and assailed him with a thousand shafts of impious wordsBut he who is invisible avenged himself with an invisible hand

3 By the single fiat of his will his enemies were utterly destroyed they who a little while beforehad been flourishing in great prosperity exalted by their fellow men as worthy of divine honorand blessed with a continued period of power and glory3578 so long as they had maintained peaceand amity with him whom they afterwards opposed As soon however as they dared openly toresist his will and to set their gods in array against him whom we adore immediately accordingto the will and power of that God against whom their arms were raised they all received the judgmentdue to their audacious deeds Constrained to yield and flee before his power together theyacknowledged his Divine nature and hastened to reverse the measures which they had beforeessayed

4 Our Saviour therefore without delay erected trophies of this victory everywhere and oncemore adorned the world with holy temples and consecrated houses of prayer in every city andvillage nay throughout all countries and even in barbaric wilds ordaining the erection of churchesand sacred buildings to the honor of the Supreme God and Lord of all Hence it is that these hallowededifices are deemed worthy to bear his name and receive not their appellation from men but fromthe Lord himself from which circ*mstances they are called churches (or houses of the Lord)3579

5 And now let him who will stand forth and tell us who after so complete a desolation hasrestored these sacred buildings from foundation to roof Who when all hope appeared extinct hascaused them to rise on a nobler scale than heretofore And well may it claim our wonder that thisrenovation was not subsequent to the death of those adversaries of God but whilst the destroyersof these edifices were still alive so that the recantation of their evil deeds came in their own wordsand edicts3580 And this they did not in the sunshine of prosperity and ease (for then we mightsuppose that benevolence or clemency might be the cause) but at the very time that they weresuffering under the stroke of Divine vengeance

3578 [Referring to Diocletian and others of the persecuting emperorsmdashBag]

3579 [Κυριακῶν ἠξίωνται τῶν ἐπωνυμιῶν The German ldquoKircherdquo the Scotch ldquoKirkrdquo and the English ldquoChurchrdquo are said

probably enough to derive their origin from this Greek wordmdashBag]

3580 Compare literature on the edicts of toleration

1151

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

6 Who again has been able to retain in obedience to his heavenly precepts after so manysuccessive storms of persecution nay in the very crisis of danger so many persons throughout theworld devoted to philosophy and the service of God and those holy choirs of virgins who haddedicated themselves to a life of perpetual chastity and purity Who taught them cheerfully topersevere in the exercise of protracted fasting and to embrace a life of severe and consistentself-denial Who has persuaded multitudes of either sex to devote themselves to the study of sacredthings and prefer to bodily nutriment that intellectual food which is suited to the wants of a rationalsoul3581 Who has instructed barbarians and peasants yea feeble women slaves and children inshort unnumbered multitudes of all nations to live in the contempt of death persuaded of theimmortality of their souls conscious that human actions are observed by the unerring eye of justiceexpecting Godrsquos award to the righteous and the wicked and therefore true to the practice of a justand virtuous life For they could not otherwise have persevered in the course of godliness Surelythese are the acts which our Saviour and he alone even now performs

7 And now let us pass from these topics and endeavor by inquiries such as these that followto convince the objectorrsquos obdurate understanding Come forward then whoever thou art andspeak the words of reason utter not the thoughts of a senseless heart but those of an intelligentand enlightened mind speak I say after deep solemn converse with thyself Who of the sageswhose names have yet been known to fame has ever been fore-known and proclaimed from theremotest ages as our Saviour was by the prophetic oracles to the once divinely-favored Hebrew

609

nation But his very birth-place the period of his advent the manner of his life his miracles andwords and mighty acts were anticipated and recorded in the sacred volumes of these prophets

8 Again who so present an avenger of crimes against himself so that as the immediateconsequence of their impiety the entire Jewish people were scattered by an unseen power theirroyal seat utterly removed and their very temple with its holy things levelled with the groundWho like our Saviour has uttered predictions at once concerning that impious nation and theestablishment of his church throughout the world and has equally verified both by the eventRespecting the temple of these wicked men our Saviour said ldquoYour house is left unto youdesolaterdquo3582 and ldquoThere shall not be left one stone upon another in this place that shall not bethrown downrdquo3583 And again of his church he says ldquoI will build my church upon a rock and thegates of hell shall not prevail against itrdquo3584

9 How wondrous too must that power be deemed which summoned obscure and unletteredmen from their fisherrsquos trade and made them the legislators and instructors of the human race And

3581 [There is nothing which need surprise us in the praises of virginity monkery and asceticism in a writer of the fourth

century The intelligent Christian will surely shrink from the thought of ascribing with Eusebius these fruitful sources of

corruption to the Lord himselfmdashBag]

3582 Matt xxiii 38

3583 Matt xxiv 2mdashapparently a paraphrase from memory

3584 Matt xvi 18

1152

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

how clear a demonstration of his deity do we find in the promise so well performed that he wouldmake them fishers of men in the power and energy which he bestowed so that they composed andpublished writings of such authority that they were translated into every civilized and barbarouslanguage3585 were read and pondered by all nations and the doctrines contained in them accreditedas the oracles of God

10 How marvelous his predictions of the future and the testimony whereby his disciples wereforewarned that they should be brought before kings and rulers and should endure the severestpunishments not indeed as criminals but simply for their confession of his name Or who shalladequately describe the power with which he prepared them thus to suffer with a willing mind andenabled them strong in the armor of godliness to maintain a constancy of spirit indomitable in themidst of conflict

11 Or how shall we enough admire that steadfast firmness of soul which strengthened notmerely his immediate followers but their successors also even to our present age in the joyfulendurance of every infliction and every form of torture in proof of their devotion to the SupremeGod Again what monarch has prolonged his government through so vast a series of ages Whoelse has power to make war after death to triumph over every enemy to subjugate each barbarousand civilized nation and city and to subdue his adversaries with an invisible and secret hand

12 Lastly and chief of all what slanderous lip shall dare to question that universal peace towhich we have already referred established by his power throughout the world3586 For thus themutual concord and harmony of all nations coincided in point of time with the extension of ourSaviourrsquos doctrine and preaching in all the world a concurrence of events predicted in long agespast by the prophets of God The day itself would fail me gracious emperor should I attempt toexhibit in a single view those cogent proofs of our Saviourrsquos Divine power which even now arevisible in their effects for no human being in civilized or barbarous nations has ever yet exhibitedsuch power of Divine virtue as our Saviour

13 But why do I speak of men since of the beings whom all nations have deemed divine nonehas appeared on earth with power like to his If there has let the fact now be proved Come forwardye philosophers and tell us what god or hero has yet been known to fame who has delivered thedoctrines of eternal life and a heavenly kingdom as he has done who is our Saviour Who likehim has persuaded multitudes throughout the world to pursue the principles of Divine wisdom tofix their hope on heaven itself and look forward to the mansions there reserved for them that loveGod What god or hero in human form has ever held his course from the rising to the setting suna course co-extensive as it were with the solar light and irradiated mankind with the bright andglorious beams of his doctrine causing each nation of the earth to render united worship to the Onetrue God What god or hero yet as he has done has set aside all gods and heroes among civilized

3585 The Syriac Peschito and possibly the Curetonian the old Latin (Itala) probably both the Thebaic and Memphitic Coptic

versions at least had been made at this time

3586 [The peace which Christ at his birth bestowed on the Roman world (Valesius)mdashBag]

1153

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

or barbarous nations has ordained that divine honors should be withheld from all and claimedobedience to that command and then though singly conflicting with the power of all has utterlydestroyed the opposing hosts victorious over the gods and heroes of every age and causing himselfalone in every region of the habitable world to be acknowledged by all people as the only Son ofGod

14 Who else has commanded the nations inhabiting the continents and islands of this mightyglobe to assemble weekly on the Lordrsquos day and to observe it as a festival not indeed for thepampering of the body but for the invigoration of the soul by instruction in Divine truth What

610

god or hero exposed as our Saviour was to so sore a conflict has raised the trophy of victory overevery foe For they indeed from first to last unceasingly assailed his doctrine and his people buthe who is invisible by the exercise of a secret power has raised his servants and the sacred housesof their worship to the height of glory

But why should we still vainly aim at detailing those Divine proofs of our Saviourrsquos powerwhich no language can worthily express which need indeed no words of ours but themselvesappeal in loudest tones to those whose mental ears are open to the truth Surely it is a strange awondrous fact unparalleled in the annals of human life that the blessings we have described shouldbe accorded to our mortal race and that he who is in truth the only the eternal Son of God shouldthus be visible on earth

Chapter XVIII

1 These words of ours however [gracious] Sovereign may well appear superfluous in yourears convinced as you are by frequent and personal experience of our Saviourrsquos Deity yourselfalso in actions still more than words a herald of the truth to all mankind Yourself it may be willvouchsafe at a time of leisure to relate to us the abundant manifestations which your Saviour hasaccorded you of his presence and the oft-repeated visions of himself which have attended you inthe hours of sleep I speak not of those secret suggestions which to us are unrevealed but of thoseprinciples which he has instilled into your own mind and which are fraught with general interestand benefit to the human race You will yourself relate in worthy terms the visible protection whichyour Divine shield and guardian has extended in the hour of battle the ruin of your open and secretfoes and his ready aid in time of peril To him you will ascribe relief in the midst of perplexitydefence in solitude expedients in extremity foreknowledge of events yet future your forethoughtfor the general weal your power to investigate uncertain questions your conduct of most importantenterprises your administration of civil affairs3587 your military arrangements and correction ofabuses in all departments your ordinances respecting public right and lastly your legislation forthe common benefit of all You will it may be also detail to us those particulars of his favor which

3587 Literally ldquoYour political economiesrdquo

1154

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

are secret to us but known to you alone and treasured in your royal memory as in secret storehousesSuch doubtless are the reasons and such the convincing proofs of your Saviourrsquos power whichcaused you to raise that sacred edifice which presents to all believers and unbelievers alike atrophy of his victory over death a holy temple of the holy God to consecrate those noble andsplendid monuments of immortal life and his heavenly kingdom to offer memorials of our AlmightySaviourrsquos conquest which well become the imperial dignity of him by whom they are bestowedWith such memorials have you adorned that edifice which witnesses of eternal life thus as it werein imperial characters ascribing victory and triumph to the heavenly Word of God thus proclaimingto all nations with clear and unmistakable voice in deed and word your own devout and piousconfession of his name

1155

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus ..._Eusebius...0265-0339 – Eusebius Caesariensis – De laudibus Constantini The Oration of Eusebius Pamphilus in Praise of the - [PDF Document] (7)

him by whom he has thus been honored and in acknowledgment of the blessings he has receivedat his hands He does not in imitation of ancient usage defile his imperial mansions with bloodand gore nor propitiate the infernal deities with fire and smoke and sacrificial offerings butdedicates to the universal Sovereign a pleasant and acceptable sacrifice even his own imperialsoul and a mind truly fitted for the service of God

6 For this sacrifice alone is grateful to him and this sacrifice our emperor has learned withpurified mind and thoughts to present as an offering without the intervention of fire and bloodwhile his own piety strengthened by the truthful doctrines with which his soul is stored he sets

584

forth in magnificent language the praises of God and imitates his Divine philanthropy by his ownimperial acts Wholly devoted to him he dedicates himself as a noble offering a first-fruit of thatworld the government of which is intrusted to his charge This first and greatest sacrifice ouremperor first dedicates to God and then as a faithful shepherd he offers not ldquofamous hecatombsof firstling lambsrdquo but the souls of that flock which is the object of his care those rational beingswhom he leads to the knowledge and pious worship of God

Chapter III

1 And gladly does he accept and welcome this sacrifice and commend the presenter of soaugust and noble an offering by protracting his reign to a lengthened period of years giving largerproofs of his beneficence in proportion to the emperorrsquos holy services to himself Accordingly hepermits him to celebrate each successive festival during great and general prosperity throughoutthe empire advancing one of his sons at the recurrence of each decennial period to a share of hisown imperial power3506

2 The eldest who bears his fatherrsquos name he received as his partner in the empire about theclose of the first decade of his reign the second next in point of age at the second and the thirdin like manner at the third decennial period the occasion of this our present festival And now thatthe fourth period has commenced and the time of his reign is still further prolonged he desires toextend his imperial authority by calling still more of his kindred to partake his power and by theappointment of the Caeligsars3507 fulfills the predictions of the holy prophets according to what theyuttered ages before ldquoAnd the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdomrdquo3508

3506 A general statement such as Eusebius is fond of making The elevation of his sons was about these times but not on

them exactly Compare Prolegomena Life

3507 [Dalmatius and HanniballianusmdashBag]

3508 [Dan vii 18 It is surely needless to remark on so singular and vicious an application of Scripture as this further than

that it is either a culpable rhetorical flourish or else an indication of a lamentable defect of spiritual intelligence in the most

learned writer of the fourth centurymdashBag] ldquoBut the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdomrdquomdashRevised Version

1110

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

3 And thus the Almighty Sovereign himself accords an increase both of years and of childrento our most pious emperor and renders his sway over the nations of the world still fresh andflourishing as though it were even now springing up in its earliest vigor He it is who appoints himthis present festival in that he has made him victorious over every enemy that disturbed his peacehe it is who displays him as an example of true godliness to the human race

4 And thus our emperor like the radiant sun illuminates the most distant subjects of his empirethrough the presence of the Caeligsars as with the far piercing rays of his own brightness To us whooccupy the eastern regions he has given a son worthy of himself3509 a second and a third respectivelyto other departments of his empire to be as it were brilliant reflectors of the light which proceedsfrom himself Once more having harnessed as it were under the self-same yoke the four mostnoble Caeligsars3510 as horses in the imperial chariot he sits on high and directs their course by thereins of holy harmony and concord and himself every where present and observant of every eventthus traverses every region of the world

5 Lastly invested as he is with a semblance of heavenly sovereignty he directs his gaze aboveand frames his earthly government according to the pattern of that Divine original feeling strengthin its conformity to the monarchy of God And this conformity is granted by the universal Sovereignto man alone of the creatures of this earth for he only is the author of sovereign power who decreesthat all should be subject to the rule of one

6 And surely monarchy far transcends every other constitution and form of government forthat democratic equality of power which is its opposite may rather be described as anarchy anddisorder Hence there is one God and not two or three or more for to assert a plurality of gods isplainly to deny the being of God at all There is one Sovereign and his Word and royal Law is onea Law not expressed in syllables and words not written or engraved on tablets and therefore subjectto the ravages of time but the living and self-subsisting Word who himself is God and whoadministers his Fatherrsquos kingdom on behalf of all who are after him and subject to his power

7 His attendants are the heavenly hosts the myriads of Godrsquos angelic ministers thesuper-terrestrial armies of unnumbered multitude and those unseen spirits within heaven itselfwhose agency is employed in regulating the order of this world Ruler and chief of all these is theroyal Word acting as Regent of the Supreme Sovereign To him the names of Captain and greatHigh Priest Prophet of the Father Angel of mighty counsel Brightness of the Fatherrsquos light Onlybegotten Son with a thousand other titles are ascribed in the oracles of the sacred writers And theFather having constituted him the living Word and Law and Wisdom the fullness of all blessinghas presented this best and greatest gift to all who are the subjects of his sovereignty

3509 [Constantius CaeligsarmdashBag]

3510 Compare Prolegomena under Life

1111

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

8 And he himself who pervades all things and is every where present unfolding his Fatherrsquos

585

bounties to all with unsparing hand has accorded a specimen of his sovereign power even to hisrational creatures of this earth in that he has provided the mind of man who is formed after hisown image with Divine faculties whence it is capable of other virtues also which flow from thesame heavenly source For he only is wise who is the only God he only is essentially good heonly is of mighty power the Parent of justice the Father of reason and wisdom the Fountain oflight and life the Dispenser of truth and virtue in a word the Author of empire itself and of alldominion and power

Chapter IV

1 But whence has man this knowledge and who has ministered these truths to mortal ears Orwhence has a tongue of flesh the power to speak of things so utterly distinct from fleshly or materialsubstance Who has gazed on the invisible King and beheld these perfections in him The bodilysense may comprehend elements and their combinations of a nature kindred to its own but no oneyet has boasted to have scanned with corporeal eye that unseen kingdom which governs all thingsnor has mortal nature yet discerned the beauty of perfect wisdom Who has beheld the face ofrighteousness through the medium of flesh And whence came the idea of legitimate sovereigntyand imperial power to man Whence the thought of absolute dominion to a being composed offlesh and blood Who declared those ideas which are invisible and undefined and that incorporealessence which has no external form to the mortals of this earth

2 Surely there was but one interpreter of these things the all-pervading Word of God3511 Forhe is the author of that rational and intelligent being which exists in man and being himself onewith his Fatherrsquos Divine nature he sheds upon his offspring the out-flowings of his Fatherrsquos bountyHence the natural and untaught powers of thought which all men Greeks or Barbarians alikepossess hence the perception of reason and wisdom the seeds of integrity and righteousness theunderstanding of the arts of life the knowledge of virtue the precious name of wisdom and thenoble love of philosophic learning Hence the knowledge of all that is great and good henceapprehension of God himself and a life worthy of his worship hence the royal authority of manand his invincible lordship over the creatures of this world

3 And when that Word who is the Parent of rational beings had impressed a character on themind of man according to the image and likeness of God3512 and had made him a royal creaturein that he gave him alone of all earthly creatures capacity to rule and to obey (as well as forethoughtand foreknowledge even here concerning the promised hope of his heavenly kingdom because of

3511 ldquoAnd no one knoweth who the Son is save the Father and who the Father is save the Son and he to whomsoever the

Son willeth to reveal himrdquomdash Luke x 22

3512 Eusebius in making it the Word who impresses the image of God on men shows good philosophy and good theology

1112

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

which he himself came and as the Parent of his children disdained not to hold converse withmortal men) he continued to cherish the seeds which himself had sown and renewed his graciousfavors from above holding forth to all the promise of sharing his heavenly kingdom Accordinglyhe called men and exhorted them to be ready for their heavenward journey and to providethemselves with the garment which became their calling And by an indescribable power he filledthe world in every part with his doctrine expressing by the similitude of an earthly kingdom thatheavenly one to which he earnestly invites all mankind and presents it to them as a worthy objectof their hope

Chapter V

1 And in this hope our divinely-favored emperor partakes even in this present life gifted ashe is by God with native virtues and having received into his soul the out-flowings of his favorHis reason he derives from the great Source of all reason he is wise and good and just as havingfellowship with perfect Wisdom Goodness and Righteousness virtuous as following the patternof perfect virtue valiant as partaking of heavenly strength

2 And truly may he deserve the imperial title who has formed his soul to royal virtues accordingto the standard of that celestial kingdom But he who is a stranger to these blessings who deniesthe Sovereign of the universe and owns no allegiance to the heavenly Father of spirits who investsnot himself with the virtues which become an emperor but overlays his soul with moral deformityand baseness who for royal clemency substitutes the fury of a savage beast for a generous temperthe incurable venom of malicious wickedness for prudence folly for reason and wisdom thatrecklessness which is the most odious of all vices for from it as from a spring of bitterness proceedthe most pernicious fruits such as inveterate profligacy of life covetousness murder impiety anddefiance of God surely one abandoned to such vices as these however he may be deemed powerfulthrough despotic violence has no true title to the name of Emperor

586

3 For how should he whose soul is impressed with a thousand absurd images of false deities3513

be able to exhibit a counterpart of the true and heavenly sovereignty Or how can he be absolutelord of others who has subjected himself to the dominion of a thousand cruel masters a slave of

3513 There seems to be a clear hint of Philonism here or Philonism as developed by the Neo-Platonists and the Christian

Theologians The history of the thought seems to begin in the Platonic ideas These self-existing forms which impress themselves

on the soul naturally become personalities to which the soul submits and whose images are impressed on the soul These

personalized ideas are in the thought of Philo the thoughts or ideas of God ldquopowersrdquo who do his will like the Valkyr of the

Northern mythologymdashthe personified thoughts or will of Odin These objective ideas in organized whole were the Word

The objectivity of ideas placed in relation with ldquomind readingrdquo ldquothought transferencerdquo and the like and with the modern conceptions

of the conservation of energy and transmission of force by vibrations give an interesting suggestion of a material basis for the conception

1113

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

low delights and ungoverned lust a slave of wrongfully-extorted wealth of rage and passion aswell as of cowardice and terror a slave of ruthless demons and soul-destroying spirits

4 Let then our emperor on the testimony of truth itself be declared alone worthy of the titlewho is dear to the Supreme Sovereign himself who alone is free nay who is truly lord above thethirst of wealth superior to sexual desire victorious even over natural pleasures controlling notcontrolled by anger and passion3514 He is indeed an emperor and bears a title corresponding to hisdeeds a Victor in truth who has gained the victory over those passions which overmaster the restof men whose character is formed after the Divine original3515 of the Supreme Sovereign and whosemind reflects as in a mirror the radiance of his virtues Hence is our emperor perfect in discretionin goodness in justice in courage in piety in devotion to God he truly and only is a philosophersince he knows himself and is fully aware that supplies of every blessing are showered on himfrom a source quite external to himself even from heaven itself Declaring the august title ofsupreme authority by the splendor of his vesture he alone worthily wears that imperial purple whichso well becomes him

5 He is indeed an emperor who calls on and implores in prayer the favor of his heavenly Fathernight and day and whose ardent desires are fixed on his celestial kingdom For he knows thatpresent things subject as they are to decay and death flowing on and disappearing like a riverrsquosstream are not worthy to be compared with him who is sovereign of all therefore it is that he longsfor the incorruptible and incorporeal kingdom of God And this kingdom he trusts he shall obtainelevating his mind as he does in sublimity of thought above the vault of heaven and filled withinexpressible longing for the glories which shine there in comparison with which he deems theprecious things of this present world but darkness For he sees earthly sovereignty to be but a pettyand fleeting dominion over a mortal and temporary life and rates it not much higher than thegoatherdrsquos or shepherdrsquos or herdsmanrsquos power nay as more burdensome than theirs and exercisedover more stubborn subjects The acclamations of the people and the voice of flattery he reckons

If thought is accompanied by vibration of brain molecules it is of course quite conceivable that that vibration be projected through any

medium which can transmit vibration whether the nerves of another person or the air A person of supreme energy of will would make

these vibrations more intense and an Infinite personality would make tangible even perhaps to the point of that resistance which we call

matter The conception of one great central Personality issuing an organized related system of thoughts in various stages of embodiment

in one massive constant forth-streaming of will is most interesting According to it all will forms of the individual are true as they are in

harmony with these norms Where however the lesser wills project incongruous will forms they are in conflict with the greater According

to it the human soul is beaten upon by all ideas which have ever been projected either in individual or in some combined total of force

and is formed according to what it submits itself to whether to the lesser and mal-organized or to the Great Norm

3514 Compare Prolegomena Character This peculiar self-control it is to be remembered was characteristic also of his father

and in a measure the product of the Neo-Platonic philosophy

3515 Literally the ldquoarchetypal ideardquomdashthe same phrase as that used by Philo 1 4 (ed Lips 1828 I p 7) ie that incorporeal

model or image of God on which the corporeal world was formed

1114

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

rather troublesome than pleasing because of the steady constancy of his character and genuinediscipline of his mind

6 Again when he beholds the military service of his subjects the vast array of his armies themultitudes of horse and foot entirely devoted to his command he feels no astonishment no prideat the possession of such mighty power but turns his thoughts inward on himself and recognizesthe same common nature there He smiles at his vesture embroidered with gold and flowers andat the imperial purple and diadem itself when he sees the multitude gaze in wonder like childrenat a bugbear on the splendid spectacle3516 Himself superior to such feelings he clothes his soulwith the knowledge of God that vesture the broidery of which is temperance righteousness pietyand all other virtues a vesture such as truly becomes a sovereign

7 The wealth which others so much desire as gold silver or precious gems he regards to beas they really are in themselves mere stones and worthless matter of no avail to preserve or defendfrom evil For what power have these things to free from disease or repel the approach of deathAnd knowing as he does this truth by personal experience in the use of these things he regards thesplendid attire of his subjects with calm indifference and smiles at the childishness of those towhom they prove attractive Lastly he abstains from all excess in food and wine and leavessuperfluous dainties to gluttons judging that such indulgences however suitable to others are notso to him and deeply convinced of their pernicious tendency and their effect in darkening theintellectual powers of the soul

587

8 For all these reasons our divinely taught and noble-minded emperor aspiring to higherobjects than this life affords calls upon his heavenly Father as one who longs for his kingdomexhibits a pious spirit in each action of his life and finally as a wise and good instructor impartsto his subjects the knowledge of him who is the Sovereign Lord of all

Chapter VI

1 And God himself as an earnest of future reward assigns to him now as it were tricennialcrowns3517 composed of prosperous periods of time and now after the revolution of three circlesof ten years he grants permission to all mankind to celebrate this general nay rather this universalfestival

2 And while those on earth thus rejoice crowned as it were with the flowers of divineknowledge surely we may not unduly suppose that the heavenly choirs attracted by a natural

3516 This may be true but compare Prolegomena Character for his practice at least

3517 [Alluding (says Valesius) to the crowns of gold which the people of the several provinces were accustomed to present to

the Roman emperors on such occasions as the presentmdashBag] In his prologue to the Life Eusebius calls this very oration a

weaving of tricennial crowns (or garlands) These crowns had their historical origin in the triumphal crowns under the Roman

system Cf Rich in Smith Dict Gr and Rom Ant p 361

1115

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

sympathy unite their joy with the joy of those on earth nay that the Supreme Sovereign himselfas a gracious father delights in the worship of duteous children and for this reason is pleased tohonor the author and cause of their obedience through a lengthened period of time and far fromlimiting his reign to three decennial circles of years he extends it to the remotest period even tofar distant eternity

3 Now eternity3518 in its whole extent is beyond the power of decline or death its beginningand extent alike incapable of being scanned by mortal thoughts Nor will it suffer its central pointto be perceived nor that which is termed its present duration to be grasped by the inquiring mindFar less then the future or the past for the one is not but is already gone while the future hasnot yet arrived and therefore is not As regards what is termed the present time it vanishes evenas we think or speak more swiftly than the word itself is uttered Nor is it possible in any sense toapprehend this time as present for we must either expect the future or contemplate the past thepresent slips from us and is gone even in the act of thought Eternity then in its whole extentresists and refuses subjection to mortal reason

4 But it does not refuse to acknowledge its own Sovereign and Lord3519 and bears him as itwere mounted on itself rejoicing in the fair trappings which he bestows3520 And he himself notbinding it as the poet imagined with a golden chain3521 but as it were controlling its movementsby the reins of ineffable wisdom has adjusted its months and seasons its times and years and thealterations of day and night with perfect harmony and has thus attached to it limits and measuresof various kinds For eternity being in its nature direct and stretching onward into infinity andreceiving its name eternity as having an everlasting existence3522 and being similar in all its partsor rather having no division or distance progresses only in a line of direct extension But God whohas distributed it by intermediate sections and has divided it like a far extended line in manypoints has included in it a vast number of portions and though it is in its nature one and resemblesunity itself he has attached to it a multiplicity of numbers and has given it though formless initself an endless variety of forms

5 For first of all he framed in it formless matter as a substance capable of receiving all formsHe next by the power of the number two imparted quality to matter and gave beauty to that whichbefore was void of all grace Again by means of the number three he framed a body compoundedof matter and form and presenting the three dimensions of breadth and length and depth Thenfrom the doubling of the number two he devised the quaternion of the elements earth water airand fire and ordained them to be everlasting sources for the supply of this universe Again the

3518 [It is perhaps difficult to find a better word to express the original αἰamp 240νmdashBag]

3519 Compare 1 Tim i 17 (marg) ldquoKing of the agesrdquo (ldquoaeligonsrdquo or according to this translation ldquoeternityrdquo)

3520 [Days months years seasons ampc are here intended Valesius ad locmdashBag]

3521 Hom Il 8 19

3522 [Αἰamp 241ν ὥσπερ ἀεὶ ὤνmdashBag]

1116

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

number four produces the number ten For the aggregate of one and two and three and four isten3523 And three multiplied with ten discovers the period of a month and twelve successive monthscomplete the course of the sun Hence the revolutions of years and changes of the seasons whichgive grace like variety of color in painting to that eternity which before was formless and devoidof beauty for the refreshment and delight of those whose lot it is to traverse therein the course oflife

6 For as the ground is defined by stated distances for those who run in hope of obtaining theprize and as the road of those who travel on a distant journey is marked by resting-places andmeasured intervals that the travelerrsquos courage may not fail at the interminable prospect even so

588

the Sovereign of the universe controlling eternity itself within the restraining power of his ownwisdom directs and turns its course as he judges best The same God I say who thus clothes theonce undefined eternity as with fair colors and blooming flowers gladdens the day with the solarrays and while he overspreads the night with a covering of darkness yet causes the glittering starsas golden spangles to shine therein It is he who lights up the brilliancy of the morning star thechanging splendor of the moon and the glorious companies of the starry host and has arrayed theexpanse of heaven like some vast mantle in colors of varied beauty Again having created thelofty and profound expanse of air and caused the world in its length and breadth to feel its coolinginfluence he decreed that the air itself should be graced with birds of every kind and left open thisvast ocean of space to be traversed by every creature visible or invisible whose course is throughthe tracts of heaven In the midst of this atmosphere he poised the earth as it were its center andencompassed it with the ocean as with a beautiful azure vesture

7 Having ordained this earth to be at once the home the nurse and the mother of all the creaturesit contains and watered it both with rain and water-springs he caused it to abound in plants andflowers of every species for the enjoyment of life And when he had formed man in his ownlikeness the noblest of earthly creatures and dearest to himself a creature gifted with intellect andknowledge the child of reason and wisdom he gave him dominion over all other animals whichmove and live upon the earth For man was in truth of all earthly creatures the dearest to God manI say to whom as an indulgent Father he has subjected the brute creation for whom he has madethe ocean navigable and crowned the earth with a profusion of plants of every kind to whom hehas granted reasoning faculties for acquiring all science under whose control he has placed eventhe creatures of the deep and the winged inhabitants of the air to whom he has permitted thecontemplation of celestial objects and revealed the course and changes of the sun and moon andthe periods of the planets and fixed stars In short to man alone of earthly beings has he given

3523 From what source Eusebius draws this particular application of the Pythagorean principle is uncertain This conception

of the derivation of ten from four is found in Philo de Mund Opif ch 15 and indeed it is said (Ueberweg) that with the earliest

Pythagoreans four and ten were the especially significant numbers in creation This mixture of Neo-Pythagoreanism with

Platonism and Philonism was characteristic of the time

1117

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

commandment to acknowledge him as his heavenly Father and to celebrate his praises as theSupreme Sovereign of eternity itself

8 But the unchangeable course of eternity the Creator has limited by the four seasons of theyear terminating the winter by the approach of spring and regulating as with an equal balance thatseason which commences the annual period Having thus graced the eternal course of time withthe varied productions of spring he added the summerrsquos heat and then granted as it were a reliefof toil by the interval of autumn and lastly refreshing and cleansing the season by the showers ofwinter he brings it rendered sleek and glossy like a noble steed by these abundant rains oncemore to the gates of spring

9 As soon then as the Supreme Sovereign had thus connected his own eternity by these cordsof wisdom with the annual circle he committed it to the guidance of a mighty Governor even hisonly begotten Word to whom as the Preserver of all creation he yielded the reins of universalpower And he receiving this inheritance as from a beneficent Father and uniting all things bothabove and beneath the circumference of heaven in one harmonious whole directs their uniformcourse providing with perfect justice whatever is expedient for his rational creatures on the earthappointing its allotted limits to human life and granting to all alike permission to anticipate evenhere the commencement of a future existence For he has taught them that beyond this presentworld there is a divine and blessed state of being reserved for those who have been supported hereby the hope of heavenly blessings and that those who have lived a virtuous and godly life willremove hence to a far better habitation while he adjudges to those who have been guilty and wickedhere a place of punishment according to their crimes

10 Again as in the distribution of prizes at the public games he proclaims various crowns tothe victors and invests each with the rewards of different virtues but for our good emperor whois clothed in the very robe of piety he declares that a higher recompense of his toils is preparedand as a prelude to this recompense permits us now to assemble at this festival which is composedof perfect numbers of decades thrice and triads ten times repeated

11 The first of these the triad is the offspring of the unit while the unit is the mother of numberitself and presides over all months and seasons and years and every period of time It may indeedbe justly termed the origin foundation and principle of all number and derives its name from itsabiding character3524 For while every other number is diminished or increased according to thesubtraction or addition of others the unit alone continues fixed and steadfast abstracted from allmultitude and the numbers which are formed from it and resembling that indivisible essence whichis distinct from all things beside but by virtue of participation in which the nature of all things elsesubsists

3524 [Μονὰς παρὰ τὸ μένειν ὠνομασμένη The analogies from number in this chapter (which the reader will probably consider

puerile enough) seem to be an imitation of some of the mystical speculations of PlatomdashBag]

1118

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

589

12 For the unit is the originator of every number since all multitude is made up by thecomposition and addition of units nor is it possible without the unit to conceive the existence ofnumber at all But the unit itself is independent of multitude apart from and superior to all numberforming indeed and making all but receiving no increase from any

13 Kindred to this is the triad equally indivisible and perfect the first of those sums whichare formed of even and uneven numbers For the perfect number two receiving the addition of theunit forms the triad the first perfect compound number And the triad by explaining what equalityis first taught men justice having itself an equal beginning and middle and end And it is also animage of the mysterious most holy and royal Trinity which though itself without beginning ororigin yet contains the germs the reasons and causes of the existence of all created things

14 Thus the power of the triad may justly be regarded as the first cause of all things Againthe number ten which contains the end of all numbers and terminates them in itself may truly becalled a full and perfect number as comprehending every species and every measure of numbersproportions concords and harmonies For example the units by addition form and are terminatedby the number ten and having this number as their parent and as it were the limit of their coursethey round this as the goal of their career

15 Then they perform a second circuit and again a third and a fourth until the tenth and thusby ten decades they complete the hundredth number Returning thence to the first starting pointthey again proceed to the number ten and having ten times completed the hundredth number againthey recede and perform round the same barriers their protracted course proceeding from themselvesback to themselves again with revolving motion

16 For the unit is the tenth of ten and ten units make up a decade which is itself the limit thesettled goal and boundary of units it is that which terminates the infinity of number the term andend of units Again the triad combined with the decade and performing a threefold circuit of tensproduces that most natural number thirty For as the triad is in respect to units so is the numberthirty in respect to tens

17 It is also the constant limit to the course of that luminary which is second to the sun inbrightness For the course of the moon from one conjunction with the sun to the next completesthe period of a month after which receiving as it were a second birth it recommences a new lightand other days being adorned and honored with thirty units three decades and ten triads

18 In the same manner is the universal reign of our victorious emperor distinguished by thegiver of all good and now enters on a new sphere of blessing accomplishing at present thistricennalian festival but reaching forward beyond this to far more distant intervals of time andcherishing the hope of future blessings in the celestial kingdom where not a single sun but infinitehosts of light surround the Almighty Sovereign each surpassing the splendor of the sun gloriousand resplendent with rays derived from the everlasting source of light

19 There the soul enjoys its existence surrounded by fair and unfading blessings there is alife beyond the reach of sorrow there the enjoyment of pure and holy pleasures and a time ofunmeasured and endless duration extending into illimitable space not defined by intervals of days

1119

Eusebius PamphiliusNPNF (V2-01)

and months the revolutions of years or the recurrence of times and seasons but commensuratewith a life which knows no end And this life needs not the light of the sun nor the lustre of themoon or the starry host since it has the great Luminary himself even God the Word the onlybegotten Son of the Almighty Sovereign

20 Hence it is that the mystic and sacred oracles reveal him to be the Sun of righteousness andthe Light which far transcends all light We believe that he illumines also the thrice-blessed powersof heaven with the rays of righteousness and the brightness of wisdom and that he receives trulypious souls not within the sphere of heaven alone but into his own bosom and confirms indeedthe assurances which he himself has given

21 No mortal eye has seen nor ear heard nor can the mind in its vesture of flesh understandwhat things are prepared for those who have been here adorned with the graces of godlinessblessings which await thee too most pious emperor to whom alone since the world began has theAlmighty Sovereign of the universe granted power to purify the course of human life to whomalso he has revealed his own symbol of salvation whereby he overcame the power of death andtriumphed over every enemy And this victorious trophy the scourge of evil spirits thou hastarrayed against the errors of idol worship and hast obtained the victory not only over all thy impiousand savage foes but over equally barbarous adversaries the evil spirits themselves

Chapter VII

1 For whereas we are composed of two distinct natures I mean of body and spirit of whichthe one is visible to all the other invisible against both these natures two kinds of barbarous and

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savage enemies the one invisibly the other openly are constantly arrayed The one oppose ourbodies with bodily force the other with incorporeal assaults besiege the naked soul itself

2 Again the visible barbarians like the wild nomad tribes no better than savage beasts assailthe nations of civilized men ravage their country and enslave their cities rushing on those whoinhabit them like ruthless wolves of the desert and destroying all who fall under their power Butthose unseen foes more cruel far than barbarians I mean the soul-destroying demons whose courseis through the regions of the air had succeeded through the snares of vile polytheism in enslavingthe entire human race insomuch that they no longer recognized the true God but wandered in themazes of atheistic error For they procured I know not whence gods who never anywhere existedand set him aside who is the only and the true God as though he were not

3 Accordingly the generation of bodies was esteemed by them a deity and so the oppositeprinciple to this their dissolution and destruction was also deified The first as the author ofgenerative power was honored with rites under the name of Venus3525 the second as rich andmighty in dominion over the human race received the names of Pluto and Death For men in those

3525 Or Aphrodite

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ages knowing no other than naturally generated life declared the cause and origin of that life tobe divine and again believing in no existence after death they proclaimed Death himself a universalconqueror and a mighty god Hence unconscious of responsibility as destined to be annihilatedby death they lived a life unworthy of the name in the practice of actions deserving a thousanddeaths No thought of God could enter their minds no expectation of Divine judgment norecollection of no reflection on their spiritual existence acknowledging one dread superior Deathand persuaded that the dissolution of their bodies by his power was final annihilation they bestowedon Death the title of a mighty a wealthy god and hence the name of Pluto3526 Thus then Deathbecame to them a god nor only so but whatever else they accounted precious in comparison withdeath whatever contributed to the luxuries of life

4 Hence animal pleasure became to them a god nutrition and its production a god the fruitof trees a god drunken riot a god carnal desire and pleasure a god Hence the mysteries of Ceresand Proserpine the rape of the latter and her subsequent restoration by Pluto hence the orgies ofBacchus and Hercules overcome by drunkenness as by a mightier god hence the adulterous ritesof Cupid and of Venus hence Jupiter himself infatuated with the love of women and ofGanymede3527 hence the licentious legends of deities abandoned to effeminacy and pleasure

5 Such were the weapons of superstition whereby these cruel barbarians and enemies of theSupreme God afflicted and indeed entirely subdued the human race erecting everywhere themonuments of impiety and rearing in every corner the shrines and temples of their false religion

6 Nay so far were the ruling powers of those times enslaved by the force of error as to appeasetheir gods with the blood of their own countrymen and kindred to whet their swords against thosewho stood forward to defend the truth to maintain a ruthless war and raise unholy hands not againstforeign or barbarian foes but against men bound to them by the ties of family and affection againstbrethren and kinsmen and dearest friends who had resolved in the practice of virtue and truepiety to honor and worship God

7 Such was the spirit of madness with which these princes sacrificed to their demon deitiesmen consecrated to the service of the King of kings On the other hand their victims as noblemartyrs in the cause of true godliness resolved to welcome a glorious death in preference to lifeitself and utterly despised these cruelties Strengthened as soldiers of God with patient fortitudethey mocked at death in all its forms at fire and sword and the torment of crucifixion at exposureto savage beasts and drowning in the depths of the sea at the cutting off and searing of limbs thedigging out of eyes the mutilation of the whole body lastly at famine the labor of the mines andcaptivity nay all these sufferings they counted better than any earthly good or pleasure for thelove they bore their heavenly King In like manner women also evinced a spirit of constancy andcourage not inferior to that of men

3526 [Μέγαν θεὸν καὶ πλούσιον παρα καὶ Πλούτωνα τὸν θeuroνατον ἀνηγόρευονmdashBag]

3527 On these various names compare Smith Dict of Gr and Rom Biog

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8 Some endured the same conflicts with them and obtained a like reward of their virtue othersforcibly carried off to be the victims of violence and pollution welcomed death rather than dishonorwhile many very many more endured not even to hear the same threats wherewith they wereassailed by the provincial governors but boldly sustained every variety of torture and